Abstract:
With the LHC up and running, the focus of experimental and theoretical high energy physics will soon turn to an interpretation of LHC data in terms of the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking and the TeV scale. We present here a broad review of models for new TeV-scale physics and their LHC signatures. In addition, we discuss possible new physics signatures and describe how they can be linked to specific models of physics beyond the Standard Model. Finally, we illustrate how the LHC era could culminate in a detailed understanding of the underlying principles of TeV-scale physics.

Abstract:
Conventional SO(10) models involve more than one scale for a complete breaking of the GUT symmetry requiring further assumptions on the VEVs of the Higgs fields that enter in the breaking to achieve viable models. Recent works where the breaking can be accomplished at one scale are discussed. These include models with just a pair of $144+\bar{144}$ of Higgs fields. Further extensions of this idea utilizing $560+ \bar{560}$ of Higgs representations allow both the breaking at one scale, as well as accomplish a natural doublet-triplet splitting via the missing partner mechanism. More generally, we discuss the connection of high scale models to low energy physics in the context of supergravity grand unification. Here we discuss a natural solution to the little hierarchy problem and also discuss the implications of the LHC data for supersymmetry. It is shown that the LHC data implies that most of the parameter space of supergravity models consistent with the data lie on the Hyperbolic Branch of radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry and more specifically on the Focal Surface of the Hyperbolic Branch. A discussion is also given of the implications of recent LHC data on the Higgs boson mass for the discovery of supersymmetry and for the search for dark matter.

Abstract:
We discuss the prospects for setting limits on or discovering spin-1 $Z'$ bosons using early LHC data at 7 TeV. Our results are based on the narrow width approximation in which the leptonic Drell-Yan $Z'$ boson production cross-section only depends on the $Z'$ boson mass together with two parameters $c_u$ and $c_d$. We carefully discuss the experimental cuts that should be applied and tabulate the theoretical next-to-next-to-leading order corrections which must be included. Using these results the approach then provides a safe, convenient and unbiased way of comparing experiment to theoretical models which avoids any built-in model dependent assumptions. We apply the method to three classes of perturbative $Z'$ boson benchmark models: $E_6$ models, left-right symmetric models and sequential standard models. We generalise each class of model in terms of {mixing angles which continuously parametrize} linear combinations of pairs of generators and lead to distinctive orbits in the $c_u-c_d$ plane. We also apply this method to the strongly coupled four-site benchmark model in which two $Z'$ bosons are predicted. By comparing the experimental limits or discovery bands to the theoretical predictions on the $c_u$-$c_d$ plane, we show that the LHC at 7 TeV with integrated luminosity of 500 pb$^{-1}$ will greatly improve on current Tevatron mass limits for the benchmark models. If a $Z'$ is discovered our results show that measurement of the mass and cross-section will provide a powerful discriminator between the benchmark models using this approach.

Abstract:
The Standard Model of particle physics explains (almost) all observed non-gravitational microscopic phenomena but has many open theoretical questions. We are on the threshold of unraveling the mysteries of the Standard Model and discovering its extension. This could be achieved in the near future with the help of many experiments in particle physics and cosmology, the LHC in particular. Assuming that data confirming the existence of new physics beyond the Standard Model is obtained, one is left with the very important and challenging task of solving the "Inverse Problem", \emph{viz.} "How can one deduce the nature of the underlying (perhaps microscopic) theory from data?" This thesis explores this question in detail, and also proposes an approach to address the problem in a meaningful way which could prove crucial to the possible solution to this problem in the future. The proposed approach has three aspects - a) To systematically study classes of microscopic (string/$M$ theory) constructions to the extent that they could be connected to low energy physics (electroweak scale), b) To find patterns of experimental observables which are sensitive to the properties of the underlying theoretical constructions thereby allowing us to distinguish among different constructions, and c) To try to get insights about the qualitative features of the theoretical model from data in a bottom-up approach which complements the top-down approach and strengthens it as well. This thesis studies all the above aspects in detail. The methods used and results obtained in this thesis will hopefully be of great importance in solving the Inverse Problem.

Abstract:
In the first three years of running, the LHC has delivered a wealth of new data that is now being analysed. With over 20 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, both ATLAS and CMS have performed many searches for new physics that theorists are eager to test their model against. However, tuning the detector simulations, understanding the particular analysis details and interpreting the results can be a tedious task. CheckMATE (Check Models At Terascale Energies) is a program package which accepts simulated event files in many formats for any model. The program then determines whether the model is excluded or not at 95% C.L. by comparing to many recent experimental analyses. Furthermore the program can calculate confidence limits and provide detailed information about signal regions of interest. It is simple to use and the program structure allows for easy extensions to upcoming LHC results in the future. CheckMATE can be found at: http://checkmate.hepforge.org

Abstract:
High-energy collisions at the LHC are now starting. The new physics agenda of the LHC is reviewed, with emphasis on the hunt for the Higgs boson (or whatever replaces it) and supersymmetry. In particular, the prospects for discovering new physics in the 2010-2011 run are discussed.

Abstract:
The LHC brings nuclear collisions to the TeV scale for the first time and the first data show the qualitative differences of this new regime. The corresponding phase-space available encompasses completely uncharted regions of QCD in which high-density or high-temperature domains can be identified. Proton-nucleus runs are essential for a complete interpretation of the data and for the study of new regimes dominated by large occupation numbers in the hadronic wave function. I comment here the physics opportunities for p+Pb runs at the LHC and d+Au runs at RHIC and the corresponding needs in view of the new Pb+Pb data from the LHC.

Abstract:
The capabilities of the ATLAS and CMS detectors being prepared for the LHC are reviewed. Examples of physics signals accessible during early running and during mature high luminosity LHC operation are examined. The planning and options for the LHC and these detectors to increase the luminosity to 10^{35}cm^{-2}s^{-1} is presented. This upgrade, entitled the Super LHC (SLHC), would occur in the next decade. The resulting physics scope is discussed.

Abstract:
The determination of the primary energy and mass of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) generating extensive air-showers in the Earth's atmosphere, relies on the detailed modeling of hadronic multiparticle production at center-of-mass (c.m.) collision energies up to two orders of magnitude higher than those studied at particle colliders. The first Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data have extended by more than a factor of three the c.m. energies in which we have direct proton-proton measurements available to compare to hadronic models. In this work we compare LHC results on inclusive particle production at energies sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV to predictions of various hadronic Monte Carlo (MC) models used commonly in cosmic-ray (CR) physics (QGSJET, EPOS and SIBYLL). As a benchmark with a standard collider physics model we also show PYTHIA (and PHOJET) predictions with various parameter settings. While reasonable overall agreement is found for some of the MC, none of them reproduces consistently the sqrt(s) evolution of all the observables. We discuss implications of the new LHC data for the description of cosmic-ray interactions at the highest energies.

Abstract:
The ATLAS and CMS experiments will take first data soon. I consider here the prospects for new physics (excluding SUSY) with a few inverse fb of data. This means processes with signal cross sections of a few 100 fb or less, with clear and fairly simple signatures - precision comparison of data to Standard Model tails will take longer, needing more luminosity and very good understanding of detector calibrations, resolutions and trigger efficiencies. The approach I take here is signature rather than model based, but examples of models will be given.