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Latino rage: the life and work of ed rivera  [cached]
Lyn Di Iorio Sandín
Centro Journal , 2002,
Abstract: In her personal reflection on-and critical reading of-Ed Rivera′s literary work, the author searches out an aspect of the fragmented Latino psyche. Because "Latino rage" expresses itself indirectly, it is overlooked not only by mainstream America, but also by Latinos themselves. The first part of her essay, "Egolessness," shows how Ed's humility which his friends saw as his defining trait masked anger. The second part of the essay, "The Saintly J baro and the Madwoman in the Boh o," demonstrates that the character of the madwoman in Ed′s novel Family Installments (1982) represents the repressed and angry aspect of Latino identity. "In Hiding," the final section of the essay, analyzes how the protagonist of Ed's novel rages against the passivity and humility, bred into him, by projecting them onto his father, whom he then angrily rejects. The essay holds up Ed Rivera′s life and work as a kind of mirror for Latinos. Like his novel s protagonist, Ed only partially expressed his rage, which tended to haunt his life and work, preventing him from fulfilling his brilliant promise as a writer.
Adrian Neculau (ed.) Viata cotidian n communism (Everyday Life in Communism)  [cached]
Marius Jucan
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2006,
Abstract: Adrian Neculau (ed.) Viata cotidian n communism (Everyday Life in Communism) Polirom, Iaoi, 2005, 367 pages
The Ccr4-Not Complex Interacts with the mRNA Export Machinery  [PDF]
Shana C. Kerr,Nowel Azzouz,Stephen M. Fuchs,Martine A. Collart,Brian D. Strahl,Anita H. Corbett,R. Nicholas Laribee
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018302
Abstract: The Ccr4-Not complex is a key eukaryotic regulator of gene transcription and cytoplasmic mRNA degradation. Whether this complex also affects aspects of post-transcriptional gene regulation, such as mRNA export, remains largely unexplored. Human Caf1 (hCaf1), a Ccr4-Not complex member, interacts with and regulates the arginine methyltransferase PRMT1, whose targets include RNA binding proteins involved in mRNA export. However, the functional significance of this regulation is poorly understood.
Extending Life Concepts to Complex Systems
Jean Le Fur
Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems , 2013,
Abstract: There is still no consensus definition of complex systems. This article explores, as a heuristic approach, the possibility of using notions associated with life as transversal concepts for defining complex systems. This approach is developed within a general classification of systems, with complex systems considered as a general ‘living things’ category and living organisms as a specialised class within this category. Concepts associated with life are first explored in the context of complex systems: birth, death and lifetime, adaptation, ontogeny and growth, reproduction. Thereafter, a refutation approach is used to test the proposed classification against a set of diverse systems, including a reference case, edge cases and immaterial complex systems. The summary of this analysis is then used to generate a definition of complex systems, based on the proposal, and within the background of cybernetics, complex adaptive systems and biology. Using notions such as ‘birth’ or ‘lifespan’ as transversal concepts may be of heuristic value for the generic characterization of complex systems, opening up new lines of research for improving their definition.
Effects of the Yeast RNA-Binding Protein Whi3 on the Half-Life and Abundance of CLN3 mRNA and Other Targets  [PDF]
Ying Cai, Bruce Futcher
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084630
Abstract: Whi3 is an RNA binding protein known to bind the mRNA of the yeast G1 cyclin gene CLN3. It inhibits CLN3 function, but the mechanism of this inhibition is unclear; in previous studies, Whi3 made no observable difference to CLN3 mRNA levels, translation, or protein abundance. Here, we re-approach this issue using microarrays, RNA-Seq, ribosome profiling, and other methods. By multiple methods, we find that the whi3 mutation causes a small but consistent increase in the abundance of hundreds of mRNAs, including the CLN3 mRNA. The effect on various mRNAs is roughly in proportion to the density of GCAU or UGCAU motifs carried by these mRNAs, which may be a binding site for Whi3. mRNA instability of Whi3 targets may in part depend on a 3′ AU rich element (ARE), AUUUUA. In addition, the whi3 mutation causes a small increase in the translational efficiency of CLN3 mRNA. The increase in CLN3 mRNA half-life and abundance together with the increase in translational efficiency is fully sufficient to explain the small-cell phenotype of whi3 mutants. Under stress conditions, Whi3 becomes a component of P-bodies or stress granules, but Whi3 also acts under non-stress condition, when no P-bodies are visible. We suggest that Whi3 may be a very broadly-acting, but mild, modulator of mRNA stability. In CLN3, Whi3 may bind to the 3′ GCAU motifs to attract the Ccr4-Not complex to promote RNA deadenylation and turnover, and Whi3 may bind to the 5′ GCAU motifs to inhibit translation.
