oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
An assessment of Makerere University College of Health Sciences: optimizing health research capacity to meet Uganda’s priorities  [cached]
Nankinga Ziadah,Kutyabami Paul,Kibuule Dan,Kalyango Joan
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-11-s1-s12
Abstract: Background Health research is critical to the institutional mission of the Makerere College of Health Sciences (MakCHS). Optimizing the alignment of health research capacity at MakCHS with the health needs and priorities of Uganda, as outlined in the country’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP), is a deliberate priority, a responsibility, and a significant opportunity for research. To guide this strategic direction, an assessment of MakCHS’s research grants and publication portfolio was conducted. Methods A survey of all new and ongoing grants, as well as all publications, between January 2005 and December 2009 was conducted. Research, training, and education grants awarded to MakCHS’ constituent faculties and departments, were looked for through financial records at the college or by contact with funding organizations. Published manuscripts registered with PubMed, that included MakCHS faculty authors, were also analyzed. Results A total of 58 active grants were identified, of which 18 had been initiated prior to 2005 and there were an average of about eight new grants per year. Most grants funded basic and applied research, with major focus areas being HIV/AIDS (44%), malaria (19%), maternal and child health (14%), tuberculosis (11%), mental health (3%), and others (8%). MakCHS faculty were identified as Principal Investigators (PIs) in only 22 (38%) active grants. Grant funding details were only available for one third of the active grants at MakCHS. A total of 837 publications were identified, with an average of 167 publications per year, most of which (66%) addressed the country’s priority health areas, and 58% had MakCHS faculty or students as first authors. Conclusions The research grants and publications at MakCHS are generally well-aligned with the Ugandan Health Ministry priorities. Greater efforts to establish centralized and efficient grants management procedures are needed. In addition, greater efforts are needed to expand capacity for MakCHS faculty leadership of grants, as well as to continue to expand the contribution of MakCHS faculty to lead research publications.
Testing the Relationship between Government Revenue and Expenditure: Evidence from Nigeria
Kanayo Ogujiuba,Terfa W. Abraham
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v4n11p172
Abstract: The paper examines the revenue-spending hypothesis for Nigeria using macro data from 1970 to 2011. Correlation analysis, granger causality test, regression analysis, lag regression model, vector error correction model and impulse response analysis were the techniques used for analysis. The paper found that revenue and expenditure are highly correlated and that causality runs from revenue to expenditure in Nigeria. The vector error correction model also confirms that there is a significant long run relationship between revenue and expenditure implying that disequilibrium in expenditure can be corrected in the long run through policies that adjust oil and non-oil sector revenues. The lagged regression model showed that the positive relationship between revenue and expenditure reverts to negative at lag five thereby justifying the need for the use of medium term expenditure framework to monitor expenditure patterns in the short to medium term. The paper concludes that short term shocks from crude oil price passes through oil revenue to affect expenditure. This has led to swings in public expenditure pattern with sustained increase of recurrent expenditure over capital that has consequences for economic growth. Putting policies in place to enhance the performance of the non-oil sector and adopting expenditure framework that accounts for possible decline in crude oil prices was conceived as useful in enhancing a healthy revenue-expenditure relationship in Nigeria.
Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda
NO Juliet, S Freddie, S Okuonzi
Pan African Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Methods: Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Results: Between 2004 2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174 360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government’s health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Conclusion: Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.
