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Adipokine Pattern in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Comparison to Normal Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes  [PDF]
Anke T?njes,Mathias Fasshauer,Jürgen Kratzsch,Michael Stumvoll,Matthias Blüher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013911
Abstract: Altered adipokine serum concentrations early reflect impaired adipose tissue function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is not entirely clear whether these adipokine alterations are already present in prediabetic states and so far there is no comprehensive adipokine panel available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess distinct adipokine profiles in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or T2D.
Associations of Green Tea and Rock Tea Consumption with Risk of Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Chinese Men and Women  [PDF]
Huibin Huang, Qiuxuan Guo, Changsheng Qiu, Baoying Huang, Xianguo Fu, Jin Yao, Jixing Liang, Liantao Li, Ling Chen, Kaka Tang, Lixiang Lin, Jieli Lu, Yufang Bi, Guang Ning, Junping Wen, Caijing Lin, Gang Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079214
Abstract: Objective To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black) consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. Results Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of <1, 1–15, 16–30, and >30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.27–0.65), 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12–0.46), and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17–0.93), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of <1, 1–15, 16–30, and >30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48–0.98), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39–0.90), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43–0.97), respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16–30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. Conclusions Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16–30 cups per week.
M. Hashemi,H. Taheri,N. Amiri,M. Yavari
Acta Medica Iranica , 2008,
Abstract: Impaired fasting glucose identifies individuals at high risk of progression to diabetes but the role of IFG as a coronary artery disease risk factor, independent of its progression to diabetes and its association with other coronary artery disease risk factors ,is unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that impaired fasting glucose increased the likelihood of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Blood chemistry data as well as traditional coronary artery disease risk factors from 812 patients referred for coronary angiography to heart centers in Shahid- Chamran and Sina hospital, Isfahan, Iran were recorded. The population were stratified into three groups according to American Diabetes Association criteria: normal fasting glucose (n=608), impaired fasting glucose(n=92) and diabetes mellitus(n=112).We use extent, Vessel and stenosis scores to indicate the coronary artery involvement. KrusKal-Wallis test showed that the means of extent, Vessel and stenosis scores are not significantly different between three groups(P> 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis, using extent score of coronary artery disease as dependent variable and traditional risk factors and impaired fasting glucose as independent variables did not show any significant difference either. Our data suggested that impaired fasting glucose is not associated with increased risk of coronary atherosclerosis.
Diastolic Dysfunction and Left Ventricle Remodeling in Men with Impaired Fasting Glucose  [PDF]
Andrey Kratnov, Elena Timganova
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2015.59029
Abstract: Background: Early disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism are an independent risk factor of development of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: The diastolic dysfunction and left ventricle remodeling depending on presence of impaired fasting glucose were examined. Methods: The characteristics of heart remodeling and fasting glucose of capillary blood were studied in 85 men aged 30 to 63 years without coronary heart disease. Results: In male patients with impaired fasting glucose in comparison of persons with level of glucose less than 5.6 mM/l, more pronounced diastolic dysfunction and left ventricle remodeling associated with more often presence III degree of peripheral obesity. Conclusion: Impaired fasting glucose in men increases probability of development of heart remodeling.
Mehmet U?ucu,Fatma Alibaz ?ner,Selen Yurdakul,Mecdi Ergüney
Marmara Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is considered to be equivalent to coronary artery disease(CHD). Both impaired fasting glucose(IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare the mortality during hospitalization between IFG and diabetes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).Methods: The patients under 65 years of age, who had been diagnosed as ACS; were evaluated for mortality during the first 7 days. The patients were divided into three groups as the first group diabetic, the second group non-diabetic patients , the patients with IFG.Results: A total of 375 patients were enrolled. The mortality rate was found to be 6.7% in patients with diabetes, 2.6% in patients without diabetes , 7.0% in patients with an IFG. The mortality rate of the patients with IFG and the patients with diabetes were approximately the same and this rate was significantly higher than in those with normal blood glucose during the acute phase of ACS.Conclusion: The IFG affects mortality as much as diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose is beneficial, in determining the cardiovascular risks and in the modification of the therapy to reduce the risk of CHD.
Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Sri Lankan patients with schizophrenia
Raveen Hanwella,Varuni de Silva
Sri Lanka Journal of Psychiatry , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Type 2 diabetes is commoner among South Asians than Europeans. The few studies of South Asian patients with schizophrenia have found increased prevalence of diabetes. Aims: To determine prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among patients with schizophrenia presenting to an acute psychiatry unit. Methods: The sample consisted of all patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia admitted to an acute psychiatry unit during one year. Data was obtained by retrospective review of patients’ records. Diabetes was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria when fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was ≥ 7.0 mmol/l. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was diagnosed when FPG was ≥5.6 mmol/l but <7.0 mmol/l. Results: Of the 164 patient records reviewed 104 (63.4%) had a recorded FPG level. There was no significant difference in age, gender and treatment between patients tested and not tested. Of the sample 28 (26.9%) were antipsychotic naive and 76 (73.1) had been treated previously. Mean age of the sample was 35.1 years (SD 12.7). Diabetes was diagnosed in 15 patients. Overall prevalence was 14.4% (females 11.4%, males 16.7%). Prevalence of IFG was 26%. Diabetes rates were highest (26.9%) among 30-39 year age group and IFG rates were highest (54.5%) among 50-59 year age group. Conclusions: Prevalence of diabetes and IFG is higher compared to the general population of Sri Lanka (10.3% and 11.5%) but similar to that of Caucasian patients with schizophrenia. Due to the high risk of dysglycaemia FPG should be done in all patients with schizophrenia.
F. Sharifi,H. Jazebi-Zadeh,N. Mousavi-Nasab,H. Amirmoghadami
Acta Medica Iranica , 2007,
Abstract: Some recent studies have revealed the relationship among excess ferritin, coronary heart disease, and insulin resistance. To assess the association between serum ferritin concentration and impaired fasting glucose, this study was designed. A total of 187 people including 91 impaired fasting glucose (IFG) subjects and 96 normal glucose subjects who had been recognized in a large epidemiological study in Zanjan in 2001 were enrolled. The cohorts were well matched for age, sex and BMI. Body mass index and blood pressure of the participants were measured and serum cholesterol, triglyceride and ferritin were evaluated. All the data were analyzed by t-test, x2 test and analysis of variance. Serum ferritin was higher in the IFG cohort (85.5 ± 6.6 μg/l vs. 49.4 ± 3.7 μg/l, P = 0.001). A positive correlation was found between fasting plasma glucose and serum ferritin in this study (r: 0.29, P: 0.001). Using multiple regression analysis, we found an association between serum ferritin and BMI (0.06, p: 0.4), blood pressure (0.15, P = 0.01), FPG (0.29, P = 0.001), triglyceride (0.08, P = 0.01) and cholesterol (0.07, P = 0.03). The odd's ratio for the association of IFG in male subjects with the high serum ferritin level was 8.3 (CI 95%:1.211.9, P = 0.01) and for females was 3.06 (C.I 95%: 0.58-15, P: 0.1). Our study, implying that hyperferritinemia occurs before elevation of plasma glucose concentration more than 126 mg/dl. If prospective and interventional studies Confirm an etiologic role of iron overload in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, reduced dietary iron intake, especially in men with additional risk factors for type 2 diabetes, would appear to be a logical consequence.
Insulin resistance with impaired fasting glucose increases the risk of NAFLD  [PDF]
Kristina ?nnerhag, Peter M. Nilsson, Stefan Lindgren
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2013.33028

Background: Our aim was to investigate the frequency of elevated liver enzymes and NAFLD in patients with known insulin resistance during 15 years of follow-up. Methods: Subjects with insulin resistance were identified from a population-based prospective cohort study in Sweden, Malm? Diet and Cancer Study, conducted in 1991-1996. Inall, 285 non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance established by HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment) were invited to do the liver function testing and if elevated, they should be further assessed by radiological examination of the liver, anthropometric measures and blood testing. Results: 165 subjects (57.9%) agreed to do the liver function testing. Of these, 25 subjects (15%) had elevated liver enzymes. After exclusion of other diseases, 5 of the remaining 21 subjects (23.8%) had radiological signs of steatosis. Liver steatosis significantly correlated with ALT (alanine aminotransferase) (p = 0.04), HOMA-IR (p = 0.00) and the metabolic syndrome (p = 0.03). 80% of the subjects with NAFLD had either developed type 2 diabetes mellitus or had impaired fasting glucose and 80% fulfilled the WHO-criteria for the metabolic syndrome, which were of significant differences to the group without NAFLD. Conclusion: The risk of developing elevated liver enzymes and NAFLD at long-term follow-up in insulin resistant subjects is not insignificant, but mainly associated with the simultaneous development of impaired fasting glucose, established diabetes mellitus and/ or the metabolic syndrome.

