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Effects of Methyl Donor Diets on Incisional Pain in Mice  [PDF]
Yuan Sun, Deyong Liang, Peyman Sahbaie, J. David Clark
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077881
Abstract: Background Dietary supplementation with methyl donors can influence the programming of epigenetic patterns resulting in persistent alterations in disease susceptibility and behavior. However, the dietary effects of methyl donors on pain have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary methyl donor content on pain responses in mice. Methods Male and female C57BL/6J mice were treated with high or low methyl donor diets either in the perinatal period or after weaning. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive sensitivity were measured before and after incision. Results Mice fed high or low methyl donor diets displayed equal weight gain over the course of the experiments. When exposed to these dietary manipulations in the perinatal period, only male offspring of dams fed a high methyl donor diet displayed increased mechanical allodynia. Hindpaw incision in these animals caused enhanced nociceptive sensitization, but dietary history did not affect the duration of sensitization. For mice exposed to high or low methyl donor diets after weaning, no significant differences were observed in mechanical or thermal nociceptive sensitivity either at baseline or in response to hindpaw incision. Conclusions Perinatal dietary factors such as methyl donor content may impact pain experiences in later life. These effects, however, may be specific to sex and pain modality.
Possible Improvement in Income with Vitamin C Fortified Diets in Practical Farming of Heterobranchus longifilis Fingerlings
L.M.O. Ibiyo,J.O. Atteh,J.S. Omotosho,C.T. Madu,A.N. Okaeme
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A completely randomised design with three replicates was used for an experiment conducted to study the profitability of vitamin C inclusion into the ration formulation of Heterobranchus longifilis. Graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 or 250) mg vitamin C kg 1 diet as ascorbate polyphosphate was included in a 42.5% crude protein basal diet and fed to triplicate groups of twenty fingerlings. The groups fed diets with vitamin C had statistically significant (p< 0.05) higher final weight than the group fed the control diet without vitamin C at the end of twenty weeks study. Feed consumed was significantly (p< 0.05) lower in the group fed diet without vitamin C. There was a significant difference (p< 0.05) between the groups fed 0 and 50 mg vitamin C kg 1 diets but no significant difference (p>0.05) between the groups fed diets with 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg vitamin C kg 1 diet on this parameter. Mortality was significantly (p< 0.05) higher in the groups fed diet devoid of vitamin C while there was no significant difference (p >0.05) between the fish fed the diets with the graded levels of vitamin C. The Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS) of the liver and whole body of fish was significantly (p< 0.05) higher in fish fed diet devoid of vitamin C. Cost per kilogram of fish base on feed input was significantly (p< 0.05) higher in the group fed diet without vitamin C than those enriched with vitamin C. However within the groups enriched with vitamin C cost per kg of fish was significantly (p< 0.05) decreasing in the following order: diet 2>diet 6>diets 4, 5 and 3. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between fish fed diets with 100, 150 and 200 mg vitamin C kg 1 with respect to cost per kilogram of fish. The results of this study suggest that there is no alternative to the use of a complete diet with vitamin C in a sustainable intensive practical farming of H. longifilis.
Preeclampsia and the Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in VLBW Infants: A Population Based Study  [PDF]
Ting-An Yen, Hwai-I Yang, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Hung-Chieh Chou, Chien-Yi Chen, Kuo-Inn Tsou, Po-Nien Tsao, for the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075168
Abstract: Background Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and preterm delivery. Both preeclampsia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) of prematurity are associated with impaired angiogenesis. However, the relationship between maternal preeclampsia and BPD remains controversial. This study aims to test whether or not preeclampsia is associated with development of BPD in a cohort of premature infants. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study assessing the association between preeclampsia and the risk of developing BPD in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants registered in the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan from 1997 through 2006. All 21 neonatal departments in Taiwan participated in the data collection. A total of 8,653 VLBW infants were registered in the database. The exclusion criteria included congenital anomalies, chromosome anomalies, infants that died before 36 weeks post-conceptual (PCA), and those whose BPD status were unavailable. BPD was defined as oxygen dependence at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The association between maternal preeclampsia and BPD was assessed using a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression model. Results In the end, a total of 5,753 cases were enrolled in this study. The incidence of preeclampsia was 14.7% (n=847) and the overall incidence of BPD was 34.9%. Infants with maternal preeclampsia had a higher gestational age, higher incidence of cesarean section and being small for their gestational age, lower incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, and sepsis. BPD occurred significantly less frequently in the maternal preeclampsia group (24.1% vs. 36.7%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.62–0.98). Subgroup analysis showed that the association between preeclampsia and BPD was significant only in those VLBW infants with a gestational age between 31–34 weeks. Conclusion This data supports the association between fetal exposure to maternal preeclampsia and a reduced risk of BPD in relatively mature VLBW infants.
