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ROC Generated Thresholds for Field-Assessed Aerobic Fitness Related to Body Size and Cardiometabolic Risk in Schoolchildren  [PDF]
Lynne M. Boddy, Non E. Thomas, Stuart J. Fairclough, Keith Tolfrey, Sinead Brophy, Anwen Rees, Gareth Knox, Julien S. Baker, Gareth Stratton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045755
Abstract: Objectives 1. to investigate whether 20 m multi-stage shuttle run performance (20mSRT), an indirect measure of aerobic fitness, could discriminate between healthy and overweight status in 9–10.9 yr old schoolchildren using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis; 2. Investigate if cardiometabolic risk differed by aerobic fitness group by applying the ROC cut point to a second, cross-sectional cohort. Design Analysis of cross-sectional data. Participants 16,619 9–10.9 year old participants from SportsLinx project and 300 11–13.9 year old participants from the Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study. Outcome Measures SportsLinx; 20mSRT, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, subscapular and superilliac skinfold thicknesses. Welsh Schools Health and Fitness Study; 20mSRT performance, waist circumference, and clustered cardiometabolic risk. Analyses Three ROC curve analyses were completed, each using 20mSRT performance with ROC curve 1 related to BMI, curve 2 was related to waist circumference and 3 was related to skinfolds (estimated % body fat). These were repeated for both girls and boys. The mean of the three aerobic fitness thresholds was retained for analysis. The thresholds were subsequently applied to clustered cardiometabolic risk data from the Welsh Schools study to assess whether risk differed by aerobic fitness group. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the ROC generated thresholds was higher than would be expected by chance (all models AUC >0.7). The mean thresholds were 33 and 25 shuttles for boys and girls respectively. Participants classified as ‘fit’ had significantly lower cardiometabolic risk scores in comparison to those classed as unfit (p<0.001). Conclusion The use of the ROC generated cut points by health professionals, teachers and coaches may provide the opportunity to apply population level ‘risk identification and stratification’ processes and plan for “at-risk” children to be referred onto intervention services.
A longitudinal study of the effect of Antarctic residence on energy dynamics and aerobic fitness  [cached]
Alistair Simpson,Veronica Maynard
International Journal of Circumpolar Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/ijch.v71i0.17227
Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the effect of Antarctic residence on energy dynamics and aerobic fitness over the course of a year in over-wintering personnel. Study design: A prospective longitudinal observational study. Methods: A convenience sample of personnel over-wintering at Rothera Research Station in Antarctica was studied. Body weight, body fat, food intake, activity and aerobic fitness were recorded every 30 days for 1 year. Body weight, body fat and food intake were measured using weighing scales, skinfold callipers and diet records, respectively; activity was measured using accelerometer-based activity trackers and aerobic fitness using a treadmill protocol. Climate markers of temperature and sunlight hours were also recorded. Results: Twenty-one subjects took part in the study over the 12-month period. A statistically significant increase in body weight and body fat in winter was observed (p=0.012 and p=0.049, respectively). There were no statistically significant trends in activity, food intake or aerobic fitness. Conclusions: There were significant seasonal changes in body weight and body fat, with both measures increasing in winter but no significant changes in the other main outcome measures.
Relationship of aerobic fitness and motor skills with memory and attention in preschoolers (Ballabeina): A cross-sectional and longitudinal study
Iris Niederer, Susi Kriemler, Janine Gut, Tim Hartmann, Christian Schindler, Jér?me Barral, Jardena J Puder
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-34
Abstract: Data from 245 ethnically diverse preschool children (mean age: 5.2 (0.6) years, girls: 49.4%) analyzed at baseline and 9 months later. Assessments included aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run) and motor skills with agility (obstacle course) and dynamic balance (balance beam). Cognitive parameters included spatial working memory (IDS) and attention (KHV-VK). All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, migration status, parental education, native language and linguistic region. Longitudinal analyses were additionally adjusted for the respective baseline value.In the cross-sectional analysis, aerobic fitness was associated with better attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03). A shorter time in the agility test was independently associated with a better performance both in working memory (r = -0.17, p = 0.01) and in attention (r = -0.20, p = 0.01). In the longitudinal analyses, baseline aerobic fitness was independently related to improvements in attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.03), while baseline dynamic balance was associated with improvements in working memory (r = 0.15, p = 0.04).In young children, higher baseline aerobic fitness and motor skills were related to a better spatial working memory and/or attention at baseline, and to some extent also to their future improvements over the following 9 months.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00674544The debate about a possible relationship between aerobic fitness and motor skills with cognitive development in children has recently re-emerged, because of the decrease in children's aerobic fitness [1] and the concomitant pressure of schools to enhance cognitive performance [2]. In preschoolers, the focus is preferentially set on the advancement of cognitive parameters such as working memory and attention. Both working memory and attention have been shown to be important predictors of academic achievement [3,4].Despite the beneficial health effects, time for physical education or sports activities is often limited by budget cuts or the abundance of al
The Effectiveness of an Aerobic Exercise Intervention on Worksite Health-Related Physical Fitness - A Case in a High-Tech Company  [PDF]
Chia-Lin Li,Hsu-Min Tseng,Rou-Fang Tseng,Shwn-Jen Lee
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Background: The major objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects ofaerobic exercise intervention with goals of improving health-related physicalfitness in one high-tech company in Taiwan.Methods: This study was conducted as a quasi-experimental design. Among the 54subjects enrolled in the study, 26 subjects of the volunteers agreed to participatein an aerobic exercise program. The control group was comprised of asimilar sample of 28 subjects working at the same company. Subjects in theexercise group participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise program, whilesubjects in the control group did not participate.Results: The results of analysis of variance with repeated measures of health-relatedphysical fitness showed that the subjects in the exercise group had significantlymore improvements in abdominal muscle strength and endurance thanthe subjects in the control group.Conclusions: This study indicated that one 12-week aerobic exercise program was effectivein improving the abdominal muscle strength and endurance of employeesof a high-tech company.
