Abstract:
This paper proposes a hybrid multiagent learning algorithm for solving the dynamic simulation-based bilevel network design problem. The objective is to determine the op-timal frequency of a multimodal transit network, which minimizes total users' travel cost and operation cost of transit lines. The problem is formulated as a bilevel programming problem with equilibrium constraints describing non-cooperative Nash equilibrium in a dynamic simulation-based transit assignment context. A hybrid algorithm combing the cross entropy multiagent learning algorithm and Hooke-Jeeves algorithm is proposed. Computational results are provided on the Sioux Falls network to illustrate the perform-ance of the proposed algorithm.

Abstract:
This study critically analyses the information-theoretic, axiomatic and combinatorial philosophical bases of the entropy and cross-entropy concepts. The combinatorial basis is shown to be the most fundamental (most primitive) of these three bases, since it gives (i) a derivation for the Kullback-Leibler cross-entropy and Shannon entropy functions, as simplified forms of the multinomial distribution subject to the Stirling approximation; (ii) an explanation for the need to maximize entropy (or minimize cross-entropy) to find the most probable realization; and (iii) new, generalized definitions of entropy and cross-entropy - supersets of the Boltzmann principle - applicable to non-multinomial systems. The combinatorial basis is therefore of much broader scope, with far greater power of application, than the information-theoretic and axiomatic bases. The generalized definitions underpin a new discipline of ``{\it combinatorial information theory}'', for the analysis of probabilistic systems of any type. Jaynes' generic formulation of statistical mechanics for multinomial systems is re-examined in light of the combinatorial approach. (abbreviated abstract)

Abstract:
We find an expression for the generalized gravitational entropy of Hawking in terms of Noether charge. As an example, the entropy of the Taub-Bolt spacetime is calculated.

Abstract:
In this communication, we consider and study a generalized two parameters entropy of order statistics and derive bounds for it. The generalized residual entropy using order statistics has also been discussed.

Abstract:
We define the notion of entropy for a cross section of an action of continuous amenable group and relate it to the entropy of the ambient action. As a result, we are able to answer a question of J.P. Thouvenot about completely positive entropy actions.

Abstract:
Product probability property, known in the literature as statistical independence, is examined first. Then generalized entropies are introduced, all of which give generalizations to Shannon entropy. It is shown that the nature of the recursivity postulate automatically determines the logarithmic functional form for Shannon entropy. Due to the logarithmic nature, Shannon entropy naturally gives rise to additivity, when applied to situations having product probability property. It is argued that the natural process is non-additivity, important, for example, in statistical mechanics, even in product probability property situations and additivity can hold due to the involvement of a recursivity postulate leading to a logarithmic function. Generalizations, including Mathai's generalized entropy are introduced and some of the properties are examined. Situations are examined where Mathai's entropy leads to pathway models, exponential and power law behavior and related differential equations. Connection of Mathai's entropy to Kerridge's measure of "inaccuracy" is also explored.

Abstract:
We address in this paper how tightly the composability nature of systems: $S_{A+B} =\Omega (S_A, S_B)$ constrains definition of generalized entropies and investigate explicitly the composability in some ansatz of the entropy form.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to the use of the entropy and duality methods for the existence theory of reaction-cross diffusion systems consisting of two equations, in any dimension of space. Those systems appear in population dynamics when the diffusion rates of individuals of two species depend on the concentration of individuals of the same species (self-diffusion), or of the other species (cross diffusion).

Abstract:
We obtain geometric upper bounds on the topological entropy of generalized polygon exchange transformations. As an application of our results, we show that billiards in polygons and rational polytopes have zero topological entropy.

Abstract:
We present a first physical application of Tsallis' generalized entropy to the thermodynamics of self-gravitating systems. The stellar system confined in a spherical cavity of radius $r_e$ exhibits an instability, so-called gravothermal catastrophe, which has been originally investigated by Antonov (1962) and Lynden-Bell & Wood (1968) on the basis of the maximum entropy principle for the phase-space distribution function. In contrast to previous analyses using the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, we apply the Tsallis-type generalized entropy to seek the equilibrium criteria. Then the distribution function of Vlassov-Poisson system can be reduced to the stellar polytrope system. Evaluating the second variation of Tsallis entropy and solving the zero eigenvalue problem explicitly, we find that the gravothermal instability appears in cases with polytrope index $n>5$. The critical point characterizing the onset of instability are obtained, which exactly matches with the results derived from the standard turning-point analysis. The results give an important suggestion that the Tsallis entropy is indeed applicable and viable to the long-range nature of the self-gravitating system.