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GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  [PDF]
BULLA, J.,OMELKA, R.,JASEK, S.,?URLEJ, J.
Lucrari Stiintifice : Zootehnie si Biotehnologii , 2007,
Abstract: The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc.) but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2). Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity). The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.
The Review of Comparative Genetics
比较遗传学介绍 The Review of Comparative Genetics

LU Chun ming,ZHANG Wen ju,CHEN Jia kuan,
陆春明
,张文驹,陈家宽LU Chun-ming,ZHANG Wen-ju,CHEN Jia-kuan

遗传 , 2001,
Abstract: With the advance of genetic mapping and comparing of different genomes,an undiscovered type of conservation was revealed: the conservation of gene content and gene orders on the genome level. And it lodged the concept of comparative genetics:the science that studies gene content and gene orders. Now comparative genetics has been used to facilitate the isolation of gene, and it indicates a new field of evolution. This review discuses the development of comparative genetics.In the future, comparative genetics and comparative genomics would be probably syncretize to be a new science, and it will deepen the understanding of genomes.
A systematic review of nurses’ knowledge of genetics  [cached]
Lea Godino,Heather Skirton
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v2n3p173
Abstract: Background: Given the current emphasis on genetics as a relatively new topic in the field of mainstream healthcare, it is interesting to note that authors suggested that genetics should be included in nursing curricula almost fifty years ago. Genetics has been important to the role of nurses in specific specialities for some years. However, some studies reported that the current training with respect to genetics for nurses did not enable them to acquire the necessary skills for their work. The aims and objectives of this review were to examine the available evidence on genetics knowledge of nurses. Methods: We conducted a systematic review. A search of British Nursing Index, CINAHL, Embase and Medline databases was undertaken for papers published in English between January 2001- September 2011. Six studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Resukts: In three of the six studies included, the authors analysed the nurses’ perceived knowledge in genetics while in only two studies the authors measured actual knowledge. However, both perceived and actual knowledge of genetics was poor. The amount of genetics education delivered to nurses in these studies was low overall. Conclusions: However, while genetic content is lacking on educational programs the findings confirm that nurses are open to genetics education and that this should be in a form that enables them to apply genetic principles to their everyday healthcare experience. In particular, integration between science and practice is required to enable nurses to fully utilise genetics for the benefit of patients. It is clear that further educational initiatives are required to equip nurses to practice safely and effectively in the post-genomic era.
A review of multivariate analyses in imaging genetics  [PDF]
Jingyu Liu,Vince D. Calhoun
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2014.00029
Abstract: Recent advances in neuroimaging technology and molecular genetics provide the unique opportunity to investigate genetic influence on the variation of brain attributes. Since the year 2000, when the initial publication on brain imaging and genetics was released, imaging genetics has been a rapidly growing research approach with increasing publications every year. Several reviews have been offered to the research community focusing on various study designs. In addition to study design, analytic tools and their proper implementation are also critical to the success of a study. In this review, we survey recent publications using data from neuroimaging and genetics, focusing on methods capturing multivariate effects accommodating the large number of variables from both imaging data and genetic data. We group the analyses of genetic or genomic data into either a priori driven or data driven approach, including gene-set enrichment analysis, multifactor dimensionality reduction, principal component analysis, independent component analysis (ICA), and clustering. For the analyses of imaging data, ICA and extensions of ICA are the most widely used multivariate methods. Given detailed reviews of multivariate analyses of imaging data available elsewhere, we provide a brief summary here that includes a recently proposed method known as independent vector analysis. Finally, we review methods focused on bridging the imaging and genetic data by establishing multivariate and multiple genotype-phenotype-associations, including sparse partial least squares, sparse canonical correlation analysis, sparse reduced rank regression and parallel ICA. These methods are designed to extract latent variables from both genetic and imaging data, which become new genotypes and phenotypes, and the links between the new genotype-phenotype pairs are maximized using different cost functions. The relationship between these methods along with their assumptions, advantages, and limitations are discussed.
Dietary acidifiers in weanling pig diets: a review
Kil,Dong Yong; Kwon,Woong Bi; Kim,Beob Gyun;
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias , 2011,
Abstract: the objective of the present review is to provide an overview on the effects of the addition of acidifiers to nursery pig diets. researchers have proposed that dietary acidifiers decrease ph in the stomach and the lower gastrointestinal tract (git) of weanling pigs, and thus, protect the host from pathogenic invasion and proliferation and improve nutrient digestion. these benefits may subsequently result in improved growth performance of weanling pigs. in experiments on nursery pigs, dietary acidifiers decreased stomach ph at least to a small extent, but had little influence on the ph of the lower git. studies found no observable changes in microbial populations upon providing weanling pigs with dietary acidifiers, but they found a slight reduction in lactobacilli or lactic acid-producing bacteria throughout the git. dietary acidifiers improved protein digestion in many cases despite variable results regarding the digestibility of amino acids and improved growth performance. such positive responses were more apparent during the first or second week of experiments than the later stages. however, growth responses were inconsistent among different sources and varying inclusion rates of acidifiers. information on the dietary acidifiers’ mode of action is quite limited, and large variations exist in results regarding the effects of dietary acidifiers. based on the present review, the benefit of dietary acidifiers for nursery pigs is not entirely convincing. further research is required to clarify the acidifiers’ mode of action and its association with subsequent growth performance in weanling pigs.
