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Synergistic Combination of Carbapenems and Colistin against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii  [PDF]
Ziad Daoud, Najwa Mansour, Khalil Masri
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.34038
Abstract: Background: Intubated patients are particularly at risk of developing infections caused by these pathogens, specifically, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. In the past fifteen years, Carbapenems were known to be the drugs of choice for these bacteria. With the increase in the use and misuse of antibiotics, these bacteria became highly resistant, and almost all available antibiotics, including Carbapenems, became inefficient. Synergistic combination therapy may be a useful strategy in slowing as well as overcoming the emergence of resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-bacterial activity on P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii of the combination of two antibiotics: Colistin and a Carbapenem (Meropenem or Imipenem). Methods: The antibacterial activity was assessed by determining the MIC. Then, the effect of combining the antibiotics was studied using the Checkerboard Technique described by White et al., 1996. The Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) for each strain was then calculated and classified as synergy, additive, indifference or antagonism. 11 strains of A. baumannii and 11 strains of P. aeruginosa were tested in the presence of Meropenem combined with Colistin or Imipenem combined with Colistin. Results: For the combination of Meropenem and Colistin, 6 strains of A. baumannii and 3 strains of P. aeruginosa showed synergy while 5 strains of A. baumannii and 7 strains of P. aeruginosa showed additive effect, only 1 strain of P. aeruginosa showed antagonism. For Imipenem and Colistin, only 1 strain of A. baumannii and 3 strains of Pseudomonas showed synergy while 8 strains of Acinetobacter and 8 strains of Pseudomonas showed additive effect. Conclusion: The “in vitro” combination Colistin-Carbapenem is associated with an improvement in MIC. In the majority of the cases, this improvement suggests a synergistic combination or an additive effect.
An usual approach to treatment of a case of multidrug resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis: parenteral and intraperitoneal aminoglycosides and parenteral colistin  [cached]
Ian May,Maha Abu-Khdeir,Roland Alexander Blackwood
Infectious Disease Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/idr.2012.e36
Abstract: Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are becoming more common and increasingly more difficult to treat due to the continued development of drug resistance. While sensitivity to colistin (polymyxin E) is well known, it is frequently avoided due to concerns of nephrotoxicity. Reported here is a case of a multi-drug resistance pseudomonal typhlitis, bacteremia and pleural cavity infection that required significant intensive care, and serial abdominal washouts. Intra-peritoneal tobramycin in combination with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics including colistin were used. Several instillations of tobramycin into the abdominal cavity along with concomitant IV administration of colistin, ceftazidime and tobramycin and per os colistin, tobramycin and nystatin resulted in the clearance of the pseudomonal infection without any evidence of toxicity from the treatment. Intra-abdominal tobramycin with parenteral colistin therapy can be used in complicated clinical settings with appropriate nephroprotection.
Aerosolized colistin in the treatment of multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial pneumonia
Signa Vitae , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction. Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MRPA) nosocomial pneumonia is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the ICU. We report our experience with aerosolized colistin in the treatment of MRPA nosocomial pneumonia.Patients and methods. It is a prospective, observational study performed over 2 years (2006-2007). Patients who developed MRPA nosocomial pneumonia and were treated with aerosolized colistin were included. The criteria used to assess if treatment was successful were extubation and ICU mortality rates.Results. We report 32 patients of whom 12 were women and 20 men. The mean age was 48 ± 19 years. All patients were receiving mechanical ventilation. The mean length of ventilation was 22 ± 5.5 days. The bronchial sampling technique used was broncho-alveolar lavage. The mean delay of infection (duration between intubation and pneumonia diagnosis) was 7 ± 2 days. Isolated MRPA was susceptible only to colistin. The treatment was aerosolized colistin for all patients (4 MUI/day). A positive blood culture (n=5) was a prerequisite for administering colistin intravenously (4 MUI/day). Any potential toxicity was observed. The mean delay of extubation after starting treatment was 10 days. Sterile samples were obtained on average by the eighth day. No deaths were recorded.Conclusion. It seems that aerosolized colistin is an important alternative to treat MRPA nosocomial pneumonia in ICU. Our results need further confirmation by other multicentre studies.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia with Col-S strains: a successful comeback of colistin!
