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Luteal dynamics in goats: morphological and endocrine features
Arashiro, Eduardo Kenji Nunes;Viana, Jo?o Henrique Moreira;Fonseca, Jeferson Ferreira da;Camargo, Luiz Sérgio de Almeida;Fernandes, Carlos Ant?nio de Carvalho;Brand?o, Felipe Zandonadi;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982010000900011
Abstract: the aim of this study was to establish the morphologic and endocrine characteristics of luteal dynamics in goats. it was used toggenburg female goats that showed natural estrus in a 48-hour interval. after estrus, ultrasonographic evaluations of the ovaries were daily performed during 21 days using a portable device (5mhz probe). blood sample was collected for plasma progresterone (p4) determination. corpora lutea were detected for the first time on day 5 and progressively increased in size until d9 (1.26 ± 0.08 cm2), with no variation on subsequent days. in females with one ovulation, the first visualization of the corpora lutea was earlier than in those with multiple ovulation (4.54 ± 0.18 vs 5.74 ± 0.25 days). at the moment of the first visualization, luteal area was smaller in animals with single ovulation. plasma p4 concentration progressively increased until day 9 and it did not show significant increase until luteolysis, characterized by a sharp decrease in p4 concentration, reaching values below 1 ng/ml in 24 hours. the luteal area slowly and gradually decreased in size. it was observed a significant positive correlation between p4 concentration and area during luteogenesis and luteolysis (r = 0.63 and r = 0.50, respectively). when corpus luteum reached its maximum size (d9), female with more than one corpora lutea, with a greater luteal tissue area, did not show p4 concentration higher than those with one ovulation (5.92 ± 0.59 vs 7.04 ± 0.79 ng/ml). these results show that luteal dynamics in toggenbur goats follow a similar pattern to those observed in other goat breeds and luteal tissue growth was positively correlated with corpora lutea functionality.
Spraying effects on some physiological and behavioural traits of goats in a subtropical climate  [cached]
Nazan Darcan,Fatin Cedden,Soner Cankaya
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2008.77
Abstract: Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of two different spraying methods on goats exposed to high air temperatures. Thirty goats were divided into three groups for the trial (sprayed once per day, OTS; sprayed twice per day, TTS; and non-sprayed, Controls). Respiration and pulse rates, rectal and surface temperatures (from head and udder skin) were taken three times a day (08.00 - 09.00; 16.00 - 17.00 and 00.00 - 01.00) on hot summer days in July 2005 in a Mediterranean climate. Some behavioural aspects such as eating, ruminating, drinking, walking and resting, and daily feed and water consumption were regularly measured. Rectal temperatures, pulse and respiration rates, udder and head temperatures differed between the three groups. Rectal, head and udder temperatures and respiration and pulse rates increased at 16.00 relative to 08.00, and at 00.00 had returned to the same level as at 08.00. TTS goats showed smaller increases in all physiological measurements at 16.00 than the other groups. TTS goats spent more time than OTS and Control goats eating (P=0.002), ruminating (P=0.032) and walking (P=0.021), but less time drinking (P=0.041) and lying (P=0.001). TTS goats consumed more concentrate feed (P=0.001) and alfalfa hay (P=0.024) than the other two groups, whereas Control goats consumed more water (P=0.003) than the other groups. Ultimately, the spraying had positive effects on yearling goats for alleviating heat stress and improving animal welfare.
Rhythmicity in Mice Selected for Extremes in Stress Reactivity: Behavioural, Endocrine and Sleep Changes Resembling Endophenotypes of Major Depression  [PDF]
Chadi Touma, Thomas Fenzl, J?rg Ruschel, Rupert Palme, Florian Holsboer, Mayumi Kimura, Rainer Landgraf
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004325
Abstract: Background Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including hyper- or hypo-activity of the stress hormone system, plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as major depression (MD). Further biological hallmarks of MD are disturbances in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Applying a translational approach, an animal model has recently been developed, focusing on the deviation in sensitivity to stressful encounters. This so-called ‘stress reactivity’ (SR) mouse model consists of three separate breeding lines selected for either high (HR), intermediate (IR), or low (LR) corticosterone increase in response to stressors. Methodology/Principle Findings In order to contribute to the validation of the SR mouse model, our study combined the analysis of behavioural and HPA axis rhythmicity with sleep-EEG recordings in the HR/IR/LR mouse lines. We found that hyper-responsiveness to stressors was associated with psychomotor alterations (increased locomotor activity and exploration towards the end of the resting period), resembling symptoms like restlessness, sleep continuity disturbances and early awakenings that are commonly observed in melancholic depression. Additionally, HR mice also showed neuroendocrine abnormalities similar to symptoms of MD patients such as reduced amplitude of the circadian glucocorticoid rhythm and elevated trough levels. The sleep-EEG analyses, furthermore, revealed changes in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep as well as slow wave activity, indicative of reduced sleep efficacy and REM sleep disinhibition in HR mice. Conclusion/Significance Thus, we could show that by selectively breeding mice for extremes in stress reactivity, clinically relevant endophenotypes of MD can be modelled. Given the importance of rhythmicity and sleep disturbances as biomarkers of MD, both animal and clinical studies on the interaction of behavioural, neuroendocrine and sleep parameters may reveal molecular pathways that ultimately lead to the discovery of new targets for antidepressant drugs tailored to match specific pathologies within MD.
