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On the Anthropic Principle in the Multiverse: Addressing Provability and Tautology  [PDF]
Douglas F. Watson
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: In this Letter we examine the Multiverse theory and how it relates to the Anthropic Principle. Under the supposition of Eternal Inflation, the String Theory Landscape (STL) has reinvigorated the discussion of the Anthropic Principle. The main premise being that the fundamental constants of our Universe are not necessarily of any fundamental physical importance, rather that the specific values are requisite for intelligent life to arise, and hence, for intelligent life to measure such constants. STL predicts a multitude of other meta-stable Universes with fundamental constants different than our own, possibly hinting at some intrinsic specialness of human life. We develop a theoretical framework to prove whether, (1) the Universe we observe must be consistent with the existence of observers, (2) the principle is only ontological in nature, or (3) if the Anthropic Principle itself is simply a tautology.
Ramya Dharam,Sajjan G. Shiva
International Journal of Cyber-Security and Digital Forensics , 2012,
Abstract: Software systems, like web applications, are often used to provide reliable online services such as banking, shopping, social networking, etc., to users. The increasing use of such systems has led to a high need for assuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of user data. SQL Injection Attacks (SQLIAs) is one of the major security threats to web applications. It allows attackers to get unauthorized access to the back-end database consisting of confidential user information. In this paper we present and evaluate a Runtime Monitoring Technique to detect and prevent tautology based SQLIAs in web applications. Our technique monitors the behavior of the application during its post- deployment to identify all the tautology based SQLIAs. A framework called Runtime Monitoring Framework, that implements our technique, is used in the development of runtime monitors. The framework uses two pre-deployment testing techniques, such as basis-path and data-flow to identify a minimal set of all legal/valid execution paths of the application. Runtime monitors are then developed and integrated to perform runtime monitoring of the application, during its post-deployment for the identified valid/legal execution paths. For evaluation we targeted a subject application with a large number of both legitimate inputs and illegitimate tautology based inputs, and measured the performance of the proposed technique. The results of our study show that runtime monitor developed for the application was successfully able to detect all the tautology based attacks without generating any false positives.
Introducing Polyautoimmunity: Secondary Autoimmune Diseases No Longer Exist  [PDF]
Adriana Rojas-Villarraga,Jenny Amaya-Amaya,Alberto Rodriguez-Rodriguez,Rubén D. Mantilla,Juan-Manuel Anaya
Autoimmune Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/254319
Abstract: Similar pathophysiological mechanisms within autoimmune diseases have stimulated searches for common genetic roots. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one autoimmune disease in a single patient. When three or more autoimmune diseases coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS). We analyzed the presence of polyautoimmunity in 1,083 patients belonging to four autoimmune disease cohorts. Polyautoimmunity was observed in 373 patients (34.4%). Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and Sj?gren's syndrome (SS) were the most frequent diseases encountered. Factors significantly associated with polyautoimmunity were female gender and familial autoimmunity. Through a systematic literature review, an updated search was done for all MAS cases (January 2006–September 2011). There were 142 articles retrieved corresponding to 226 cases. Next, we performed a clustering analysis in which AITD followed by systemic lupus erythematosus and SS were the most hierarchical diseases encountered. Our results indicate that coexistence of autoimmune diseases is not uncommon and follows a grouping pattern. Polyautoimmunity is the term proposed for this association of disorders, which encompasses the concept of a common origin for these diseases. 1. Introduction Autoimmune diseases (ADs) have particular clinical characteristics and phenotypes depending on their nature (i.e., organ specific or systemic diseases). However, there is strong evidence that ADs share several clinical signs and symptoms, physiopathological mechanisms, and environmental and genetic factors, and this fact indicates that they have a common origin [1], which has been called the autoimmune tautology. The clinical evidence of the autoimmune tautology highlights the cooccurrence of distinct ADs within an individual (i.e., polyautoimmunity) [1]. In an earlier paper, we described the foremost systematic literature review grouping all published cases of multiple autoimmune syndromes (MAS), defined by the presence of three or more well-defined ADs in a single patient, up until 2006. Initially, MAS was first mentioned by Pirofsky and Vaughn [2] and deeply described by Humbert and Dupond [3]. They provided a taxonomy for the cooccurrent phenotypes [4, 5]. MAS together with polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) II through IV, which are all MAS, represent the best example of polyautoimmunity [4]. Three basic, large clusters were found. Each of them had a predominant disease that was named the “chaperones” of autoimmunity, namely, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), Sj?gren’s
Autoimmune pancreatitis
Bo-Guang Fan,?ke Andrén-Sandberg
North American Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Since the autoimmune pancreatitis was introduced in 1995, it has been recognized as a form of chronic pancreatitis, which is always associated with autoimmune manifestations. As the improvement of technical and instrumental made in ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the diagnoses of autoimmune pancreatitis is no longer such difficult. Even though the treatment of autoimmune pancreatitis is available with a conservative therapy, there are many points that are still unclearly. These have stimulated widespread interest in this disease from gastroenterologists, endoscopists, pathologists, and prevalent research. The present article provides with our better understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune pancreatitis.
