Abstract:
We establish that QED3 can possess a critical number of flavours, N_f^c, associated with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking if, and only if, the fermion wave function renormalisation and photon vacuum polarisation are homogeneous functions at infrared momenta when the fermion mass function vanishes. The Ward identity entails that the fermion-photon vertex possesses the same property and ensures a simple relationship between the homogeneity degrees of each of these functions. Simple models for the photon vacuum polarisation and fermion-photon vertex are used to illustrate these observations. The existence and value of N_f^c are contingent upon the precise form of the vertex but any discussion of gauge dependence is moot. We introduce an order parameter for confinement. Chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement are coincident owing to an abrupt change in the analytic properties of the fermion propagator when a nonzero scalar self-energy becomes insupportable.

Abstract:
In (2+1)-dimensional QED with a Chern-Simons term, we study dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry, using the Dyson--Schwinger equation for the fermions. There is a region in parameter space were dynamical chiral symmetry breaking occurs, just as in pure QED3 (without Chern--Simons term); outside this region, this chiral symmetry breaking solution does not exists. Our results, both numerically and analytically, show that the chiral phase transition is a discontinuous first-order transition.

Abstract:
We describe a first attempt to understand dynamical fermions within a Hamiltonian framework. As a testing ground we study compact QED3 which shares some important features of QCD4 such as confinement, glueballs, mesons, and chiral symmetry breaking. We discuss the methods used and show data for the chiral condensate.

Abstract:
the ambiguities associated with the lack of gauge invariance in the non-perturbative truncations of schwinger-dyson equations (sdes) are a challenging problem which has not yet been resolved in a decisive fashion. pursuing this aim, we study dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in quantum electrodynamics in three space-time dimensions (qed3). we investigate the gauge dependence of the chiral condensate both in the quenched and the unquenched versions of the theory and emphasize the importance of taking into account the gauge covariance properties of the fermion propagator as dictated by its landau-khalatnikov-fradkin transformation (lkft). we present numerical solutions of the sde of the fermion propagator which respect ward-green-takahashi identities (wgti) and lkft simultaneously. as a striking consequence, we obtain a practically gauge independent chiral condensate.

Abstract:
In the case of nonzero fermion mass, within a range of Ansatze for the full fermion-boson vertex, we show that Dyson-Schwinger equation for the fermion propagator in QED3 has two qualitatively distinct dynamical chiral symmetry breaking solutions. As the fermion mass increases and reaches to a critical value mc, one solution disappears, and the dependence of mc on the number of fermion flavors is also given.

Abstract:
We derive perturbative constraints on the transverse part of the fermion-boson vertex in massive QED3 through its one loop evaluation in an arbitrary covariant gauge. Written in a particular form, these constraints naturally lead us to the first non-perturbative construction of the vertex, which is in complete agreement with its one loop expansion in all momentum regimes. Without affecting its one-loop perturbative properties, we also construct an effective vertex in such a way that the unknown functions defining it have no dependence on the angle between the incoming and outgoing fermion momenta. Such a vertex should be useful for the numerical study of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, leading to more reliable results.

Abstract:
The problem of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) in multidimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED) is considered. It is shown that for six-dimensional QED the phenomenon of DSCB exists in ladder model for any coupling.

Abstract:
Low-energy theory of d-wave quasiparticles coupled to fluctuating vortex loops that describes the loss of phase coherence in a two dimensional d-wave superconductor at T=0 is derived. The theory has the form of 2+1 dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED3), and is proposed as an effective description of the T=0 superconductor-insulator transition in underdoped cuprates. The coupling constant ("charge") in this theory is proportional to the dual order parameter of the XY model, which is assumed to be describing the quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. The principal result is that the destruction of phase coherence in d-wave superconductors typically, and immediately, leads to antiferromagnetism. The transition can be understood in terms of the spontaneous breaking of an approximate "chiral" SU(2) symmetry, which may be discerned at low enough energies in the standard d-wave superconductor. The mechanism of the symmetry breaking is analogous to the dynamical mass generation in the QED3, with the "mass" here being proportional to staggered magnetization. Other insulating phases that break chiral symmetry include the translationally invariant "d+ip" and "d+is" insulators, and various one dimensional charge-density and spin-density waves. The theory offers an explanation for the rounded d-wave-like dispersion seen in ARPES experiments on Ca2CuO2Cl2 (F. Ronning et. al., Science 282, 2067 (1998)).

Abstract:
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is a nonperturbative phenomenon that may be studied using QCD's gap equation. Model-independent results can be obtained with a nonperturbative and symmetry preserving truncation. The gap equation yields the massive dressed-quark propagator, which has a spectral representation when considered as a function of the current-quark mass. This enables an explication of the connection between the infrared limit of the QCD Dirac operator's spectrum and the quark condensate appearing in the operator product expansion.

Abstract:
A model for strangelets at finite temperature is built, in which the quark masses are dynamically generated. The dynamical chiral symmetry breaking inside strangelets at finite temperature is investigated. It is found that the chiral symmetry is going to break spontaneously inside the strangelets at some finite temperature, and then the masses of strange quarks inside the strangelets increase as the temperature rises. The phenomenon that strange quark mass increases with temperature after the chiral symmetry breaks spontaneously is illustrated by some typical numerical examples.