Doralice Pereira Falc?o,Maico Henrique Barbosa Santos,Leopoldo Mayer Freitas Neto,Jairo Pereira Neves
Ciência Animal Brasileira , 2008,
Abstract: Objetivou-se estudar os efeitos da administra o da PGF2α sobre o período de anestro pós-parto de oitenta cabras, em aleitamento contínuo ou controlado, criadas em sistema semi-extensivo com acesso à água e sal mineral ad libitum. As fêmeas, com idade entre dois e seis anos, foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em três grupos experimentais (GI, GII, GIII). As do GI (n = 30) receberam, na musculatura vulvar, 250μg de PGF2α no 6o e 12o dias após o parto. As do GII (n = 30) foram tratadas, pela mesma via e com a mesma dose de PGF2α, no 6o, 7o, 8o, 9o e 10o dias do pós-parto, e as do GIII (n = 20) serviram como controle. Realizou-se a detec o do estro por rufi o com auxílio de pessoal habilitado e efetuaram-se as coberturas com reprodutores de fertilidade comprovada. Analisaram-se os dados através da ANOVA e do cálculo do erro-padr o da diferen a entre propor es. N o se verificou diferen a (P > 0,05) das porcentagens de estro entre os três grupos experimentais; todavia, a dura o média do anestro pós-parto foi significativamente reduzida (P < 0,05) nos animais tratados com PGF2α. Houve redu o significativa (P < 0,05) do anestro pós-parto das fêmeas em aleitamento controlado. N o se registrou diferen a (P > 0,05) nas porcentagens de prenhez entre os diferentes grupos. Os dados obtidos permitem concluir que a administra o da PGF2α no início do puerpério é eficiente para reduzir o período de anestro pós-parto, especialmente nas fêmeas em aleitamento controlado; contudo, n o exerce influência sobre a fertilidade de cabras SRD com aptid o para produ o de carne. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Caprino, estro, prostaglandina, puerpério. This work aimed to study the effect of PGF2α administration on anestrous post-partum period in 80 goats, with continuos or controlled suckled, rised in semi-extensive system with water and mineral salt ad libitum. The females, with age between two and six years, were randomly distributed in three groups (GI, GII, GIII). The females of GI (n = 30) received 250μg of PGF2α in vulvar muscle on days 6th and 12th after delivery. The females of GII (n = 30) received the same treatment of Group I, but every day from days 6th to 10th after delivery. The GIII (n = 20) was the control group. The estrous detection was made by using teasers and the mating with bucks with confirmed fertility. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and by analysis of standard errors of difference among proportions. Difference in the occurrence of estrous among the three experimental groups was not observed (P > 0.05), however the average time of post partum anestrous was sig
Endocrine Disruptors  [cached]
Ediz Ye?ilkaya
Güncel Pediatri , 2008,
Abstract: Endocrine disruptors are of special interest because they mimic, block, or in some way alter the activity of endogenous chemicals that are synthesized by the endocrine system. Besides many other organs, they especially affect the urinary system and the thyroid glands. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are typically identified as compounds that can interact with oestrogen or androgen receptors and thus act as agonists or antagonists of endogenous hormones. During the last decade, numerous studies have been published, reporting an increase in reproductive organ anomalies, as well as in testicular cancer, and a decline in the relative number of male births, and in semen quality. In this review, the effects of endocrine distruptors on the reproductive health are discussed in the light of the recent literature. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 76-82)
Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals
Carere,Claudio; Costantini,David; Sorace,Alberto; Santucci,Daniela; Alleva,Enrico;
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità , 2010, DOI: 10.4415/ANN_10_01_10
Abstract: exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) is a widespread phenomenon in nature. although the mechanisms of action of edcs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ed) at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic edc exposure have been overlooked. birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. in this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to edcs. we provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ed; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.
Effects of Artificial Lighting on Fattening and Behaviour of Goats
Mahmut Keskin,Osman Bizer,Sabri Gul,Ahmet Sahin
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of artificial lighting (Al) on fattening performance and feeding behaviour of Shami (Demanascus) young male goats in comparison to naturally lightened male young goats. Sixtgeen young male goats fed a diet containing 2500 Kcal metabolic energy (ME) and 160 g crude protein (CP) kg-1 (on fresh matter basis) were randomly (8 goats per group) distributed into two groups (control, AL). Al animal sere subjected to the additional lighting regime during dark period of day (from 19:00 to 07:00) with 2 lamps having 100 watt capacity. Goats were weighed with 14-d time interval for 70 days without any food and water deprivationj to monitor their live weight gain. Behavioural observations (eating, ruminating, resting and others-defecation, urinating, drinking, walking, standing, play, etc.) were recorded once a week on Tuesdays at 19:00, 21:00, 23:00, 05:00 and 07:00. Daily food intake, daily gain and feed conversion ratio (g gain: g feed) were 1646 g vs 1694 g; 200 g vs 207 g and 8.65 vs 9.25 in control and Al groups (P>0.05). Also, behavioural observation data showed that control animals activated more for resting (49.3%, vs 41.1%) than Al animals (P>0.05), but this was not statistically significant. However, Al goats eating behaviour was higher than control animals (28.2% vs 19.5%) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the artificial lighting in goats has no impact on fattening parameters. This could be related to their digestive anatomical and physiological characteristics.
