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Color Glass Condensate and Glasma  [PDF]
F. Gelis
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X13300019
Abstract: We review the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, that describes the gluon content of a high energy hadron or nucleus, in the saturation regime. The emphasis is put on applications to high energy heavy ion collisions. After describing initial state factorization, we discuss the Glasma phase, that precedes the formation of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. We end this review with a presentation of recent developments in the study of the isotropization and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma.
Color Glass Condensate and Glasma  [PDF]
Francois Gelis
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.09.001
Abstract: In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.
The Ridge, the Glasma and Flow
McLerran, Larry
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: I discuss the ridge phenomena observed in heavy ion collisions at RHIC. I argue that the ridge may be due to flux tubes formed from the Color Glass Condensate in the early Glasma phase of matter produced in such collisions
From Glasma to Quark Gluon Plasma in heavy ion collisions  [PDF]
Raju Venugopalan
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/35/10/104003
Abstract: When two sheets of Color Glass Condensate collide in a high energy heavy ion collision, they form matter with very high energy densities called the Glasma. We describe how this matter is formed, its remarkable properties and its relevance for understanding thermalization of the Quark Gluon Plasma in heavy ion collisions. Long range rapidity correlations contained in the near side ridge measured in heavy ion collisions may allow one to directly infer the properties of the Glasma.
Introduction to the Physics of Saturation  [PDF]
Yuri V. Kovchegov
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.08.013
Abstract: We present a brief introduction to the physics of parton saturation/Color Glass Condensate (CGC).
Lectures on multi-particle production in the Glasma  [PDF]
Francois Gelis,Raju Venugopalan
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: In the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) effective field theory, colliding sheets of Colored Glass form a strongly interacting, non-equilibrium state called the Glasma. How Colored Glass shatters to form the Glasma, the properties of the Glasma, and how the Glasma thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma(QGP) are questions of central interest in understanding the properties of the strongly interacting matter produced in heavy ion collisions. We argue that these questions can be addressed in the framework of field theories with strong time dependent external sources. Albeit such field theories are non-perturbative for arbitrarily weak coupling, moments of the multiplicity distribution can be computed systematically in powers of the coupling constant. We demonstrate that the average multiplicity can be (straightforwardly) computed to leading order in the coupling and (remarkably) to next-to-leading order as well. We relate our formalism to results from previous 2+1 and 3+1 dimensional numerical simulations of the Glasma fields. The expanding Glasma is unstable; small fluctuations in the initial conditions grow exponentially with the square root of the proper time. Whether this explosive growth leads to early thermalization in heavy ion collisions requires at present a better understanding of these fluctuations on the light cone. In the final lecture, motivated by recent work of Bialas and Jezabek, we discuss the widely observed phenomenon of limiting fragmentation in the CGC framework.
Fluctuating Glasma initial conditions and flow in heavy ion collisions  [PDF]
Bjoern Schenke,Prithwish Tribedy,Raju Venugopalan
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.252301
Abstract: We compute initial conditions in heavy-ion collisions within the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework by combining the impact parameter dependent saturation model (IP-Sat) with the classical Yang-Mills description of initial Glasma fields. In addition to fluctuations of nucleon positions, this IP-Glasma description includes quantum fluctuations of color charges on the length-scale determined by the inverse nuclear saturation scale Q_s. The model naturally produces initial energy fluctuations that are described by a negative binomial distribution. The ratio of triangularity to eccentricity is close to that in a model tuned to reproduce experimental flow data. We compare transverse momentum spectra and v_(2,3,4)(p_T) of pions from different models of initial conditions using relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution.
Glasma flux tubes and the near side ridge phenomenon at RHIC  [PDF]
Adrian Dumitru,Francois Gelis,Larry McLerran,Raju Venugopalan
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.06.012
Abstract: We investigate the consequences of long range rapidity correlations in the Glasma. Particles produced locally in the transverse plane are correlated by approximately boost invariant flux tubes of longitudinal color electric and magnetic fields that are formed when two sheets of Colored Glass Condensate pass through one another, each acquiring a modified color charge density in the collision. We argue that such long range rapidity correlations persist during the evolution of the Quark Gluon Plasma formed later in the collision. When combined with transverse flow, these correlations reproduce many of the features of the recently observed ridge events in heavy ion collisions at RHIC.
The Glasma and the Hard Ridge  [PDF]
George Moschelli,Sean Gavin
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Correlation measurements indicate that excess two particle correlations extend over causally disconnected rapidity ranges. Although, this enhancement is broad in relative rapidity $\eta=\eta_1 - \eta_2$, it is focused in a narrow region in relative azimuthal angle $\phi=\phi_1 - \phi_2$. The resulting structure looks like a ridge centered at $\eta = \phi=0$. Similar ridge structures are observed in correlations of particles associated with a jet trigger (the hard ridge) and in correlations without a trigger (the soft ridge). The long range rapidity behavior requires that the correlation originates in the earliest stage of the collision, and probes properties of the production mechanism. Glasma initial conditions as predicted by the theory of Color Glass Condensate and provide a and early stage correlation that naturally extends far in rapidity. We have previously shown that the soft ridge is a consequence of particles forming from an initial Glasma phase that experience a later stage transverse flow. We extend this work to study the ridge dependence on the $p_t$ of the correlated pairs. We then determine the soft contribution to the hard ridge.
Eccentricity fluctuations from the Color Glass Condensate at RHIC and LHC  [PDF]
H. -J. Drescher,Y. Nara
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.76.041903
Abstract: In this brief note, we determine the fluctuations of the initial eccentricity in heavy-ion collisions caused by fluctuations of the nucleon configurations. This is done via a Monte-Carlo implementation of a Color Glass Condensate $k_t$-factorization approach. The eccentricity fluctuations are found to nearly saturate elliptic flow fluctuations measured recently at RHIC. Extrapolations to LHC energies are shown.
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