Mukhopadhyay, C.;Krishna, S.;Vandana, K.E.;Shenoy, A.;Bairy, I.;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702008000500018
Abstract: emergence of multi and pan-drug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial infections in intensive care settings has become a challenge for clinicians. the mortality rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap) is known to increase when the initial microbiological diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy are inappropriate. we present a case of a 18-year-old man, who after being admitted following an accident, had developed vap due to multi-drug resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter spp. and had a downhill clinical course despite broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. the strains were found to be col-s, as the susceptibility was tested. colistin was instituted, with remarkable recovery. it is imperative to diagnose vap with multi-drug resistant strains as early as possible; colistin, the 'last resort' antibiotic, if instituted with proper monitoring at the right time, can be life saving.
A retrospective observational study on the efficacy of colistin by inhalation as compared to parenteral administration for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia associated with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Reinout Naesens, Erika Vlieghe, Walter Verbrugghe, Philippe Jorens, Margareta Ieven
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-317
Abstract: A retrospective study of 20 intensive care patients with a pneumonia associated with MDR P. aeruginosa receiving colistin sulphomethate sodium (Colistineb?) between 2007 and 2009 was performed. A strain was considered multidrug-resistant if it was resistant to at least 6 of the following antibiotics: piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, meropenem, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. The administration mode, predicted mortality based on the SAPS3 score, SOFA score at onset of the colistin treatment, clinical and microbiological response, and mortality during the episode of the infection were analysed. The non parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's Exact test were used for statistical analysis of respectively the predicted mortality/SOFA score and mortality rate.Six patients received colistin by inhalation only, 5 were treated only parenterally, and 9 by a combination of both administration modes. All patients received concomitant beta-lactam therapy. The mean predicted mortalities were respectively 72%, 68%, and 69% (p = 0.91). SOFA scores at the onset of the treatment were also comparable (p = 0.87). Clinical response was favorable in all patients receiving colistin by inhalation (6/6) and in 40% (2/5) of the patients receiving colistin parenterally (p = 0.06). In the patients with colistin administered both via inhalation and parenterally, clinical response was favorable in 78% of the patients (7/9) (p = 0.27 as compared to the treatment group receiving colistin only parenterally). When all patients with inhalation therapy were compared to the group without inhalation therapy, a favorable clinical response was present in respectively 87% and 40% (p = 0.06). In none of the patients, the Pseudomonas spp. was eradicated from the follow-up cultures.All patients in the parenterally treated group died. None of the patients receiving colistin by inhalation, and 3 of 9 patients of the combination group eventually died (p = 0.002 and p = 0.03 respectively as
In vitro antimicrobial effects of aztreonam, colistin, and the 3-drug combination of aztreonam, ceftazidime and amikacin on metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Shigeharu Oie, Yumi Fukui, Masaya Yamamoto, Yuki Masuda, Akira Kamiya
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-9-123
Abstract: Strains used were from different hospitals in Japan and had different pulse-field gel electrophoresis patterns by restriction with SpeI. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 11 antimicrobial agents (piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, aztreonam, ceftazidime, amikacin, tobramycin, arbekacin, ciprofloxacin and colistin) were determined using the agar dilution test. The effects of aztreonam, colistin and the combination of aztreonam, ceftazidime and amikacin were determined by time-killing studies.Bacteriostatic effects after 6 hours of drug exposure were observed in 12 strains (52.2%) of 23 strains of metallo-β-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa with 48 mg/l aztreonam, in 19 strains (82.6%) with the 3-drug combination of 16 mg/l aztreonam, 16 mg/l ceftazidime, and 4 mg/l amikacin, and in 23 strains (100%) with 2 mg/l colistin. Bactericidal effects after 6 h drug exposure were observed in 1 strain (4.3%) with 48 mg/l aztreonam, in 8 strains (30.4%) with the 3-drug combination and in all 23 strains (100%) with 2 mg/l colistin.Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial effects on metallo-β-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa revealed relatively good effects of the 3-drug combination of aztreonam, ceftazidime and amikacin and marked effects of colistin.Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major bacterium causing nosocomial infection, and the development of multidrug resistance has become a problem [1-7]. Since metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing P. aeruginosa is often resistant not only to all β-lactams, but also aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones, there are often no drugs to treat infection with this bacterium [8-10]. In addition, no extended survey involving a series of human infections with MBL-positive isolates has been performed to determine the optimal treatment. Thus, appropriate therapy for those infections remains unknown [11].We previously reported the effects of the 3-drug combinations of aztreonam, ceftazidime and amikacin or aztreonam, piperacill
Acute Obstructive Hydrocephalus Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ventriculitis after Transsphenoidal Surgery: Case Report  [PDF]
Yasuhiko Hayashi, Masayuki Iwato, Daisuke Kita, Katsuyoshi Miyashita
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2015.51001
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) frequently causes various infections, some of which are serious and require prompt medical detection and appropriate antibiotic selection. Although P. aeruginosa commonly exists within the nasal cavity, meningitis or ventriculitis following transsphenoidal surgery to relieve P. aeruginosa has been reported only occasionally. However, as the endoscopic transnasal approach is more widely utilized for the suprasellar lesions, nosocomical P. aeruginosa infection associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage becomes more common in patients with panhypopituitarism who undergo transsphenoidal surgery. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with an intrasellar craniopharyngioma presenting with an acute obstructive hydrocephalus caused by P. aeruginosa ventriculitis following transsphenoidal surgery. Treatment with optimal antibiotics was initiated immediately after P. aeruginosa was recognized as the pathogen, and was continued for 3 months. After removal of the infected fascia and fat graft used for the closure of CSF leakage and sellar floor reconstruction, endoscopic third ventriculostomy was successfully performed to treat the obstructive hydrocephalus induced by the occlusion of the fourth ventricle outlet, resulting in a positive outcome. Although the obstructive hydrocephalus caused by P. aeruginosa is extremely rare, prompt detection and appropriate treatment should be required once P. aeruginosa ventriculitis happens.
