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Welfare and biosecurity standards for dairy cow and pig farms: Cattle and swine rearing conditions  [PDF]
Hristov Slav?a,Stankovi? Branislav M.,Petrujki? Tihomir
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0906369h
Abstract: In this paper the essential elements concerning cattle and swine rearing and growing conditions were given in order to establish welfare and biosecurity standards. These elements were formed according to detailed annual investigations on 11 cattle and 5 swine farms and include relevant spatial, microclimate and hygienic conditions. In order to establish welfare standards, certain spatial conditions have higher importance, such as correct construction and maintenance of beds, pens and yards, and type and quality of materials used to build beds and walls. It is necessary to enable movement of animals in stables and yards as basic physiological and ethologic needs, according to latest scientific data. Also, optimal temperature, relative humidity and air velocity insuring have to be considered, as well as quality ventilation in order to establish and preserve optimal microclimate conditions. Also, it must be pointed out that hygiene maintenance of stable surfaces and animal bodies on a regular bases is essential. Basic principles and criteria for welfare level assessment are given in this paper. According to results obtained in previous investigations, special attention is given to possibilities to correct rearing and growing conditions in cattle and swine farms in our country. .
Against the Standards: Analyzing Expectations and Discourse of Educators regarding Students with Disabilities in a Kindergarten Classroom  [PDF]
Fernanda T. Orsati
Education Research International , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/325430
Abstract: This two-year ethnographic case study critically examines the language educators use to describe students with disabilities who are considered to present challenging behaviors in one classroom. Focusing on the language and practices used by one special education teacher and three teaching assistants, this paper explores how educators respond to students’ behaviors by analyzing educators’ utterances and the implication of such use for the education of the students. Using critical discourse analysis, this paper highlights how educators’ language in the classroom reflects a discourse of expectations that is based on various social standards and pressures that educators have to juggle. Educators expressed academic and behavioral standards by comparing students’ performance to the expected norm as well as through comparisons between students. Based on such comparisons, some students were constructed as always lacking and ultimately defined by the adjectives originally used to describe them. Students were perceived to embody defiance or smartness, the characteristics by which they were defined. 1. Introduction From a young age, students’ behavior and academic achievement are used to determine not just services for which they are eligible but also placement and discipline methods used to respond to their behaviors. Students with more significant needs and who display behaviors that can be understood as disruptive tend to spend less time in general education [1]. The attribution of behavior problems to students, especially students labeled as having a disability, becomes an important issue because it can determine teacher expectations, students’ placement, and the quality of education that the student will receive. The judgment of behaviors and what constitutes a behavior challenge, problem, or issue is historically, contextually, and culturally dependent, which means that it is socially constructed [2]. According to traditional special education, students with disabilities and challenging behaviors are believed to embody inherent deficits located in them because they do not comply with school rules, especially the rules established for social environments and relationships in the classroom. In this paper, students’ uncompliant behaviors interchangebly labeled behavior issues, behavior problems, challenging behavior, or defiant behavior are understood as a social construct. The present study critically examines the informal labeling of students with disabilities based on their behaviors in a kindergarten classroom and its consequences for their education. The
Severe Acute Hyperkalemia during Pre-Anhepatic Stage in Cadaveric Orthotopic Liver Transplantation
Mohammad Ali Sahmeddini,Mohammad Bagher Khosravi
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: A serious hazard to patients during orthotopic liver transplantation is hyperkalemia. Although the most frequent and hazardous hyperkalemia occurs immediately after reperfusion of the newly transplanted liver, morbid hyperkalemia could happen in the other phases during orthotopic liver transplantation. However, pre-anhepatic hyperkalemia during orthotopic liver transplantation is rare. This report describes one such patient, who without transfusion, developed severe hyperkalemia during pre-anhepatic phase. The variations in serum potassium concentration of the present case indicate that it is necessary to take care of the changes of serum potassium concentration not only during reperfusion but also during the other phases of the liver transplantation.
环境保护视角下的电子产品标准化制度探析——以环境标准为中心
Standardized regime on electronic products in the perspective of environmental protection: From the view of environmental standards
 [PDF]

邓禾,陈先根
- , 2016, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.2016.01.022
Abstract: 电子垃圾带来的环境资源问题十分严重,而完善电子产品标准化制度将有助于缓解这一问题。完善电子产品标准化制度除了要抓住环境标准这一中心着力点突破外,还应当特别注意加强电子产品在设计、生产、流通、回收处置环节中的标准化操作和管理,以强化环境标准的有效实施。建立生态设计制度有助于从源头减少电子垃圾。标准化生产居于中心环节地位,其目标就是在创新和环保中找到平衡点。构建系统的电子垃圾回收利用平台,鼓励全社会参与电子垃圾的防治。逐步形成以电子产品生产者、销售者、消费者和回收者为主体的类似于生物学中"生产者—消费者—分解者"模式的电子产品生态圈。
Electronic waste causes serious environmental pollution and waste of resources. To solve this problem, it is necessary to fundamentally improve the standardization of the legal system of electronic products. To improve the standardization of the legal system of electronic products, it is necessary to seize the environmental standards and try to break through it. What's more, we should pay special attention to strengthening standardized operation and management in the design, production, distribution, recovery and disposal of electronic products, to strengthen the effective implementation of the environmental standards. Building the system of ecological design is good for reducing electronic waste. Standardized production of electronic products is in the central part. And its goal is to find the balance in innovation and environmental protection. We should build system platform for electronic waste recycling, and encourage the whole society to participate in recycling electronic waste; and gradually form an electronics ecosystem with electronic products consumers, producers, sellers, and recycling as the main body, similar to the "producers-consumers-disintegrator" pattern.