Autoimmune Encephalitides  [PDF]
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2017.73027
Abstract: Autoimmune encephalitis is a potentially severe disorder of the brain of diverse causes with a complex differential diagnosis. Recent advances in the past decade have led to the elucidation of new syndromes and biological markers transforming the approach to diagnosis and management of autoimmune encephalitis. Limbic encephalitis, the commonest form of autoimmune encephalitis, combines common presentations of cognitive, psychiatric, and epileptic disorders and has until recently been considered paraneoplastic or postinfectious in origin. The autoimmune encephalitides are clinically and histopathologically associated with serum and intrathecal antibodies to intracellular and surface neuronal antigens, and constituents of the limbic system neuropil. This has led to a reconsideration of a number of neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive disorders as having shared mechanisms of origin. This chapter reviews their historical background, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, histopathology, diagnosis and management.
Autoimmune Disease
Farnoosh Jarollahi
Audiology , 1993,
Abstract: Clinical and experimental studies have proved in the recent decade that Immune- mediated Diseases hurt inner ear. Autoimmunity dysfunction of the inner ear can be caused by systematic or local diseases. The Autoimmune pathogenesis and suspected Antigens causing Autoimmunity dysfunction are yet to be detected.Clinical procedures and laboratory experiments may follow a fixed pattern or be completely different. Experimental treatment of autoimmune diseases has lit the hopes, although more experiments are still needed
Multiple autoimmune syndrome  [cached]
Mohan M,Ramesh T
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2003,
Abstract: We report a case in which the presence of dermatological autoimmune conditions, vitiligo and alopecia areata, led to the diagnosis of a systemic autoimmune disease, ulcerative colitis.
Coinhibitory Molecules in Autoimmune Diseases  [PDF]
Norihiko Watanabe,Hiroshi Nakajima
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/269756
Abstract: Coinhibitory molecules such as CTLA-4, PD-1 and BTLA negatively regulate immune responses. Multiple studies indicate that the deficiency or mutation of coinhibitory molecules leads to the development of autoimmune diseases in mice and humans, indicating that the negative signals from coinhibitory molecules are crucial for the prevention of autoimmunity. In some conditions, the administration of decoy coinhibitory receptors (e.g., CTLA-4 Ig) or mAb against coinhibitory molecules suppresses the responses of self-reactive T cells in autoimmune diseases. Therefore, modulation of coinhibitory signals seems to be an attractive approach to induce tolerance in autoimmune diseases in humans where the disease-inducing self-antigens are not known. Particularly, administration of CTLA-4 Ig has shown great promise in animal models of autoimmune diseases and has been gaining increasing attention in clinical investigation in several autoimmune diseases in humans.
Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Pathological Findings
Kloppel G,L? J,Sipos B,Capelli P
JOP Journal of the Pancreas , 2005,
Abstract: In recent years, autoimmune pancreatitis has been established as a special type of chronic pancreatitis. It is characterized by its histopathological and immunological features. The morphological hallmarks are periductal infiltration by lymphocytes and plasma cells and granulocytic epithelial lesions with consequent destruction of the duct epithelium and venulitis. Autoimmune pancreatitis has therefore also been called lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis, duct-destructive chronic pancreatitis, or sclerosing pancreatitis. Autoimmune pancreatitis most commonly involves the head of the pancreas and the distal bile duct. Occasionally, masses are formed and it has been described as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
B Cells in Autoimmune Diseases  [PDF]
Christiane S. Hampe
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/215308
Abstract: The role of B cells in autoimmune diseases involves different cellular functions, including the well-established secretion of autoantibodies, autoantigen presentation and ensuing reciprocal interactions with T cells, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and the generation of ectopic germinal centers. Through these mechanisms B cells are involved both in autoimmune diseases that are traditionally viewed as antibody mediated and also in autoimmune diseases that are commonly classified as T cell mediated. This new understanding of the role of B cells opened up novel therapeutic options for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This paper includes an overview of the different functions of B cells in autoimmunity; the involvement of B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes; and current B-cell-based therapeutic treatments. We conclude with a discussion of novel therapies aimed at the selective targeting of pathogenic B cells. 1. Introduction Traditionally, autoimmune disorders were classified as T cell mediated or autoantibody mediated. However the improved understanding of the complexity of the immune system has significantly influenced the way we view autoimmune diseases and their pathogeneses. Reciprocal roles of T-cell help for B cells during adaptive immune responses and B-cell help in CD4+ T-cell activation are being increasingly recognized. The observation that most autoantibodies in traditionally autoantibody-mediated diseases are of the IgG isotype and carry somatic mutations strongly suggests T-cell help in the autoimmune B-cell response. Likewise B cells function as crucial antigen presenting cells in autoimmune diseases that are traditionally viewed as T cell mediated. This paper will discuss the role of B cells in autoimmune diseases; however, it needs to be emphasized that most autoimmune diseases are driven by a dysfunction in the immune network consisting of B cells, T cells, and other immune cells. 2. B-Cell Functions in Autoimmunity Different functions of B cells can contribute to autoimmune diseases (Figure 1): (1)secretion of autoantibodies;(2)presentation of autoantigen;(3)secretion of inflammatory cytokines;(4)modulation of antigen processing and presentation;(5)generation of ectopic GCs. Figure 1: (a) B cells in autoimmune diseases. B cells have antibody-dependent and antibody-independent pathogenic functions. Secreted autoantibodies specific to receptors or receptor ligands can activate or inhibit receptor functions. Deposited immune complexes can activate complement and effector cells.
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