Evaluation of Neonates with Ventriculitis  [cached]
Ferda Ozlu,Hacer Yapicioglu,Kenan Ozcan,Nejat Narli
Cukurova Medical Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Backgroud: Neonatal meningitis and ventriculitis still remain a problem with high mortality in spite of systemic and intraventricular antibiotics. Ventriculitis due to repeated taps is a serious problem of posthemorragic hydrocephalus in preterm infants. Methods: In this study, we evaluated 16 infants with ventriculitis followed at Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 1999-December 2004. Results: Mean gestational week was 33± 5 (25-40) weeks and mean birth weight was 2096 ± 912 (980-3500) grams. Venticulitis was diagnosed at 38 ± 22 days. Eleven of the infants had intraventricular hemorrhage and 15 had hydrocephalus, 5 of whom had congenital hydrocephalus. Drainage of CSF was performed by taps in 13 infants. Gram negative microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were predominating in cultures. Both intravenous and intraventricular antibiotic treatment was performed according to the cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Vancomycine and amicasine as intraventricular therapy were performed for 28 ±17 days. Cerebrospinal fluid protein levels increased significantly at 8 infant during intraventricular therapy. Mean cerebrospinal fluid protein at the begining of intraventricular treatment was 624.1± 429.1 (109-1330) mg/dl while on 14th day of treatment it was 993.7± 582.2 (89-1750) mg/dl. Seven of the infants were ventriculoperitoneal shunted 6 of them were reinfected. Seven of the infants were died during treatment, 1 infant with ventriculoperitoneal shunt was treated and 8 infants were discharged during treatment because of parents refusal of therapy. Conclusion: Despite the new treatment regimens, the ventriculitis still remains a problem because of nonstandardized practice in neonatal care. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000): 553-558]
Successful treatment of intrathecal morphine overdose
Yilmaz A,Sogut A,Kílinc M,Sogut A
Neurology India , 2003,
Abstract: A 47-year-old woman was diagnosed with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, and was treated with intrathecal morphine for chronic pain via a slow-release subcutaneous pump. She accidentally received a 35-ml (510 mg) bolus injection of morphine by this route, which led to status epilepticus. She was treated with continuous intravenous naloxone infusion, and with medication to control hypertension and stop the seizure activity. The outcome was excellent, and the patient returned to her neurological baseline. This report describes the complications and the successful treatment of intrathecal morphine overdose. In order to prevent these serious errors, it is vital that only care providers who are proficient with these devices perform the refilling procedure.
Investigation of an outbreak of device-related postoperative ventriculitis: A lesson learnt  [cached]
Veena Kumari H,Nagarathna S,Chandramouli B,Umamaheshwara Rao G
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P aeruginosa) is one of the most common nosocomial pathogens. We report our experience of a device-related outbreak of postoperative ventriculitis caused by P aeruginosa thus initiating investigation of the unusual occurrence. Five neurosurgical patients were affected, postoperatively. The investigations entailed extensive screening of the common sources of contamination for colonization of P aeruginosa. Sterilized instruments used for surgery, including the ultrasonic aspirator (USA) sets and other hollow devices, were randomly sampled and cultured. Conventional culture methods yielded P aeruginosa, with almost similar antibiotic sensitivity pattern in all the patients and the ultrasonic aspirator, clinching the source of contamination. Routine surveillance, identification of unusual patterns, molecular epidemiological typing would be helpful in quick control of outbreaks of postoperative infections
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