Effect of goat production systems on meat quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content in suckling kids  [cached]
A. Caputi Jambrenghi,M. A. Colonna,F. Giannico,F. Giannico
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.612
Abstract: The effect of goat production systems was evaluated on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat obtained from suckling kids. Twenty male Ionica suckling kids fed only on maternal milk were subdivided into two groups of 10 subjects each according to their dams’ feeding treatment: kids in Group I were raised under dams reared by an intensive production system, while those of Group E were raised under dams grazing on pasture. Kids were slaughtered when 45 days old. The goat production system had no effect on kids’ growth rates, slaughtering yield and on the percentages of lean, fat and bone of the lumbar region and pelvic limb cuts. The pH value of the Longissimus lumborum (Ll) muscle 45 min after slaughter was higher in Group I (6.73 vs 6.54; P<0.05). Meat colour of Group E kids was lighter (50.63 vs 48.86) and showed greater (P<0.05) yellowness (13.42 vs 11.93) and Chroma values (14.92 vs 13.45). Cooking loss was higher in Group E (31.51 vs 26.98%; P<0.05), but meat tenderness of the Ll muscle was better (peak force of 2.86 vs 3.58 kg/cm2; P<0.05). Meat chemical composition did not differ between the two groups for either raw or cooked samples. On the whole, suckling kids raised under grazing goats showed a higher total CLA concentration in both raw (2.57 vs 2.25% on total fatty acids) and cooked meat (1.85 vs 1.44%), although the differences were not significant.
Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats
Agostino Sevi,Donato Casamassima,Giuseppe Pulina,Antonio Pazzona
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s1.81
Abstract: Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking procedures and improper milking technical parameters on welfare and udder health of sheep and goats are also discussed. Finally, some practices aimed at minimizing emotional and nutritional stresses of lambs and kids after early separation from the mother, before the transition to artificial rearing, and at weaning time are described.
Effect of Piroxicam and/or Ascorbic Acid on Postoperative Pain in Orchidectomised Goats  [PDF]
Richard Oluchukwu Okafor,Bolanle Dupe Remi-Adewunmi,Samuel Tanko Fadason
Journal of Animals , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/923170
Abstract: The study evaluates effects of varied doses of ascorbic acid and piroxicam on behavioural signs of pain in orchidectomised Savannah Brown goats during their postsurgical pain management. The goats were divided into 6 groups of 3 goats each. Orchidectomy was performed on all animals under sedation with xylazine and linear infiltration with lignocaine. After surgery, varied doses of piroxicam (IM) and ascorbic acid (IV) were administered to the goats: Group A = piroxicam, 5?mg/kg + ascorbic acid, 100?mg/kg; Group B = piroxicam, 5?mg/kg + ascorbic acid, 200?mg/kg; Group C = piroxicam, 10?mg/kg + ascorbic acid, 100?mg/kg; Group D = piroxicam, 5?mg/kg; Group E: ascorbic acid, 100?mg/kg together with antibiotics, procaine penicillin, 20,000?IU/kg + streptomycin, 10?mg/kg (IM); and Group F (control) received only the antibiotics. After surgery, pain intensity was determined in each goat by numerical rating scale. Vocalisation, teeth grinding, rapid and shallow breathing, tail wagging, occasionally bleating, neck extension, and dorsal lip curling were recorded at varying degrees across the experimental groups. The goats in the control group showed the highest degree of behavioural signs of pain. It is concluded that treatment with a combination of piroxicam and ascorbic acid ameliorated pain more than either of the agents in orchidectomised Savannah Brown goats. 1. Introduction Pain control for routine management procedures is considered one of the most important welfare priorities in livestock production today [1]. Animals in pain reduce their overall level of activity following surgery [2]. Pain associated with various conditions and procedures in animals may be estimated [3]. Pain assessment in animals may be done by one of three approaches: measurements of general body functioning, such as food and water intake and live-weight gain; physiological responses such as plasma cortisol concentrations; and behaviours such as vocalisations [4]. Morton and Griffiths [5] proposed that the study of behavioural patterns constitutes a substantial part of pain assessment and they attempted to define species-specific signs of behaviour indicating pain. Evaluation of behavioural signs has proven to be reliable indicators of pain [6]. Behavioural responses used for pain assessment in goats include: vocalisation, teeth grinding, rapid and shallow breathing [7], standing and lying repeatedly, tail wagging, occasionally bleating, displaying neck extension, dorsal lip curling, kicking, rolling, and hyperventilation [8]. Numerical rating scale (NRS) is used to rate pain
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