A Cytoplasmic Complex Mediates Specific mRNA Recognition and Localization in Yeast  [PDF]
Marisa Müller,Roland Gerhard Heym,Andreas Mayer,Katharina Kramer,Maria Schmid,Patrick Cramer,Henning Urlaub,Ralf-Peter Jansen,Dierk Niessing
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000611
Abstract: In eukaryotes, hundreds of mRNAs are localized by specialized transport complexes. For localization, transcripts are recognized by RNA-binding proteins and incorporated into motor-containing messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). To date, the molecular assembly of such mRNPs is not well understood and most details on cargo specificity remain unresolved. We used ASH1-mRNA transport in yeast to provide a first assessment of where and how localizing mRNAs are specifically recognized and incorporated into mRNPs. By using in vitro–interaction and reconstitution assays, we found that none of the implicated mRNA-binding proteins showed highly specific cargo binding. Instead, we identified the cytoplasmic myosin adapter She3p as additional RNA-binding protein. We further found that only the complex of the RNA-binding proteins She2p and She3p achieves synergistic cargo binding, with an at least 60-fold higher affinity for localizing mRNAs when compared to control RNA. Mutational studies identified a C-terminal RNA-binding fragment of She3p to be important for synergistic RNA binding with She2p. The observed cargo specificity of the ternary complex is considerably higher than previously reported for localizing mRNAs. It suggests that RNA binding for mRNP localization generally exhibits higher selectivity than inferred from previous in vitro data. This conclusion is fully consistent with a large body of in vivo evidence from different organisms. Since the ternary yeast complex only assembles in the cytoplasm, specific mRNA recognition might be limited to the very last steps of mRNP assembly. Remarkably, the mRNA itself triggers the assembly of mature, motor-containing complexes. Our reconstitution of a major portion of the mRNA-transport complex offers new and unexpected insights into the molecular assembly of specific, localization-competent mRNPs and provides an important step forward in our mechanistic understanding of mRNA localization in general.
A Cytoplasmic Complex Mediates Specific mRNA Recognition and Localization in Yeast  [PDF]
Marisa Müller equal contributor,Roland Gerhard Heym equal contributor,Andreas Mayer,Katharina Kramer,Maria Schmid,Patrick Cramer,Henning Urlaub,Ralf-Peter Jansen,Dierk Niessing
PLOS Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000611
Abstract: In eukaryotes, hundreds of mRNAs are localized by specialized transport complexes. For localization, transcripts are recognized by RNA-binding proteins and incorporated into motor-containing messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). To date, the molecular assembly of such mRNPs is not well understood and most details on cargo specificity remain unresolved. We used ASH1-mRNA transport in yeast to provide a first assessment of where and how localizing mRNAs are specifically recognized and incorporated into mRNPs. By using in vitro–interaction and reconstitution assays, we found that none of the implicated mRNA-binding proteins showed highly specific cargo binding. Instead, we identified the cytoplasmic myosin adapter She3p as additional RNA-binding protein. We further found that only the complex of the RNA-binding proteins She2p and She3p achieves synergistic cargo binding, with an at least 60-fold higher affinity for localizing mRNAs when compared to control RNA. Mutational studies identified a C-terminal RNA-binding fragment of She3p to be important for synergistic RNA binding with She2p. The observed cargo specificity of the ternary complex is considerably higher than previously reported for localizing mRNAs. It suggests that RNA binding for mRNP localization generally exhibits higher selectivity than inferred from previous in vitro data. This conclusion is fully consistent with a large body of in vivo evidence from different organisms. Since the ternary yeast complex only assembles in the cytoplasm, specific mRNA recognition might be limited to the very last steps of mRNP assembly. Remarkably, the mRNA itself triggers the assembly of mature, motor-containing complexes. Our reconstitution of a major portion of the mRNA-transport complex offers new and unexpected insights into the molecular assembly of specific, localization-competent mRNPs and provides an important step forward in our mechanistic understanding of mRNA localization in general.
