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Knowledge and attitude towards mother to child transmission of HIV and it's prevention among post natal mothers in Tikur Anbessa and Zewditu Memorial Hospitals, Addis Ababa
Solomie Jebessa, Telahun Teka
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Abstract: Background: HIV/AIDS is currently a major public health problem in Ethiopia and mother to child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for 90% of childhood HIV infections. The transmission of HIV from infected mothers to babies could occur during antenatal period, as well as during delivery and breastfeeding (postnatal period). Since breastfeeding is essential for child survival, it is also necessary to assess mothers' knowledge and attitude towards HIV transmission and its prevention during breastfeeding. Objectives: This study attempts to assess mothers' knowledge of MTCT of HIV including breastfeeding, in two government hospitals in Addis Ababa. It also describes mothers' attitudes towards voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services. Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude towards MTCT and its' preventive methods on postnatal mothers who delivered at Tikur Anbessa and Zewditu Memorial Hospitals, Addis Ababa, from January to March 2004. A structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: A total of 384 mothers were interviewed 78.4% of whom were from Addis Ababa. 87.0% were aged between 16-30 years. Of these mothers 54.9% were primipara, 89.9% were married, and 84.6% were Christians. Amhara (44.5%), Oromo (26.3%), Gurage (17.2%), and Tigre (7.0%) were the major ethnic groups in the study population. All the 384 respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS of which, 82.3 % mentioned the major routes of transmission and 89.8% knew that that HIV could be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby. Most of the respondents (76.8%) knew that MTCT of HIV is preventable, 64.6% knew the protective effect of prophylactic anti-retroviral drugs, 37.1% knew that abstinence from breastfeeding can prevent MTCT, 10.4% knew elective caesarean section (C/S) as a preventive method and 6.9% stated that protection of the mother from HIV is the same as protecting her baby. Those mothers who were from Addis Ababa, and whose educational level was secondary and above were found to be more knowledgeable about MTCT and PMTCT. Three hundred seventeen (82.6%) of the mothers knew what VCT meant and 76.8% of them have positive attitudes to wards VCT. 69.3% of the mother indicated that mothers should be tested before breastfeeding and 67.4% agreed to have VCT before breastfeeding their new babies. 60.2% planned to have VCT before their next pregnancy. Conclusion: This study showed that most mothers in this study knew that HIV could be transmitted from mother to child and that it can be prevented. A majority are of the opinion that VCT can be a preventive strategy and most of them have the intention to have counseling and testing before the next pregnancy. Hence well-organized VCT centers and PMTCT programs should be established to halt the epidemic from affecting the next generation. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19(3) 2005: 211-218
Hospital Bed Occupancy and HIV/AIDS in three Major Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [cached]
Melesse Tamiru,Jemal Haidar
International Journal of Biomedical Science , 2011,
Abstract: Background: In countries like Ethiopia where the spread of HIV infection is extensive, health services are faced with an increased demand for care. The most obvious reflection of this increased demand is through patient load, longer bed occupancy perhaps to the exclusion of patients with other ailments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of HIV/AIDS inpatients of three major public hospitals. Methods: A Retrospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in three major hospitals of Addis Ababa namely Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Tikure Anbessa Hospital and Saint Paul’s Hospital from February to March 2004. Results: Of the total 453 sampled inpatients, 293 (65 %) were HIV positives. Over half (55.0%) were Males. The most affected age group was between 24 and 56 years. The majority (85.8%) were from Addis Ababa and over half (57.7%) was married. Housewives constituted about a quarter (26.3%) of all the admitted cases. The most common co-morbidities resulted in admission to the medical wards among the HIV-positive cases were Tuberculosis (73.0%) and jirovicii pneumonia (70.3%), and their occurrence was significantly higher among HIV+ than their counter parts (p = 0.001). Although numbers of patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa hospital was more than Saint Paul’s and Zewditu Memorial hospitals (ZMH), the proportion of HIV positive cases admitted to ZMH however was higher (49.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (14.0%) and Saint Paul’s hospitals (18.0%). Likewise the number of inpatient days was also higher in ZMH (n=7765) than the other hospitals. The bed occupancy rate was however, higher in ZMH (53.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (12.0%) and Saint Paul’s (12.0%) hospitals. Conclusion: One of the most obvious consequences of HIV/AIDS patients are the increased occupancy of hospitals beds suggesting that only 81.1 % of the beds are for all other afflictions in the hospitals. It appears that there is a lot of concern that patients with HIV are competing with the non-HIV infected patients in a resource limited areas. Home based care with community involvement and greater use made of existing community resources might be a response to the limitations of curative hospital-based care and treatment needs of many HIV/AIDS patients.
