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Impact of Three Cooking Methods (Steaming, Roasting on Charcoal and Frying) on the -Carotene and Vitamin C Contents of Plantain and Sweet Potato  [PDF]
Gouado Inocent,Demasse Mawamba Adelaide,Etame Loe Gisele,Meyimgo Ouambo Ruphine Solange
American Journal of Food Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This study aimed at determining the best cooking method which preserves the -carotene and vitamin C in plantain; variety Big Ebanga (unripe and ripe) and sweet potato, varieties TIb1 (dark yellow flesh) and 1112 (yellow flesh). These nutrients were analysed in raw, steamed, roasted and fried plantains and sweet potatoes. Fried plantain and sweet potato were obtained by frying 2 mm thickness slices in boiling refined palm oil bath at 170C during 5 min. Steaming and roasting procedures were similar to those of Cameroonians households. The results obtained showed that in raw plantain, vitamin C contents were 41.43 and 45 mg/100 g Dry Matter (DM) in ripe and unripe plantain, respectively. These contents were 70.64 and 77.66 mg/100 g DM in varieties 1112 and TIb1 of sweet potato. -carotene contents were 1135.60, 829.66, 577.01 and 241.66 g/100 g DM in unripe and ripe plantains; varieties TIb1 and 1112 of sweet potatoes respectively. Total carbohydrates were 74.91 g/100 g DM in unripe and ripe plantain, 72.72 and 76.39 g/100 g DM in varieties TIb1 and 1112 of sweet potato, respectively. These contents varied significantly (p<0.05) with the cooking methods. Significant losses (p<0.05) of -carotene and vitamin C were observed in all processing techniques studied. Losses of -carotene were higher after frying and vitamin C losses were smaller after frying, but higher after roasting. Significant losses of total carbohydrate were also observed after steaming and frying. On the contrary, total lipids content were significantly (p<0.05) higher after frying but did not vary with roasting or steaming. Steaming was then the best cooking method which preserves the above nutrients contents in plantain; variety Big Ebanga and sweet potato; variety TIb1 and 1112.
Ecophysiological mechanism of photoperiod affecting phenological period and spike differentiation in oat (Avena nuda L.)

ZHAO Baoping,ZHANG N,REN Changzhong,LIU Jinghui,MO Fei,MA Baoluo,
,张娜,任长忠,刘景辉,莫非,Ma Baoluo

生态学报 , 2011,
Abstract: A controlled pot culture experiment was conducted to determine the influence of different photoperiods on the phenological progression, spike differentiation and development of oat varieties differing in maturity. Three varieties (Bayou3, representing a late maturity variety, Baiyan8 representing an early maturing variety and Baiyan2 representing an intermediate maturating variety) were treated with 8, 12, and 16 h photoperiods, in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Phenological traits and apical development were monitored at weekly intervals. At the jointing, booting, heading and grain-filling stages, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and relative cell membrane conductivity (REC) were determined after destructive leaf sampling. Our results showed that the late maturing Bayou3 was sensitive to photoperiod and was unable to complete spike differentiation and reach heading under 8 h photoperiod. Variety Baiyan8, on the other hand was not sensitive to changes in photoperiod. All varieties took longer to reach specific phenological stages and spike differentiation with the 8 h photoperiod. The SOD and POD activities were greater for Baiyan8 than for Bayou3 and Baiyan2. In contrast, Baiyan8 had lower MDA content and lower REC than the other two varieties. MDA content and REC were correlated with photoperiod. Our data indicate that the earliness per se of oat was related with photoperiod insensitivity, and there was also a relationship between foliar antioxidant enzyme activity and the response of varieties to photoperiod.
