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A comparative chromosome analysis of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus) and relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica) by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique
Alongkoad Tanomtong,Praween Supanuam,Pornnarong Siripiyasing,Roungvit Bunjonrat
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2007,
Abstract: This research is the first comparative chromosome analysis report of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus) and its relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica) by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique. Blood samples of the Thai wild boar were taken from two males and two females kept in Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo. After standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37 oC for 72 hr. in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and airdried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Thai wild boar was 2n (diploid) = 38, and the fundamental numbers (NF) were 62 in the male and female. The type of autosomes were 12 metacentric, 14 submetacentric, 4 acrocentric and 6 telocentric chromosomes, with X and Y chromosomes being metacentric chromosomes. We found that chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, X and Y had the same Gbanding and high-resolution technique patterns as those of domestic pig chromosomes. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 15 are similar to those of domestic pig chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Thai wild boar and the domestic pig.
The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia
Mateja Pate,Manca olnir-Dov ,Darja Ku ar,Brane Krt,Silvio pi i , eljko Cvetni ,Matja Ocepek
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/432954
Abstract: Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis). In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease.
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) as a model for evaluating nutritional and metabolic consequences of bariatric surgery practiced on morbid obese humans
Gandarillas,Mónica; Bas,Fernando;
Ciencia e investigación agraria , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-16202009000200002
Abstract: the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. moreover, morbid obese patients routinely suffer from serious medical problems, especially cardiovascular disease. medical therapy for morbid obesity offers no substantial long-term benefit, and thus the first choice therapy for severe obesity is effectively surgery. gastrointestinal surgery for obesity, also called bariatric surgery, alters the digestive process by limiting food intake and facilitating malabsorption of nutrients from the diet. this arricie reviews the types and evolution of morbid obesity surgery performed in humans and proposes the pig model as an alternative when practicing new surgical techniques or improving actual procedures, as well as to evaluate the metabolic consequences of these procedures. based on similarities between humans and pigs in terms of their anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics, the pig also provides an opportunity to develop, evaluate specific techniques in open and laparoscopic surgery. finally, a complete review of macronutrient digestion and absorption between pigs and humans is done in order to justify the use of this model. therefore, the objective of this arricie was to ?illustrate the use of the pig as a model for studying nutrient digestion and absorption in humans who undergo bariatric surgery and to review how, through digestibility trials, a digestion and absorption assessment of nutrients should complement classical human assessments with surgery.
Identification of the chromosomes of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica). An identification key and a landmark system
KM Hansen
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1977, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-9-4-517
Microsatellite-based characterization of Southern African domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)
H Swart, A Kotze, PAS Olivier, JP Grobler
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2010,
Abstract: This paper details genetic characterization and trends from a microsatellite-based study of genetic diversity on southern African pig populations. A total of 351 pigs from three commercial breeds and three indigenous populations were genotyped at 39 loci. Differences among the levels of genetic diversity in populations correlated well with known population histories. In commercial breeds, heterozygosity was higher in the well established SA Landrace and Large White breeds (0.580 and 0.636) compared to the Duroc breed, established more recently (0.531). In indigenous populations, the highest heterozygosity levels were found in the Mozambican and South African populations (0.692 and 0.634) with a lower value of 0.531 in a smaller Namibian population. A hierarchical division of total genetic diversity revealed a high between-population component of 17.9%. FST- and RST-based analysis confirmed high levels of differentiation, with pair-wise comparisons between breeds indicating significant differentiation in 20 out of 21 comparisons. Results from an assignment test confirmed results from FST and RST and suggested a true genetic structure with significant differentiation between most populations sampled, but with little differentiation among the commercial SA Landrace and Large White breeds. The results are discussed with reference to known historical information on commercial and indigenous pig populations. This paper also presents new data on the optimization of microsatellite markers for application in Sus scrofa domestica.
Meiotic Recombination Analyses of Individual Chromosomes in Male Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)  [PDF]
Nicolas Mary, Harmonie Barasc, Stéphane Ferchaud, Yvon Billon, Frédéric Meslier, David Robelin, Anne Calgaro, Anne-Marie Loustau-Dudez, Nathalie Bonnet, Martine Yerle, Hervé Acloque, Alain Ducos, Alain Pinton
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099123
Abstract: For the first time in the domestic pig, meiotic recombination along the 18 porcine autosomes was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein. In total, 7,848 synaptonemal complexes from 436 spermatocytes were analyzed, and 13,969 recombination sites were mapped. Individual chromosomes for 113 of the 436 cells (representing 2,034 synaptonemal complexes) were identified by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The average total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes per cell was 190.3 μm, with 32.0 recombination sites (crossovers), on average, per cell. The number of crossovers and the lengths of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes showed significant intra- (i.e. between cells) and inter-individual variations. The distributions of recombination sites within each chromosomal category were similar: crossovers in metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes were concentrated in the telomeric regions of the p- and q-arms, whereas two hotspots were located near the centromere and in the telomeric region of acrocentrics. Lack of MLH1 foci was mainly observed in the smaller chromosomes, particularly chromosome 18 (SSC18) and the sex chromosomes. All autosomes displayed positive interference, with a large variability between the chromosomes.