VLBW Babies- Obstetric Dilemma & Pediatric Challenge !  [PDF]
Bangal.V.B,Kwatra Anita,Modi Hinesh
Pravara Medical Review , 2008,
Abstract: Birth weight is one of the the most important marker of perinatal, neonatal and infantile outcome. Present study aimed at finding out neonatal mortality rate in very low birth weight (VLBW) babies atPravara rural hospital. It was observed that the overall neonatal mortality in VLBW babies was 44% . Neonatal mortality was 51% in babies with gestational age below 34 weeks as against 27% in above 34weeks. Neonatal survival rate was better with Caesarean section (66%) as against vaginal route of delivery (41%).Common causes of neonatal deaths in VLBW babies were sepsis, respiratory distresssyndrome, birth asphyxia, intra ventricular hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation and necrotizing enterocolitis. Termination in a high risk pregnancy with an estimated VLBW baby, posesdilemma in the mind of obstetrician regarding timing and mode of delivery. Pediatrician also faces a challenge, as these babies are likely to develop some inherent complication related to VLBW and extreme prematurity. To improve the neonatal outcome in VLBW babies, it is essential that these babies are cared in secondary or tertiary care neonatal units with state of art facilities and trained manpower. Scientific interaction between the members of the team is essential for optimal outcome.
Iron-Fortified Drinking Water Studies for the Prevention of Children's Anemia in Developing Countries  [PDF]
Jose E. Dutra-de-Oliveira,J. Sergio Marchini,Joel Lamounier,Carlos A. N. Almeida
Anemia , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/815194
Abstract: Anemia and iron deficiency should receive special attention considering their high prevalence and serious consequences. For prevention, globally it is recommended to increase dietary iron intake, iron fortification of industrialized foods, and medical iron supplementation. Food fortification for the prevention of iron deficiency in developing countries should consider carriers locally available and consumed daily, requiring limited infrastructure and technology. Drinking water is the iron carrier we have been working for years for the prevention of iron deficiency and anemia in small children in Brazil. It was shown that studies with iron-fortified drinking water were proved to be effective on children's anemia prevention. Water is found everywhere, consumed daily by everyone may be easily fortified with simple technology, is low priced and was effective on the prevention of children's anemia. Fortification of drinking water with iron was locally implemented with the direct participation of the government and community. Government authorities, health personnel and population were part of the project and responsible for its community implementation. The mayor/municipality permitted and supported the proposal to supply it to children at their day-care centers. To keep the children drinking water iron fortified supply an officially authorized legislation was also approved. 1. Introduction Iron deficiency and iron anemia are prevalent worldwide, affecting a large proportion of global population. It has been estimated the worldwide incidence of anemia to be 47% in children under five, 30% in no pregnant women of childbearing age, and 42% in pregnant women [1]. It has been identified as the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world [2]. It is mostly present in developing world and is said to affect over 2 billion people. Infants, preschool children, and pregnant women are the main groups at risk for iron deficiency and iron anemia. Its prevention includes food with high-iron bioavailability and a nutritious daily diet. Alternative solutions involve selective plant breeding or genetic engineering that will increase iron content or reduce absorption inhibitors in dietary staples, iron enrichment of industrialized foods, and iron supplementation with pharmacological medicine products. Food fortification has been regarded as the safest and most effective means to supplement diets with low-iron content. Industrialization required for preparation of iron food fortification has often been a problem requiring technology not available in less developed
Attitudes of mothers and staff towards treatment and possible outcomes of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Bloemfontein
DJ Griessel, G Joubert, M Setlaba, O Seboco, L Chokoe
South African Journal of Child Health , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives. In neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), difficult decisions about care and withdrawal of treatment sometimes have to be taken by parents and healthcare workers, especially when the infant will probably have a poor developmental outcome. Only one previous study conducted in South Africa investigated whether preferences in this regard differ between these groups. We aimed to acquire more information on the issue. Design. A comparative cohort study comprising separate groups. Setting. Neonatal units of Universitas Academic and Pelonomi Regional hospitals. Subjects. Mothers of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) babies and children with multiple disabilities; paediatricians (including registrars) and nurses working in these units. Outcome measures. The preferences for developmental outcomes were compared between four groups: nurses, paediatricians, mothers of VLBW infants, and mothers of babies with multiple disabilities. Different scenarios were illustrated, and questionnaires were used to obtain the opinions on active treatment for babies with a poor developmental outcome. Results. When asked whether doctors should attempt to save premature babies, even with a more than 50% chance of being handicapped, 100% of mothers agreed, as opposed to 23% of paediatricians. Similar results were obtained when respondents were asked whether they would prefer to have a severely handicapped child rather than no children at all. Seventy per cent of mothers of VLBW babies indicated that parents are the most important stakeholders in NICU decision making. Conclusions. Doctors may underestimate mothers’ capacity to cope with handicapped children. The opinion and perspectives of mothers are therefore important factors in NICU decision making.