SALARY AS A COMPETITIVE TOOL IN THE INTENSIVE PIG PRODUCTION Заработная плата как инструмент конкуренции в интенсивном свиноводстве  [PDF]
Oleynik A. S.
Polythematic Online Scientific Journal of Kuban State Agrarian University , 2012,
Abstract: The article analyzes the significance of the influence of a salary and the method of its formation on the competitive advantages of companies in the intensive pig production. It gives the experience of the “Kuban” agrarian company and the guidelines for the formation of the salary
The Cinta Senese: modern management for an ancient pig  [cached]
Aimé Aumaitre
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.204
Abstract: Traditional pig breeds have received intensive interest originated from the reaction of the modern consumer more and more sensitive and enthusiastic on the link between high quality of animal products when issued from native animals.
Application of the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards clinical markers of quality of care to the ICU of an Indian tertiary referral hospital
Kapadia F,Bhojani K
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine , 2003,
Abstract: The Australian Council on Healthcare Standards (ACHS) used three clinical markers to evaluate quality of care in Intensive Care. They were, one, unplanned readmission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) within 48 hours of transfer, two, incidence of pneumothorax associated with central venous catheter (CVC) insertion or attempted insertion in ICU and three, incidence of unplanned extubation (UE) of endotracheal tube (ETT) per intubated day. We recorded the incidence of these clinical markers in our ICU, in 922 patients over a six month period and compared this with those recorded in Australia. We recorded a readmission rate of 1.04%, which was similar to that of 1.62% noted by the ACHS. We recorded a CVC associated pneumothorax of 2.73%, which was not statistically significantly higher than the 1.27% recorded by the ACHS. We did not have a single episode of UE in the 6 months study period while the ACHS reported a significantly higher rate of 0.37% per intubated day. These quality marker incidences were associated with an overall crude mortality of 17.8% and with Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) of 0.75 by SAPS II and 0.57 by APACHE II.
A simple dummy liver assist device prolongs anhepatic survival in a porcine model of total hepatectomy by slight hypothermia
Karolin Thiel, Martin Schenk, Alexander Etspüler, Thomas Schenk, Matthias H Morgalla, Alfred K?nigsrainer, Christian Thiel
BMC Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-11-79
Abstract: Total hepatectomy was performed in ten female pigs followed by standardized intensive care support until death. Five animals (dummy group, n = 5) underwent additional cyclic connection to an extracorporeal dummy device which consisted of a plasma separation unit. The separated undetoxified plasma was completely returned to the pigs circulation without any plasma substitution or exchange in contrast to animals receiving intensive care support alone (control group, n = 5). All physiological parameters such as vital and ventilation parameters were monitored electronically; laboratory values and endotoxin levels were measured every 8 hours.Survival of the dummy device group was 74 ± 6 hours in contrast to 53 ± 5 hours of the control group which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Body temperature 24 hours after hepatectomy was significantly lower (36.5 ± 0.5°C vs. 38.2 ± 0.7°C) in the dummy device group. Significant lower values were measured for blood lactate (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.5 mM/L) from 16 hours, creatinine (1.5 ± 0.2 vs. 2.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL) from 40 hours and ammonia (273 ± 122 vs. 1345 ± 700 μg/dL) from 48 hours after hepatectomy until death. A significant rise of endotoxin levels indicated the onset of sepsis at time of death in 60% (3/5) of the dummy device group animals surviving beyond 60 hours from hepatectomy.Episodes of slight hypothermia induced by cyclic connection to the extracorporeal dummy device produced a significant survival benefit of more than 20 hours through organ protection and hemodynamic stabilisation. Animal studies which focus on a survival benefit generated by liver assist devices should especially address the aspect of slight transient hypothermia by extracorporeal cooling.Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined as rapid and progressive development of severe acute liver injury with impaired liver synthetic function without a previous history of liver disease. Worsening encephalopathy and cerebral edema escalating in brain stem herniat
HACCP system in radiation-hygiene control of pig production  [PDF]
Mitrovi? Radosav,Kljaji? Ranko R.,Vi?entijevi? Mihajlo
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0506529m
Abstract: The paper presents instructive methodology for introducing and realizing the HACCP system in pig production, as a typical representative of intensive breeding, with the objective of establishing radiation-hygiene supervision. Attention was focused on the type of pig diet as the key link in the production chain, in fact the selection of the raw material components necessary in the production of pig feed concentrates for intense breeding conditions, and on the establishment of a certain radiation-hygiene balance through prognostic-selective methodology, as a guarantee of radiation safety.
BIOSECURITY MEASURES IN INTENSIVE PIG PRODUCTION
Boris Antunovi?,Laura Vargovi?,Dalibor Cvrkovi?,Katarina Kundih
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2012,
Abstract: Contemporary pig production requires high demand on breeding large number of animals/pigs in a relatively small space while attaining maximum productivity. Their productivity is related to their health and ever-growing concern about less use of antibiotics in pig production. Measures have been taken to prevent diseases rather than cure them. Biosecurity measures prevent entry of pathogens into farm and their transmission between buildings. There are many critical points that must be taken care of: location, workers, farm entrance, breeding progeny, semen, transport animals, food, dead animals, feces, waste water, DDD, biosecurity in buildings etc. Standardized rules of biosecurity on farms need to be strictly followed to maintain high production.
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