Effects of Aerobic Fitness on Aging-Related Changes of Interhemispheric Inhibition and Motor Performance  [PDF]
Keith M. McGregor,Carolynn Patten,Jeffrey A. Kleim,Bruce Crosson,Andrew J. Butler
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2013.00066
Abstract: Physical fitness has been long associated with maintenance and improvement of motor performance as we age. In particular, measures of psychomotor speed and motor dexterity tend to be higher in physically fit aging adults as compared to their sedentary counterparts. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we explored the patterns of neural activity that may, in part, account for differences between individuals of varying physical fitness levels. In this study, we enrolled both sedentary and physically fit middle age (40–60) and younger (18–30) adults and measured upper extremity motor performance during behavioral testing. In a follow-up session, we employed TMS and fMRI to assess levels of interhemispheric communication during unimanual tasks. Results show that increased physical fitness is associated with better upper extremity motor performance on distal dexterity assessments and increased levels of interhemispheric inhibition in middle age adults. Further, the functional correlates of changes of ipsilateral activity appears to be restricted to the aging process as younger adults of varying fitness levels do not differ in hemispheric patterns of activity or motor performance. We conclude that sedentary aging confers a loss of interhemispheric inhibition that is deleterious to some aspects of motor function, as early as midlife, but these changes can be mediated by chronic engagement in aerobic exercise.
Aerobic Fitness in Children and Young Adults with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia  [PDF]
Astrid Madsen, Kent Green, Frederik Buchvald, Birgitte Hanel, Kim Gjerum Nielsen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071409
Abstract: Background Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a large well-characterized cohort of PCD patients, and explored whether VO2peak was associated with parameters of pulmonary function, self-reported physical limitations, and physical activity level. Methods VO2peak, spirometry, diffusing capacity, whole-body plethysmography, and nitrogen multiple breath inert gas washout (N2 MBW) were assessed in a cross-sectional, single-occasion study of clinically stable children and young adults with PCD. We used a questionnaire including self-reported physical limitations in everyday life or in vigorous activities, and estimation of weekly hours of strenuous physical activity. VO2peak in PCD patients was compared with that in matched, healthy control subjects and a national reference. Results Forty-four PCD patients aged 6–29 years exhibited reduced VO2peak compared to healthy controls (P<0.001) and the national reference. VO2peak was abnormal (z-score <–1.96) in 34% of PCD patients. Spirometric values, RV/TLC, and indices of N2 MBW were significantly abnormal, but VO2peak only correlated with FEV1 and DLCO/VA. VO2peak correlated with complaints of moderate or significant limitations in vigorous activities (P = 0.0001), exhibited by 39% of PCD patients. Conclusion One-third of PCD patients exhibited substantially lower aerobic fitness than healthy subjects. Aerobic fitness correlated with FEV1, DLCO/VA and self-reported complaints of limitations in vigorous physical activity. These findings are most likely explained by PCD pulmonary disease and its impact on pulmonary function and physical ability. Considering fitness as an important outcome and including regular strenuous physical activity in PCD treatment would probably altogether increase pulmonary clearance, lung function, aerobic fitness, and quality of life, and prevent lifestyle-related diseases.
