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A Comparison of the Effects of Three GM Corn Varieties on Mammalian Health
Jo?l Spiroux de Vend?mois, Fran?ois Roullier, Dominique Cellier, Gilles-Eric Séralini
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: We present for the first time a comparative analysis of blood and organ system data from trials with rats fed three main commercialized genetically modified (GM) maize (NK 603, MON 810, MON 863), which are present in food and feed in the world. NK 603 has been modified to be tolerant to the broad spectrum herbicide Roundup and thus contains residues of this formulation. MON 810 and MON 863 are engineered to synthesize two different Bt toxins used as insecticides. Approximately 60 different biochemical parameters were classified per organ and measured in serum and urine after 5 and 14 weeks of feeding. GM maize-fed rats were compared first to their respective isogenic or parental non-GM equivalent control groups. This was followed by comparison to six reference groups, which had consumed various other non-GM maize varieties. We applied nonparametric methods, including multiple pairwise comparisons with a False Discovery Rate approach. Principal Component Analysis allowed the investigation of scattering of different factors (sex, weeks of feeding, diet, dose and group). Our analysis clearly reveals for the 3 GMOs new side effects linked with GM maize consumption, which were sex- and often dose-dependent. Effects were mostly associated with the kidney and liver, the dietary detoxifying organs, although different between the 3 GMOs. Other effects were also noticed in the heart, adrenal glands, spleen and haematopoietic system. We conclude that these data highlight signs of hepatorenal toxicity, possibly due to the new pesticides specific to each GM corn. In addition, unintended direct or indirect metabolic consequences of the genetic modification cannot be excluded.
Environmental effect of conventional and GM crops of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.)  [cached]
Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro,ávila Kelly,Reyes Giovanni
Agronomía Colombiana , 2011,
Abstract: In the corn belt of Valle de San Juan and in the cotton zone of El Espinal, municipalities in the department of Tolima (Colombia), 10 conventional corn producers, 10 producers of genetically modified corn, five producers of conventional cotton and 15 producers of transgenic cotton were surveyed in the first half of 2009 to contrast the differences in the environmental impact associated with use of insecticides and herbicides, which were evaluated by estimating the environmental index quotient-EIQ. In the case of maize, an EIQ of 42 was found in the conventional type, while transgenic technology had an EIQ of 3.03. In the cultivation of cotton, an EIQ of 263.59 was found for the conventional type while for transgenic technology this value varied between 335.75 (Nuopal BG/RR) and 324.79 (DP 455 BG/RR). These data showed a lower environmental impact using GM technology in the cultivation of maize when compared to the conventional counterpart, in connection with the use of insecticides and herbicides, in the context of time, space and genotypic analysis. This effect was not observed in the case of cotton, where environmental impacts were similar.
A Built-In Strategy to Mitigate Transgene Spreading from Genetically Modified Corn  [PDF]
Jing Li, Hui Yu, Fengzhen Zhang, Chaoyang Lin, Jianhua Gao, Jun Fang, Xiahui Ding, Zhicheng Shen, Xiaoli Xu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081645
Abstract: Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement.
Some ancient and recent observations on Hyaenas  [cached]
Alun R. Hughes
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1958, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v1i1.868
Abstract: Some ancient and recent observations on Hyaenas
Histopathological Investigation of the Stomach of Rats Fed a 60% Genetically Modified Corn Diet  [PDF]
Irena M. Zdziarski, Judy A. Carman, John W. Edwards
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.96058
Abstract: Genetic modification (GM) represents new opportunities for enhanced crop features such as improved insect resistance and herbicide tolerance. The technology allows for cross-species alterations, therefore potentially allowing a vast array of novel traits. Many GM crops have been developed and approved for human and animal consumption. The present study investigated a triple-stacked GM corn variety containing modifications for insect resistance (via cry1Ab and cry3Bb1 genes) and herbicide tolerance (via an EPSPS gene), which was fed to rats for six months. The study investigated the mucosa of the stomach. Alterations to tight junction apposition, gland dilatations with epithelial elongation and dysplasia in the GM-fed rats were observed. These results indicate that GM-corn may have an effect on rat stomach mucosa, which may have health implications.
Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses  [PDF]
Somchai Chuan-udom
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS), louver inclination (LI), grain moisture content (MC), feed rate (FR), and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM). Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.
Ancient Computers  [PDF]
Stephen Kent Stephenson
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Pebbles (calculos in Latin) are the "bits" used in the Ancients' four function calculator / computer. The Ancient Computer's normal mode is to work with numbers in what we would call exponential notation. Decimal numbers can have up to 10 significant digits in the coefficient (a fraction < 1 with no leading zeros) and up to 4 significant digits in the exponent (a radix shift). Duodecimal and sexagesimal numbers can have up to 5 significant digits in the coefficient and up to 2 significant digits in the exponent. Coefficients and exponents can be either positive or negative. Built-in error checking is included since an addend can be entered and checked before accumulation. The Ancient Computer is time tested; it or its predecessors have been in use since before 2000 BC.
Moving beyond the GM Debate  [PDF]
Ottoline Leyser
PLOS Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001887
Abstract: Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM) crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture.
Effects of planting Bt corn on soil microbial activity and soil fertility

WANG Jian-Wu,

生态学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Bt(Bacillus thuringiensis)corn is one of the four large-scale commercialized GM crops being planted around the world. The debate surrounding the potential ecological risk of Bt corn is ongoing because of the persistence of larvicidal Bt proteins in soil after release from Bt corn root exudates and/or by plant decomposition. The majority of published papers has examined the effects of Bt corn on cultivation of ecologically important soil microorganisms or has used non-cultivation based molecular genetic anal...
Effects of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Corn on Reproductive Performance in Adult Laying Hens  [PDF]
Mark A. Rasmussen,Sara A. Cutler,Kelly Wilhelms,Colin G. Scanes
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2007,
Abstract: Genetically Modified (GM) crops are widely used. Research has focused on examining differences between GM and conventional corn feeding on broiler performance and carcass composition. However, relatively little attention has been focused on reproductive effects on the recipient animals. To address this, the present study employed laying hens as a model due to their rapid reproductive development and rate of egg production. This study investigated the putative effects of a diet consisting of Starlink corn (expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis gene Cry9C) on the fecundity of the laying hen. Twenty-week-old point of lay pullets were fed a diet containing corn positive for the Cry9C (Starlink) gene (not a current variety) for 3 weeks, paired with a corn-based diet known not to contain the gene. During the study, the number of eggs collected, egg shell thickness, number of yolks and egg weight and, upon necropsy, body, ovary and ovary weight, together with the number of yolky (yellow) follicles were recorded. There were no negative effects observed on any parameter measured. The present data do not suggest that Bt corn is a cause of concern to the poultry or livestock industry.
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