Energy Analysis of Baby Boiler for Steaming of Raw Cashew Nut Seeds  [PDF]
Atul Mohod,Y. P. Khandetod,S. H. Sengar,H. Y. Shrirame
ISRN Renewable Energy , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/476702
Abstract: The steaming of raw cashew seeds prior to shelling is adopted widely in small-scale cashew nut processing mills with the help of baby boiler. The wide variations in energy intensity of these mills reveal the scope for energy conservation. The baby boiler coupled with cooker commonly used for steaming of raw seeds was evaluated. The variation in steam pressure, temperature and operating time with respect to fuel was observed along with thermal efficiency of a boiler. The energy intensity to produce the steam using different fuel sources determined. The study revealed that the thermal efficiency of boiler using electricity as a fuel was higher (69.31%) as compared to 4.66% (Wood) and 4.47% (Cashew nut shell). It was observed that, the energy consumed per kg of cashew nut steaming using electricity (248.99?kJ/kg) was minimum followed by wood (3829.96?kJ/kg) and cashew nut shell (3835.64?kJ/kg). The variation of energy consumption for cashew nut steaming revealed the scope for energy conservation in biomass combustion system. The improvement in the biomass combustion efficiency for steam generation could results in less fuel consumption and shorter period. 1. Introduction In the world scenario, India occupies a premier position contributing to about 43 per cent of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) production [1]. Maharashtra has 164000?ha of area under cashew cultivation with average production of 1,97,000 tons of cashew nuts and attaining productivity of 1500?kg/ha [2]. India processed raw cashew nut seeds through 3650 cashew processing mills scattered in many states of country, which increased rapidly from 170 in 1959 to over 3650 in year 2008 providing employment to over 0.5 million people of which 95 percent are women. Maharashtra state has total 2200 cashew processing units out of which 1850 are small cottage mills mainly located in Konkan region (70°17′–74°31′E longitude and 15°37′–20°20′N latitude) of Maharashtra with 1, 31, 288?ha land area under cultivation producing 1, 92, 600 tons of raw cashew per annum [3]. Various processes involved in cashew nut processing are cleaning, drying, roasting or steaming, shelling and cutting, drying of kernels, peeling, grading, and packaging. Roasting method involves application of heat to the nut, which releases the nut shell liquid and makes the shell brittle which facilitates the extraction of the kernel when breaking the shell open [2]. The steaming of raw cashew seeds prior to shelling is adopted widely in small-scale cashew nut processing mills. The steaming of raw cashew seeds is carried out by
Colour Homogenisation of Hardwood Species by Steaming
TOLVAJ, László,MOLNáR, Sándor
Acta Silvatica & Lignaria Hungarica , 2006,
Abstract: For colour homogenisation three hardwood species, black locust (Robinia pseudoacaciaL.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) were investigated. Steaming wasapplied to change the colour. Steaming parameters (steaming time and temperature) were varied tofind the optimum of treatment. The results are given in the CIE L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinate system.Black locust wood was most sensitive to the steaming temperature. With rising temperature, the colourchange was faster and less time was needed for homogenisation. The behaviour of the other two woodspecies was different from black locust but similar to each other. Below 95°C homogenisation wasinsensible to temperature and within one day the colour change stopped. Above 95°C the colourchange was continuous but without further colour homogenisation. The optimum homogenisation timewas found about 12 hours at 80-95°C temperature range and 6 hours at 110°C for Turkey oak, and18 hours at any temperature for beech.
Scientific Annals of Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi. New Series, Section 2. Vegetal Biology , 2004,
Abstract: The paper presents chorological and ecological aspects concerning Nepeta nuda L. ssp. nuda species (syn. Nepeta pannonica L.) from Lamiaceae, Nepetoideae. Nepeta nuda is a common species widespread throughout Romania. The species is growing in hay field, meadows and glades, considered by different authors also as medicinal herb. Chorological data regarding N. nuda distribution are presented using bibliographical information, numerous data from different Herbaria of Romania and data collected directly from fieldwork. An important revision of voucher specimens was performed. A chorological map using U.T.M. system (Universal Transverse Mercator) is presented and commented in detail.
How do mineral fertilization and plant growth regulators affect yield and morphology of naked oat?
Robert Witkowicz
Communications in Biometry and Crop Science , 2010,
Abstract: Oat (Avena sativa var. nuda) is of an increasing interest in many parts of the world. This is why plant breeders have developed forms that are morphologically different from the current ones, such as naked, dwarf or with an increased 1000-grain-weight. In three experiments conducted at two sites, the influence of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers, spray application of urea and spray application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) Promalin (gibberellins + cytokinin) and Moddus (cimectacarps) on the yield and morphological traits of different oat forms were studied. At a better site, only genotype statistically influenced oat grain yield. At a poorer site, apart from genotype there were statistically significant responses to P and K fertilizers and to the application of Moddus (especially in the experiment with a dwarf cultivar). The internode and panicle length were modified mostly by cimectacarps, which shortened specific internodes, but not the panicle. The PGR Promalin had no significant effect on oat stem morphology.