Associations of MYF5 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in different domestic pig (Sus scrofa) populations
Liu, Min;Peng, Jian;Xu, Dequan;Zheng, Rong;Li, Feng?e;Li, Jialian;Zuo, Bo;Lei, Minggang;Xiong, Yuanzhu;Deng, Changyan;Jiang, Siwen;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572007000300012
Abstract: the myf5 gene is first inducibly expressed in muscle cell during embryonic muscle development and plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors. in this study we used pcr-rflp to investigate two pig (sus scrofa) populations (n = 302) for two myf5 gene polymorphisms, a previously unreported novel met-leu shift single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) myf5/hsp92ii located on exon 1 and the previously identified intron 1 myf5/hinfi snp. haplotype and association analysis showed that haplotypes of the two snps were significantly associated with drip loss rate (dlr, p < 0.05), water holding capacity (whc, p < 0.05), biceps femoris meat color value (mcv2, p < 0.05), biceps femoris marbling score (mm2, p < 0.01), longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat percentage (imf, p < 0.01) and longissimus dorsi water moisture content (wm, p < 0.01) in the population 2. however, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.
内江猪染色体G带及其定量分析 Chromosome Banding and Quantitive Analysis of Chromosome G-bands of Neijing Pig(Sus scrofa domestic)
田素娟,王子淑,王喜忠,陈文元,张丰德,岳慧琴TIAN Su-Juan,WANG Zi-Shu,WANG Xi-Zhong,CHEN Wen-Yuan,ZHANG Feng-De,YUE Hui-Qin
遗传 , 1993,
Abstract: 彩外周血淋巴细胞培养技术和胰酶法对内江猪染色体进行了G显带,并运用扫描显微分光光度法对染色体G带进行了系统的定量分析,获得了染色体核型及G带带纹的精确数据。包括每条单倍染色体的着丝粒指数,长度,面积,积分光密度;每条G带深染带纹的宽度、面积、积分光密度、带峰值等,并绘出了带吸收光密度柱形图和消光三维图。
Regions of XY homology in the pig X chromosome and the boundary of the pseudoautosomal region  [cached]
Skinner Benjamin M,Lachani Kim,Sargent Carole A,Affara Nabeel A
BMC Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-14-3
Abstract: Background Sex chromosomes are subject to evolutionary pressures distinct from the remainder of the genome, shaping their structure and sequence content. We are interested in the sex chromosomes of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa), how their structure and gene content compares and contrasts with other mammalian species, and the role of sex-linked genes in fertility. This requires an understanding of the XY-homologous sequence on these chromosomes. To this end, we performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) with male and female Duroc genomic DNA on a pig X-chromosome BAC tiling-path microarray. Putative XY-homologous BACs from regions of interest were subsequently FISH mapped. Results We show that the porcine PAR is approximately 6.5-6.9 Mb at the beginning of the short arm of the X, with gene content reflective of the artiodactyl common ancestor. Our array-CGH data also shows an XY-homologous region close to the end of the X long arm, spanning three X BACs. These BACs were FISH mapped, and paint the entire long arm of SSCY. Further clones of interest revealed X-autosomal homology or regions containing repetitive content. Conclusions This study has identified regions of XY homology in the pig genome, and defined the boundary of the PAR on the X chromosome. This adds to our understanding of the evolution of the sex chromosomes in different mammalian lineages, and will prove valuable for future comparative genomic work in suids and for the construction and annotation of the genome sequence for the sex chromosomes. Our finding that the SSCYq repetitive content has corresponding sequence on the X chromosome gives further insight into structure of SSCY, and suggests further functionally important sequences remain to be discovered on the X and Y.
A high utility integrated map of the pig genome
Sean J Humphray, Carol E Scott, Richard Clark, Brandy Marron, Clare Bender, Nick Camm, Jayne Davis, Andrew Jenks, Angela Noon, Manish Patel, Harminder Sehra, Fengtang Yang, Margarita B Rogatcheva, Denis Milan, Patrick Chardon, Gary Rohrer, Dan Nonneman, Pieter de Jong, Stacey N Meyers, Alan Archibald, Jonathan E Beever, Lawrence B Schook, Jane Rogers
Genome Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-7-r139
Abstract: Here we report the construction of the most highly continuous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) map of any mammalian genome, for the pig (Sus scrofa domestica) genome. The map provides a template for the generation and assembly of high-quality anchored sequence across the genome. The physical map integrates previous landmark maps with restriction fingerprints and BAC end sequences from over 260,000 BACs derived from 4 BAC libraries and takes advantage of alignments to the human genome to improve the continuity and local ordering of the clone contigs. We estimate that over 98% of the euchromatin of the 18 pig autosomes and the X chromosome along with localized coverage on Y is represented in 172 contigs, with chromosome 13 (218 Mb) represented by a single contig. The map is accessible through pre-Ensembl, where links to marker and sequence data can be found.The map will enable immediate electronic positional cloning of genes, benefiting the pig research community and further facilitating use of the pig as an alternative animal model for human disease. The clone map and BAC end sequence data can also help to support the assembly of maps and genome sequences of other artiodactyls.The pig is a domesticated eutherian mammal and a member of the Cetartiodactyla order, a clade distinct from rodent and primates that last shared a common ancestor with man between 79 and 87 million years ago [1]. It has co-evolved with humans for several thousand years and today has considerable economic importance as a source of meat-based protein. The pig is also being used increasingly in biomedical research for studies of a spectrum of human diseases that may be modeled less well in rodents, including obesity, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and skin and eye conditions [2,3]. An area of particular interest has been its potential to supply organs, tissues and cells for transplant through so called xenotransplantation (that is, transplantation of pig organs to humans), providing that
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