Can donor aid for health be effective in a poor country? Assessment of prerequisites for aid effectiveness in Uganda
Nabyonga Orem Juliet,Ssengooba Freddie,Sam Okuonzi
Pan African Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Inadequate funding for health is a challenge to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals. Significant increase in health funding was recommended by the Commission for Macroeconomics and Health. Indeed Official Development Assistance has increased significantly in Uganda. However, the effectiveness of donor aid has come under greater scrutiny. This paper scrutinizes the prerequisites for aid effectiveness. The objective of the study was to assess the prerequisites for effectiveness of donor aid, specifically, its proportion to overall health funding, predictability, comprehensiveness, alignment to country priorities, and channeling mechanisms. Methods:Secondary data obtained from various official reports and surveys were analyzed against the variables mentioned under objectives. This was augmented by observations and participation in discussions with all stakeholders to discuss sector performance including health financing. Results:Between 2004 2007, the level of aid increased from US$6 per capita to US$11. Aid was found to be unpredictable with expenditure varying between 174 360 percent from budgets. More than 50% of aid was found to be off budget and unavailable for comprehensive planning. There was disproportionate funding for some items such as drugs. Key health system elements such as human resources and infrastructure have not been given due attention in investment. The government’s health funding from domestic sources grew only modestly which did not guarantee fiscal sustainability. Conclusion: Although donor aid is significant there is need to invest in the prerequisites that would guarantee its effective use.
GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA: COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS AND CAUSALITY TESTING  [PDF]
Inuwa Nasiru
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between government expenditure (disaggregated into capital and recurrent) and economic growth in Nigeria over the period(1961-2010). It employs the Bounds Test approach to co-integration based on unrestricted Error Correction Model and Pair wise Granger Causality tests. The results fromthe Bounds Test indicate that there exists nolong-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in Nigeria only when real GDP is taken as dependent variable. In addition, the causality results reveals that government capital expenditure granger causes economic growth. While no causal relationship was observed between government recurrent expenditure and economic growth. Therefore, the policy implication of this findings is that any reduction in capital expenditure would have a negative repercussions on economic growth in Nigeria.
Is health care financing in Uganda equitable?
CM Zikusooka, R Kyomuhang, JN Orem, M Tumwine
African Health Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: Health care financing provides the resources and economic incentives for operating health systems and is a key determinant of health system performance. Equitable financing is based on: financial protection, progressive financing and cross-subsidies. This paper describes Uganda’s health care financing landscape and documents the key equity issues associated with the current financing mechanisms. Methods: We extensively reviewed government documents and relevant literature and conducted key informant interviews, with the aim of assessing whether Uganda’s health care financing mechanisms exhibited the key principles of fair financing. Results: Uganda’s health sector remains significantly under-funded, mainly relying on private sources of financing, especially out-of-pocket spending. At 9.6 % of total government expenditure, public spending on health is far below the Abuja target of 15% that GoU committed to. Prepayments form a small proportion of funding for Uganda’s health sector. There is limited cross-subsidisation and high fragmentation within and between health financing mechanisms, mainly due to high reliance on out-of-pocket payments and limited prepayment mechanisms. Without compulsory health insurance and low coverage of private health insurance, Uganda has limited pooling of resources, and hence minimal cross-subsidisation. Although tax revenue is equitable, the remaining financing mechanisms for Uganda are inequitable due to their regressive nature, their lack of financial protection and limited cross-subsidisation. Conclusion: Overall, Uganda’s current health financing is inequitable and fragmented. The government should take explicit action to promote equitable health care financing by establishing pre-payment schemes, enhancing cross-subsidisation mechanisms and through appropriate integration of financing mechanisms. African Health Sciences 2009; 9(S2):S52-S58
Government Expenditure on Human Capital Development: Implications for Economic Growth in Nigeria  [cached]
Stephen O. Oluwatobi,Oluranti. I. Ogunrinola
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v4n3p72
Abstract: This study examines the relationship between human capital development efforts of the Government and economic growth in Nigeria. It seeks to find out the impact of government recurrent and capital expenditures on education and health in Nigeria and their effect on economic growth. The data used for the study are from secondary sources while the augmented Solow model was also adopted. The dependent variable in the model is the level of real output while the explanatory variables are government capital and recurrent expenditures on education and health, gross fixed capital formation and the labour force. The result shows that there exists a positive relationship between government recurrent expenditure on human capital development and the level of real output, while capital expenditure is negatively related to the level of real output. The study recommends appropriate channeling of the nation’s capital expenditure on education and health to promote economic growth.