Effect of steaming and gibberellic acid on growth, yield and nutritional quality of Calocybe indica  [cached]
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: An experiment was carried out on the effect of period of steaming for pasteurization of straw and gibberellic acid on the growth of milky mushroom (Calocybe indica). Direct steaming of straw for 1 hr and also for 30 min was practiced with application of gibberellic acid (GA3) at three different concentrations before spawning was done. It revealed that steaming and GA3 application increased the duration of mycelial run with reduction in yield of milky mushroom but it increased the protein content of fruit bodies as compared to control. The yield in the normal practice of boiling of straw for 1hr and sun drying was found better than steaming.
Growth of the crabgrass species Digitaria ciliaris and Digitaria nuda
Souza, R.C.;Dias, A.C.;Figueiredo, M.R.A.;Obara, F.E.B.;Christoffoleti, P.J;
Planta Daninha , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582012000200010
Abstract: the aim of this research paper was to compare the growth of d. ciliaris and d. nuda crabgrass species under non-competitive conditions. to this end, two experiments were conducted, one from march - july 2010 and the other from february - june 2011. the experimental design of both trials was completely randomized making a factorial (2 seasons x 2 species crabgrass x 12 evaluation periods) with four replications. assessments began at 15 days after sowing (das), and repeated weekly until 92 das. the variables evaluated were total dry matter (roots+leaves+stems), leaf area, leaf number and tiller. the results were submitted to analysis of variance and the absolute growth rate, relative growth rate and leaf area ratio were calculated using the means, which were adjusted regression models. the crabgrass species were significantly different in leaf area, leaf number, tiller number and dry matter per plant. d. ciliaris for all variables was statistically higher than d. nuda. regarding the speed at which the growth of the species occurred, the absolute growth rate and relative growth rate of d. ciliaris was also greater than d. nuda. in addition, d. ciliaris also had a lower leaf area ratio indicating greater efficiency in converting light energy into carbohydrates. it can be concluded that d. ciliaris has a higher growth rate in conditions where there is no limitation of nutrients and water availability in relation to d. nuda, mainly due to d. ciliaris have greater leaf area, number of leaves and dry matter accumulation per plant.
Recovery of Copper from Copper Sulfide Concentrate by Sulfation Roasting  [PDF]
Yaming Zhao, Yanan Hou, Yuguo Cui, Hongwei Liang, Luanning Li
International Journal of Nonferrous Metallurgy (IJNM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijnm.2015.42002
Abstract: Sulfation roasting was studied to extract copper from the copper sulfide concentrate. Sodium sulfite was added as sulfation agent to the copper sulfide concentrate during roasting in this study. Sulfur removal rate at different roasting temperatures was investigated, and the effects of roasting temperature, roasting time, and the amount of sodium sulfite on copper extraction were studied. Copper extraction higher than 96% was achieved at optimum roasting conditions.
Study on the Quality of Broiler Carcasses Stored at Room Temperature After Steaming Treatments  [cached]
A Hantoro,Djoko Rahardjo,BS Santoso
Journal of Animal Production , 2005,
Abstract: This research is conducted to study the effect of steaming time before marketing on quality and storage time of broiler carcasses. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with factorial 3 x 4 was used. The first factor was steaming time, i.e. steaming at 80 C for 2 minutes, 4 minutes, and 6 minutes. The second factor was storage time at room temperature, i.e. initial condition, 4, 8, and 12 hours. The parameters observed were pH, water holding capacity, and total number of bacteria. Results showed that the interaction between steaming time and storage time had significant effect on pH, and total number of bacteria. Storage time had significant effect on water holding capacity of broiler carcasses. It can be concluded that steaming at 80 C before marketing significantly decreases total number of bacteria. Meanwhile, broiler carcasses stored for 8 hour at room temperature showed no significant decrease of carcass quality (pH, water holding capacity and total number of bacteria). (Animal Production 7(1): 1-5 (2005) Key words: Quality of broiler carcasses, steaming time, storage time, room temperature
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