Circulating MicroRNAs and Aerobic Fitness – The HUNT-Study  [PDF]
Anja Bye, Helge R?sj?, Stian T. Aspenes, Gianluigi Condorelli, Torbj?rn Omland, Ulrik Wisl?ff
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057496
Abstract: Aerobic fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is a good indicator of cardiovascular health, and a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Biomarkers associated with low VO2max may therefore represent potential early markers of future cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess whether circulating microRNAs (miRs) are associated with VO2max-level in healthy individuals. In a screening study, 720 miRs were measured in serum samples from healthy individuals (40–45 yrs) with high (n = 12) or low (n = 12) VO2max matched for gender, age and physical activity. Candiate miRs were validated in a second cohort of subjects with high (n = 38) or low (n = 38) VO2max. miR-210 and miR-222 were found to be higher in the low VO2max-group (p<0.05). In addition, miR-21 was increased in male participants with low VO2max (p<0.05). There were no correlations between traditional risk factors for CVD (blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking habit, or obesity) and miR-21, miR-210 and miR-222. DIANA-mirPath identified 611 potential gene-targets of miR-21, miR-210 and miR-222, and pathway analysis indicated alterations in several important signaling systems in subjects with low VO2max. Potential bias involve that blood was collected from non-fasting individuals, and that 8 performed exercise within 24 h before sampling. In conclusion, we found that miR-210, miR-21, and miR-222 were increased in healthy subjects with low VO2max. The lack of association between these three miRs, and other fitness related variables as well as traditional CVD risk factors, suggests that these miRs may have a potential as new independent biomarkers of fitness level and future CVD.
The Influence of Childhood Aerobic Fitness on Learning and Memory  [PDF]
Lauren B. Raine, Hyun Kyu Lee, Brian J. Saliba, Laura Chaddock-Heyman, Charles H. Hillman, Arthur F. Kramer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072666
Abstract: Introduction There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health, but also poorer cognitive health. Previous research has shown that lower fitness has been related to decreased cognitive function for tasks requiring perception, memory, and cognitive control as well as lower academic achievement. Purpose To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness, learning, and memory on a task that involved remembering names and locations on a fictitious map. Different learning strategies and recall procedures were employed to better understand fitness effects on learning novel material. Methods Forty-eight 9–10 year old children (n = 24 high fit; HF and n = 24 low fit; LF) performed a task requiring them to learn the names of specific regions on a map, under two learning conditions in which they only studied (SO) versus a condition in which they were tested during study (TS). The retention day occurred one day after initial learning and involved two different recall conditions: free recall and cued recall. Results There were no differences in performance at initial learning between higher fit and lower fit participants. However, during the retention session higher fit children outperformed lower fit children, particularly when the initial learning strategy involved relatively poor recall performance (i.e., study only versus test-study strategy). Conclusions We interpret these novel data to suggest that fitness can boost learning and memory of children and that these fitness-associated performance benefits are largest in conditions in which initial learning is the most challenging. Such data have important implications for both educational practice and policy.
Fatness and fitness: how do they influence health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Wendy L Bennett, Pamela Ouyang, Albert W Wu, Bethany B Barone, Kerry J Stewart
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-6-110
Abstract: This was a cross-sectional study using baseline data from two exercise training interventions. One study enrolled people with and the other without type 2 diabetes. We assessed aerobic fitness ("fitness") as peak oxygen uptake during treadmill testing, adiposity ("fatness") as percentage of total body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and HRQOL by the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used examine determinants of HRQOL were used to examine determinants of HRQOL.There were 98 participants with and 119 participants without type 2 diabetes. Participants with type 2 diabetes had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 6.6% and, compared with participants without diabetes had lower HRQOL on the physical component summary score (P = 0.004), role-physical (P = 0.035), vitality (P = 0.062) and general health (P < 0.001) scales after adjusting for age, sex and race. These associations of HRQOL with type 2 diabetes were attenuated by higher fitness, even more than reduced fatness. Only general health remained positively associated with type 2 diabetes after accounting for fatness or fitness (P = 0.003). There were no significant differences between participants with and without diabetes in the mental component score.Improved fitness, even more than reduced fatness, attenuated the association of type 2 diabetes with HRQOL. The potential to improve HRQOL may motivate patients with type 2 diabetes to engage in physical activity aimed at increasing fitness. Findings from this cross-sectional analysis will be addressed in the ongoing trial of exercise training in this cohort of participants with type 2 diabetes.NCT00212303Type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) affects approximately 10% of the U.S. population aged 20 years and older and its prevalence increases with age [1]. People with type 2 diabetes report reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) compared with the general population, but higher than people with other chron
Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition
Ralph Maddison, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Andrew Jull, Harry Prapavessis, Louise S Foley, Yannan Jiang
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-54
Abstract: To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition.Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n?=?322) were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and food snacking at 24 weeks.Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI.Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials RegistryWebsite: http://www.anzctr.org.au webciteStudy ID number: ACTRN12607000632493
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