Government Revenue - Expenditure Nexus in Lesotho: the Decline in SACU Revenue
American Journal of Economics , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.economics.20120201.02
Abstract: The paper analyses the relationship between government revenue and expenditure in Lesotho using quarterly data for the period 1991 to 2009. We employ granger causality test, Johansen procedure and error correction model based granger causality test to ascertain whether there is unidirectional causality from taxation to revenue, unidirectional causality from spending to taxation, bidirectional causality or no causality between the two variables. The results indicate that there is unidirectional causality from revenue to expenditure which calls for urgent policy reforms given the eminent decline in Southern African Customs Union (SACU) revenue which accounts for 55 per cent of the total government revenue in Lesotho. In addition, the study finds that causality runs from revenue to recurrent expenditure while there is no causality between revenue and capital expenditure which suggests that more emphasis should be put on capital expenditure.
Determinants of fast food consumption in Kampala, Uganda
SA Ayo, J Bonabana-Wabbi, D Sserunkuuma
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Consumption of fast-food in Uganda is becoming an increasingly important component of the food market as more of the working class choose to dine out rather than prepare meals at home. Despite the importance of the fast-food sector, limited attempts have been made to study the consumption and expenditure behaviour of consumers of fast-food in Uganda. The main objective of this study was to assess characteristics influencing the consumption of fast-food in Kampala district. Specifically, the objectives of the study were: to assess the factors influencing the probability of consuming fast-food; and to determine the level of expenditure on fastfood. Primary data on socio-economic characteristics were collected from a sample of 300 respondents using a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study revealed that majority (90%) of the respondents consumed fast-food. The consumption of fast-food was most motivated by their taste and convenience. Results from the Heckman model show that household size, education level and distance from work-place to restaurant negatively influenced the probability of fast-food consumption and level of expenditure on fast-food while disposable monthly income had a positive effect on the probability of consumption and level of expenditure on fast-food. The high demand for fast-food is seen as an easy solution to consumers’ busy schedules and limited meal preparation time. As changing tastes and need for convenience become the goal of households, consumption of fast-food will be expected to rise especially in urban areas. This increase in fast-food consumption, coupled with rising population and urbanization in Uganda offers new market opportunities for agribusiness firms to exploit the growing demand by investing in the fast-food sector and producing sufficiently for this market. In addition, fast-food establishments should ensure proximity of their products and services to the consumers as convenience greatly influences fast-food consumption. Future research should include identification of sources of agricultural products used by fast-food outlets to provide information about the contribution of the fast-food sector to agricultural marketing and farmers’ livelihoods in Uganda.
US DOE presents priorities
Eugene Russo
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20031112-01
Abstract: Although most of the priorities are for projects in the physical sciences, among the top priorities are a few related to life sciences: a 'Protein Production and Tags' facility that would mass produce thousands of proteins per year and create tags to identify them; and a 'Characterization and Imaging of Molecular Machines' facility that would focus on isolating, characterizing, and creating images of molecular machines that perform cellular functions. It was the DOE that coordinated the 13-year Human Genome Project with the National Institutes of Health.The first on the DOE 20-year wish list is ITER (which means 'the way' in Latin), an international collaboration to build the first fusion science experiment capable of producing a self-sustaining fusion reaction. The second is an 'UltraScale Scientific Computing Capability,' a multisite facility that would increase the computing capacity available to scientific research by a factor of 100. Abraham noted that the recently constructed Japanese supercomputer, called 'Earth Simulator,' has the computing power of the 20 fastest US computers.Other near-term priorities include a probe to study dark matter in conjunction with NASA, a powerful electron laser to enable better study of matter and chemical reactions, a rare isotope accelerator to explore new rare isotopes, and an upgrade to the Energy Sciences Network for university and industry scientists accessing DOE resources.Midterm priorities include a facility for the analysis of modeling and cellular systems and one for whole proteome analysis, as well as an underground 'double beta decay detector' to measure neutrino mass. Far-term priorities include a next-generation national synchrotron and a fusion energy test power plant. Abraham said that the blueprint will likely be reevaluated repeatedly in the future.The four recommended life science-related facilities are central elements of the DOE Genomes to Life program, according to Keith Hodgson, director of the Stanford S
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.