The characteristics of impaired fasting glucose associated with obesity and dyslipidaemia in a Chinese population
Yun Qian, Yudi Lin, Tiemei Zhang, Jianling Bai, Feng Chen, Yi Zhang, Senlin Luo, Hongbing Shen
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-139
Abstract: This was a case-control study of 648 IFG subjects and 1,296 controls derived from a large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional survey of 10,867 participants. Each subject received a face-to-face interview, physical examination, and blood tests, including fasting blood glucose and lipids. Student's t-test, Chi-square test, Spearman correlation and multiple logistic regressions were used for the statistical analyses.Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was positively correlated with BMI, WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC), and was negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (all p < 0.05). BMI was more strongly correlated with IFG than with WC. The correlation coefficient of FPG was remarkably higher with TG (0.244) than with TC (0.134) and HDL-C (-0.192). TG was an important predictor of IFG, with odds ratios of 1.76 (95%CI: 1.31-2.36) for subjects with borderline high TG level (1.70 mmol/l ≤ TG < 2.26 mmol/l) and 3.13 (95% CI: 2.50-3.91) for those with higher TG level (TG ≥ 2.26 mmol/l), when comparing to subjects with TG < 1.70 mmol/l. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the number of abnormal variables and increased risk of IFG.In this Chinese population, both BMI and WC were important predictors of IFG. Abnormal TG as a lipid marker was more strongly associated with IFG than were TC and HDL-C. These factors should be taken into consideration simultaneously for prevention of IFG.Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a frequent glycemic disorder in the general population and is considered as a pre-diabetic state [1]. IFG has received increasing attention in recent years, not only because it is an intermediate stage in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) [2-4], but also because it is associated with increased risk of all-cause death and CVD mortality [5]. IFG has thus come to be considered as a potential indicator of prev
Impaired Secretion of Total Glucagon-like Peptide-1 in People with Impaired Fasting Glucose Combined Impaired Glucose Tolerance  [cached]
Fang Zhang, Xialian Tang, Hongyi Cao, Qingguo Lü, Nali Li, Yupu Liu, Xiangxun Zhang, Yuwei Zhang, Mingming Cao, Jun Wan, Zhenmei An, Nanwei Tong
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: We assessed the serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels for Chinese adults with pre-diabetes (PD) and newly-diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDDM) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The relationships between total GLP-1 level and islet β cell function, insulin resistance (IR) and insulin sensitivity (IS) were also investigated. Methods: A 75g glucose OGTT was given to 531 subjects. Based on the results, they were divided into groups of normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG combined IGT (IFG+IGT) and NDDM. Total GLP-1 levels were measured at 0- and 2-hour during OGTT. Homeostasis model assessment of β cell function (HOMA-β), HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Gutt and Matsuda indexes were calculated. The relationships between GLP-1 level and β cell function, IR and IS were analyzed. Results: The levels of total fasting GLP-1 (FGLP-1), 2h GLP-1 (2hGLP-1) and 2hGLP-1 increments ( GLP-1) following OGTT reduced significantly in IFG+IGT and NDDM groups (P<0.005). HOMA-β , HOMA-IR, Gutt and Matsuda indexes demonstrated various patterns among NGT, isolated IFG, isolated IGT, IFG+IGT and NDDM groups (P<0.05). Spearman rank correlation analysis and multivariable linear regression model suggested that some levels of correlation between GLP-1 levels, GLP-1 and β cell function, IR (P<0.05). Conclusions: The total GLP-1 levels and its response to glucose load decreased significantly in IFG+IGT group, compared to isolated IFG or IGT group. They were even similar to that of NDDM group. Moreover, there were observable correlations between impaired GLP-1 secretion and β cell function, IR and IS.
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