Intelligibility in microbial complex systems: Wittgenstein and the score of life  [PDF]
Fernando Baquero,Andrés Moya
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00088
Abstract: Knowledge in microbiology is reaching an extreme level of diversification and complexity, which paradoxically results in a strong reduction in the intelligibility of microbial life. In our days, the “score of life” metaphor is more accurate to express the complexity of living systems than the classic “book of life.” Music and life can be represented at lower hierarchical levels by music scores and genomic sequences, and such representations have a generational influence in the reproduction of music and life. If music can be considered as a representation of life, such representation remains as unthinkable as life itself. The analysis of scores and genomic sequences might provide mechanistic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary insights into music and life, but not about their real dynamics and nature, which is still maintained unthinkable, as was proposed by Wittgenstein. As complex systems, life or music is composed by thinkable and only showable parts, and a strategy of half-thinking, half-seeing is needed to expand knowledge. Complex models for complex systems, based on experiences on trans-hierarchical integrations, should be developed in order to provide a mixture of legibility and imageability of biological processes, which should lead to higher levels of intelligibility of microbial life.
Life expectancy: complex measures of the length and the health related quality of life
Viviana Egidi,Daniele Spizzichino
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.2427/5834
Abstract: Background: Life expectancy is one of the most frequently used indicators to assess mortality and the health of a population. It is a synthetic measure of mortality, which has the advantage of allowing for comparisons over time and between different groups, while eliminating the influence of the age structure of the population. Life expectancy has the advantage of being very easy to understand, although it needs to be interpreted within the context of the complex system of hypothesis that generates it. This is even more important for health expectancies and health gap measures, which are synthetic indicators that take into account both survival and health condition of a population. Methods: It is given a description of the most frequently used methods to calculate life expectancy, health expectancies and health gap measures. Measures of health expectancy are disability free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy. As health gap measures, frequently are used DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years). Discussion: There are various bodies and central government agencies that either have management data or carry out statistical systematic surveys and disability surveys. Statistically speaking, the worst aspect of this scenario is that it creates confusion and uncertainty among the end users of this data, namely the policy makers. At an international level the statistical data on disability is scarcely comparable among countries, despite huge efforts on the part of international organisations to harmonize classifications and definitions of disability. Results and Conclusions: There are several methods to compute life expectancy, each of these has some advantages and some disadvantages. Usually life expectancy is used also to account for the health status of population. Actually with the growing role of chronic and degenerative diseases, the increased number of years lived are potentially independent from increase in health status of the population. Quantity and quality of live are not anymore strictly related, then a higher quantity of life does not equate to a better quality of life. For this reason are used health expectancies measures that are very useful morbidity-mortality indicators able to summarize information on quantity and quality of the years lived.
Life in Silico - Simulation of Complex Systems by Enzymatic Computation  [PDF]
Gerhard Mack,Jan Wuerthner
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We describe software and a language for quasibiological computations. Its theoretical basis is a unified theory of complex (adaptive) systems where all laws are regularities of relations between things or agents, and dynamics is made from ``atomic constituents'' called enzymes.The notion is abstracted from biochemistry. The software can be used to simulate physical systems as well as basic life processes. Systems can be constructed and manipulated by mouse click and there is an automatic translation of all operations into a LISP-like scripting language, so that one may compose code by mouse click.
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