The genetics of the pig, editors M.F. Rothschild and A. Ruvinsky : book review  [cached]
G.R. Thomson
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v70i2.765
Abstract:
Ecological genetics of freshwater fish: a short review of the genotype– phenotype connection
Vidal, O.,García–Marín, J. L.
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation , 2011,
Abstract: Molecular ecology or ecological genetics is an expanding application of population genetics which has flourished in the last two decades but it is dominated by systematic and phylogeographic studies, with relatively little emphasis on the study of the genetic basis of the process of adaptation to different ecological conditions. The relationship between genotype and adaptive phenotypes is weak because populations are often difficult to quantify and experiments are logistically challenging or unfeasible. Interestingly, in freshwater fish, studies to characterize the genetic architecture of adaptive traits are not as rare as in other vertebrate groups. In this review, we summarize the few cases where the relationship between the ecology and genetics of freshwater fish is more developed, namely the relationship between genetic markers and ecological phenotypes.
Review of "Haldane, Mayr, and Beanbag Genetics" by Krishna Dronamraju
Ken Weiss
Investigative Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2041-2223-2-19
Abstract: The context is the discussion of the formative years of 20th-century genetics and evolutionary theory about how reductionist one can be to capture the nature of evolution and genetics effectively. The context is debate between Haldane and Ernst Mayr, whom the author also knew, about the relevance of the then-new field of population genetics. The phrase 'beanbag genetics' was coined in the mid-20th century to refer to an alleged view that evolution could be understood one gene at a time, each independently on its own terms, and that selection worked gene-by-gene. Mayr used the phrase to resist such reductionism, arguing that organisms rather than genomes are important, because they are the result of complex interactions among genes. The discussion took place as part of the formation of the 'modern synthesis' that united Darwin's and Mendel's thinking, a synthesis which began around 1920 and developed during the subsequent generation. Only by around the 1960s was it somewhat displaced theoretically by other issues, such as 'non-Darwinian' neutralism, and by a focus on the actual nature of genes and genomes that was being revealed.Dronamraju argues that the disagreements between Mayr and Haldane were substantial, if gentlemanly, and their views were never as far apart as caricatures of them suggested. As Dronamraju points out, though their studies were largely single-gene-focused, population geneticists indeed considered multilocus interactive models, and their debate was not whether genes interact but how important nonadditive effects are in understanding the fate of variants at a single gene. The issues are alive today in the context of extensive sequence data, though few today pay much attention to these more theoretical details, being concerned instead, rightly or wrongly, with immediate analytical challenges rather than the role of history in framing our views today.Dronamraju presents the arguments of the time and some of the subsequent views of and commentaries
A review of psychiatric genetics research in the Brazilian population
Cordeiro, Quirino;Souza, Bruno Rezende;Correa, Humberto;Guindalini, Camila;Hutz, Mara Helena;Vallada, Homero;Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462009000200013
Abstract: objective and method: a large increase in the number of brazilian studies on psychiatric genetics has been observed in the 1970's since the first publications conducted by a group of researchers in brazil. here we reviewed the literature and evaluated the advantages and difficulties of psychiatric genetic studies in the brazilian population. conclusion: the brazilian population is one of the most heterogeneous populations in the world, formed mainly by the admixture between european, african and native american populations. although the admixture process is not a particularity of the brazilian population, much of the history and social development in brazil underlies the ethnic melting pot we observe nowadays. such ethnical heterogeneity of the brazilian population obviously brings some problems when performing genetic studies. however, the brazilian population offers a number of particular characteristics that are of major interest when genetic studies are carried out, such as the presence of isolated populations. thus, differences in the genetic profile and in the exposure to environmental risks may result in different interactions and pathways to psychopathology.
A Review on the Applications of Organic Trace Minerals in Pig Nutrition
S. P. Acda,B. J. Chae
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent informations regarding application of organic trace minerals in pig nutrition. Understanding the efficacy of organic trace minerals has been increasingly important over the past few years as a result of increased customer awareness of their benefits and the increase in the number of commercial products available to the consumer. Organically bound trace minerals of interests in pig nutrition specifically include iron, copper, zinc, chromium and selenium. Organic iron, chromium and selenium have been shown to improve reproductive efficiency as measured by increased farrowing rate, reduced mortality, larger litter size and increased litter weight at birth and at weaning. Additional benefits derived from organic chromium supplementation include improved carcass quality and increased nitrogen retention. Reviews presented reveal no consistent effect of organic copper and zinc on growth performance but could provide the needs of pigs at lower inclusion rate without compromising performance of animals while maintaining serum concentration, and substantially reducing fecal excretions of these elements.
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