Malaria in Addis Ababa and its environs: assessment of magnitude and distribution
Adugna Woyessa, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Ahmed Ali, Daniel Kebede
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: Background: Malaria is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. Frequent epidemics and its appearance in highland areas previously known to be beyond malaria transmission upper limit are becoming common in the country. Objectives: The objective of the study was to review and document the situation of malaria in Addis Ababa. Methods: Records on cases of malaria seen at outpatient departments of 20 health centers in the six administrative zones of Addis Ababa were reviewed. An epidemic report compiled relatively recently was as well used as a source of additional information. Results: Rise in the number of malaria cases treated at outpatient departments in Addis Ababa was noted from 1996 on wards. In one of the administrative Zones of Addis Ababa, Akaki and its surroundings, an outbreak of malaria was reported during 1998/9. More than three times increment of primary clinical cases of malaria was recorded during the peak of this epidemic. Conclusion: It is believed that malaria is one of the causes of morbidity congesting health services in Addis Ababa City Administration. The epidemic at the peripheral part of the City, Akaki and its environs in 1998/9 is believed to be associated with the climate change during this period. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2002;16(2):147-155]
Peer Pressure Is the Prime Driver of Risky Sexual Behaviors among School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Amsale Cherie, Yemane Berhane
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23021
Abstract: Background: Understanding ecological factors that influence risky sexual behavior of adolescents is vital in designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions in specific contexts. Interventions undertaken without understanding the critical factors may not produce the desired results. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adolescent risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among randomly selected school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Risky sexual behavior was assessed by asking question about sexual activity, consistent condom use and faithfulness to a single partner. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors related to sexual behavior using the ecological framework. Result: Overall 377(10.6%) of the 723 sexually active students were involved in risky sexual practices. Risky sexual behavior was significantly and very strongly associated with perception of peers' involvement in sexual intercourse [AOR = 11.68 (95% CI: 8.76 - 15.58)]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that peer pressure is the most important factor associated with risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual behavior among school adolescents should target adolescents as a group rather than individually.
The Law and Practice of Administrative Courts in Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa City Administrative Tribunal  [PDF]
Abate Ayana
International Journal of Advanced Legal Studies and Governance , 2011,
Abstract: Addis Ababa city administration established an administrative tribunal based on proclamation No. 6/2008. Thus, the city administrative tribunal would revise administrative measures taken by the concerned city offices. In other words, it hears and decides on appeals which are brought to it by the civil servants. The study which adopted the survey research design mainly through personal interview with court administrators revealed that the city administrative tribunal has performed its function in proper manner and base on the laws. Besides, it is observed that in rendering decision the tribunal carefully followed the laid down procedures. Speedy trial was also one quality of the administrative tribunal. It was therefore concluded that the administrative tribunal operated in a legal and procedural sound manner. Nevertheless, for enhanced productivity, professional trainings for the staff of Addis Ababa City Administrative Tribunal in particular and Administrative Courts in Ethiopia in general should be taken seriously.
Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS Diagnostic Disclosure to HIV Infected Children Receiving HAART: A Multi-Center Study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Sibhatu Biadgilign,Amare Deribew,Alemayehu Amberbir,Horacio Ruise?or Escudero,Kebede Deribe
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017572
Abstract: Diagnostic disclosure of HIV/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common issue in clinical practice. Nevertheless, some parents and health care professionals are reluctant to inform children about their HIV infection status. The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of children who have knowledge of their serostatus and factors associated with disclosure in HIV-infected children receiving HAART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The potential role of the private sector in expanding postabortion care in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia regions of Ethiopia
Hailu Yeneneh, Tenaw Andualem, Hailemichael Gebreselassie, Mulu Muleta
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Unsafe abortion is a major contributor of maternal mortality and morbidity in Ethiopia. High disease burden and underdeveloped infrastructure entail involvement of all partners in responding to health needs in the country. The private sector has apparently not been exploited to the fullest extent so far. Objective: To assess the potential of private facilities in expanding access to postabortion care (PAC). Methods: A cross-sectional study of private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia was conducted in 2001-2, using a pretested questionnaire and a checklist. Results: We assessed 88, 31 and 32 facilities in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia, respectively. Treatment was provided by 44%, 52% and 63% of the eligible facilities in Addis Ababa, Amhara and Oromia, respectively. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) was used in treating 61% of Addis Ababa patients whereas sharp curettage was used in over 80% of those in Amhara and Oromia. About 80% of women did not get postabortion family planning methods. Patient-provider interaction was generally satisfactory. High-level disinfection (HLD) of non-autoclavable instruments needed improvement. All medium and above clinics have at least one GP and many have nurse/midwives. The vast majority of facilities not giving the service would like to provide comprehensive PAC if staff are trained and equipment made available in the market. Conclusion: Private health facilities can contribute substantially if given the necessary guidance and support with proper monitoring and evaluation. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(3):157-165
Investigation of Traffic air Pollution in Addis Ababa City around Selected Bus Stations Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique  [PDF]
Awoke Taddesse Hailu,A.K. Chaubey,Asres Yehunie Hibstie
International Journal of Basics and Applied Science , 2013,
Abstract: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using high resolutiongamma-ray spectrometry was used to monitor traffic air pollution in Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia) around selected bus stations. Biomonitoring technique was applied for the research. The low neutron flux from our isotope source is compensated by taking relatively long irradiation time and large mass samples. Gamma photon mass absorption correction was made for the relative large mass sample. It was identified that more than 18 air pollutant elements are accumulated in the biomonitor samples. The research reveals that the studied area were highly polluted due to mainly traffic air pollution.
Fertility awareness and post-abortion pregnancy intention in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Yilma Melkamu, Fikre Enquselassie, Ahmed Ali, Hailemichael Gebresilassie, Lukman Yusuf
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Abortion related complications are known to be among the leading causes of maternal mortality and disabilities in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of post-abortion patients, regarding return of fertility and pregnancy intentions. Methods: Cross sectional study was undertaken in four government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from November 2001 to February 2002. Four hundred post-abortion cases were interviewed at the point of their discharge to get information on their fertility awareness and future pregnancy intentions. Results: Seventeen percent of the respondents who reported that the pregnancies were unwanted admitted some kind of interference with the pregnancy. Thirty six percent reported that they were assisted at clinics for inducing the abortion. Overall about 82% of them reported not having a plan to become pregnant in three months period following the abortion. Seventy three percent of them were not able to tell the time at which they could become pregnant if involved in sexual intercourse after the present abortion. Conclusion: This study revealed the urgent demand for quality services that should include education and provision of family planning counseling and methods. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(3):167-174
Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic
Fikru Tesfaye, Peter Byass, Stig Wall
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-9-39
Abstract: Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25–64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements.A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index ≥ 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index ≥ 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females.High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent epidemic in this population. Overweight, obesity and physical inactivity are important determinants of high blood pressure. There is an urgent need for strategies and programmes to prevent and control high blood pressure, and promote healthy lifestyle behaviours primarily among the urban populations of Ethiopia.Hypertension is an import
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