Nutritional Assessment of Wheat Biscuits and Fortified Wheat Biscuits with Citrus Peels Powders
Food and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.fph.20120201.11
Abstract: Citrus peels, the waste by-products of citrus juices factories are reckoned valuable healthful functional food. The present investigation performed to assess nutritional status of wheat and fortified biscuits with citrus peels powders. Study included determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value , minerals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Na, K and P) of wheat and fortified biscuits with citrus peels powders. Likewise physical and sensory characteristics of control and 10% fortified wheat biscuits with the four studied citrus peels powders: Tangerine peel powder, Abo-Sora peel powder, Baladi orange peel powder, and Baladi lemon peel powder. The data revealed that 10% incorporation of citrus peels powders in wheat biscuits increased crude protein, crude fat contents as well as crude fiber, moisture contents and caloric value. However, it decreased carbohydrate content. The supplementation of control biscuits with 10% citrus peels powders of the four studied citrus enhanced the nutritive value. The data revealed that all 10% fortified biscuits with the four studied citrus peels powders improved all studied sensory characteristics in all the studied biscuits. Moreover, biscuits fortified with 10% citrus peel powders. Could be recommended for caloric reduced diets for obese, over-weight persons and diabetic persons.
Use of a Computerized C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Based Sepsis Evaluation in Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) Infants: A Five-Year Experience  [PDF]
Sarah A. Coggins, James L. Wynn, Melissa L. Hill, James C. Slaughter, Asli Ozdas-Weitkamp, Osman Jalloh, L. Russell Waitman, Randy J. Carnevale, J?rn-Hendrik Weitkamp
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078602
Abstract: Background Serial C-reactive protein (CRP) values may be useful for decision-making regarding duration of antibiotics in neonates. However, established standard of practice for its use in preterm very low birth weight (<1500 g, VLBW) infants are lacking. Objective Evaluate compliance with a CRP-guided computerized decision support (CDS) algorithm and compare characteristics and outcomes of compliant versus non-compliant cases. Measure correlation between CRPs and white blood count (WBC) indices. Methods We examined 3 populations: 1) all preterm VLBW infants born at Vanderbilt 2006–2011 – we assessed provider compliance with CDS algorithm and measured relevant outcomes; 2) all patients with positive blood culture results admitted to the Vanderbilt NICU 2006–2012 – we tested the correlation between CRP and WBC results within 7 days of blood culture phlebotomy; 3) 1,000 randomly selected patients out of the 7,062 patients admitted to the NICU 2006–2012 – we correlated time-associated CRP values and absolute neutrophil counts. Results Of 636 VLBW infants in cohort 1), 569 (89%) received empiric antibiotics for suspected early-onset sepsis. In 409 infants (72%) the CDS algorithm was followed; antibiotics were discontinued ≤48 hours in 311 (55%) with normal serial CRPs and continued in 98 (17%) with positive CRPs, resulting in significant reduction in antibiotic exposure (p<0.001) without increase in complications or subsequent infections. One hundred sixty (28%) were considered non-compliant because antibiotics were continued beyond 48 hours despite negative serial CRPs and blood cultures. Serial CRPs remained negative in 38 (12%) of 308 blood culture-positive infants from cohort 2, but only 4 patients had clinically probable sepsis with single organisms and no immunodeficiency besides extreme prematurity. Leukopenia of any cell type was not linked with CRPs in cohorts 2 and 3. Conclusions CDS/CRP-guided antibiotic use is safe and effective in culture-negative VLBW infants. CRP results are not affected by low WBC indices.
Sensory Characteristics of Whole Wheat Mineral Fortified Chapattis  [PDF]
Saeed Akhtar,Faqir Muhammad Anjum
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: This study aimed to find out the impact of iron and zinc fortification of Whole-Wheat Flour (WWF) on the acceptability of chapatti. An additional aim was to select suitable storage conditions for fortified flour. Fortified flours were packed in polypropylene woven bags and stored under controlled and ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Chapattis prepared from fortified flours were evaluated for color, taste and flavor. The storage conditions, storage periods and treatments of the flour samples significantly (p<0.05) affected the color, taste and flavor of chapattis. The sensory study of the mineral fortified chapattis revealed that the flour fortified with NaFeEDTA in combination with ZnSO4 or ZnO, stored under controlled conditions is the better choice for organoleptically acceptable mineral fortified chapattis.
Evaluation of the content and the potential bioavailability of iron from fortified with iron and non-fortified food products
Joanna Suliburska,Zbigniew Krejpcio,Natalia Ko?aczyk
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum : Technologia Alimentaria , 2011,
Abstract: Background. Fortified food products contain usually higher amounts of certain nutrients. However, the information about the nutritional quality of such products is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the content and the release of iron from fortified and non-fortified food products available on the Polish market. Material and methods. A group of 29 fortified with Fe and non-fortified food products, such as cereal products (16) and confectionaries (13), were purchased from local market between October and November 2009. The content of Fe in these products, as well as the amount of Fe released in enzymatic digestion in vitro was determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method. Results. It was found that most of the fortified with Fe food products had significantly higher amount and the potential bioavailability of this element in comparison with the non-fortified analogues, however the content of Fe determined analytically not always matched the values declared on the label. Conclusions. Products fortified with Fe appear to be better sources of potentially bioavailable Fe in comparison with the non-fortified analogues.
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