Abstract:
Generalized vector form factors of the pion, related to the moments of the generalized parton distribution functions, are evaluated in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with the Pauli-Villars regularization. The lowest moments (the electromagnetic and the gravitational form factors) are compared to recent lattice data, with fair agreement. Predictions for higher-order moments are also made. Relevant features of the generalized form factors in the chiral quark models are highlighted and the role of the QCD evolution for the higher-order GFFs is stressed.

Abstract:
The transversity Generalized Parton Distributions (tGPDs) and related transversity form factors of the pion are evaluated in chiral quark models, both local (Nambu--Jona-Lasinio) and nonlocal, involving a momentum-dependent quark mass. The obtained tGPDs satisfy all a priori formal requirements, such as the proper support, normalization, and polynomiality. We evaluate generalized transversity form factors accessible from the recent lattice QCD calculations. These form factors, after the necessary QCD evolution, agree very well with the lattice data, confirming the fact that the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry governs the structure of the pion also in the case of the transversity observables.

Abstract:
Transition distribution amplitudes (TDAs) are non-perturbative quantities appearing in the description of certain exclusive processes, for instance hadron-anti-hadron annihilation HH → γ*γ or backward virtual Compton scattering. They are similar to generalized parton distributions (GPDs), except that the non-diagonality concerns not only the momenta, but also the physical states (they are defined in terms of hadron-photon matrix element of a non-local operator). For the case of hadronic states such as pions, there are two TDAs of interest: the vector and the axial one. They are straightforwardly related to the axial and vector form factors controlling weak pion decays π± → e±νγ. The value at zero momentum transfer of the vector form factor is fixed by the axial anomaly, while this is not the case for the axial one. Moreover, the vector form factor is related to the pion-photon transition form factor which was recently measured by Belle and BaBar giving contradictory results at high momentum transfers. We have studied pion-to-photon TDAs within the non-local chiral quark model using modified non-local currents satisfying Ward-Takahashi identities. We found that the value of the axial form factor at zero momentum transfer is shifted towards the experimental value due to the non-locality of the model (in the local quark models the values of both vector and axial form factors at zero momentum transfer are the same, what is not consistent with the data). We also calculate the pion-photon transition form factor and compare it with the data.

Abstract:
The nucleon form factors of the energy-momentum tensor are studied in the large-Nc limit in the framework of the chiral quark-soliton model for model parameters that simulate physical situations in which pions are heavy. This allows for a direct comparison to lattice QCD results.

Abstract:
We describe the chiral quark model evaluation of the transversity Generalized Parton Distributions (tGPDs) and related transversity form factors (tFFs) of the pion. The obtained tGPDs satisfy all necessary formal requirements, such as the proper support, normalization, and polynomiality. The lowest tFFs, after the necessary QCD evolution, compare favorably to the recent lattice QCD determination. Thus the transversity observables of the pion support once again the fact that the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry governs the structure of the Goldstone pion. The proper QCD evolution is crucial in these studies.

Abstract:
The structure of hadrons is described well by the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, which is a chiral effective quark theory of QCD. In this work we explore the electromagnetic structure of the pion and kaon using the three-flavor NJL model, including effects of confinement and a pion cloud at the quark level. In the calculation there is only one free parameter, which we take as the dressed light quark ($u$ and $d$) mass. In the regime where the dressed light quark mass is approximately $0.25\,$GeV, we find that the calculated values of the kaon decay constant, current quark masses, and quark condensates are consistent with experiment and QCD based analyses. We also investigate the dressed light quark mass dependence of the pion and kaon electromagnetic form factors, where comparison with empirical data and QCD predictions also favors a dressed light quark mass near $0.25\,$GeV.

Abstract:
We calculate pion vector and scalar form factors in two-flavor lattice QCD and study the chiral behavior of the vector and scalar radii _{V,S}. For a direct comparison with chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), chiral symmetry is exactly preserved by employing the overlap quark action. We utilize the all-to-all quark propagator in order to calculate the scalar form factor including the contributions of disconnected diagrams. A detailed comparison with ChPT reveals that two-loop contributions are important to describe the chiral behavior of the radii in our region of the pion mass M_\pi \gtrsim 290 MeV. From chiral extrapolation based on two-loop ChPT, we obtain _V = 0.409(23)(37) fm^2 and _S = 0.617(79)(66) fm^2, which are consistent with phenomenological analyses.

Abstract:
The quark-connected and the quark-disconnected Wick contractions contributing to the pion's scalar form factor are computed in the two and in the three flavour chiral effective theory at next-to-leading order. While the quark-disconnected contribution to the form factor itself turns out to be power-counting suppressed its contribution to the scalar radius is of the same order of magnitude as the one of the quark-connected contribution. This result underlines that neglecting quark-disconnected contributions in simulations of lattice QCD can cause significant systematic effects. The technique used to derive these predictions can be applied to a large class of observables relevant for QCD-phenomenology.

Abstract:
We examine the quark mass dependence of the pion vector form factor, particularly the curvature (mean quartic radius). We focus our study on the consequences of assuming that the coupling constant of the rho to pions is largely independent of the quark mass while the quark mass dependence of the rho--mass is given by recent lattice data. By employing the Omnes representation we can provide a very clean estimate for a certain combination of the curvature and the square radius, whose quark mass dependence could be determined from lattice computations. This study provides an independent access to the quark mass dependence of the rho-pi-pi coupling and in this way a non-trivial check of the systematics of chiral extrapolations. We also provide an improved value for the curvature for physical values for the quark masses, namely = 0.73 +- 0.09 fm^4 or equivalently c_V=4.00\pm 0.50 GeV^{-4}.

Abstract:
We study the interactions of an elementary pion with a nucleon made of constituent quarks and show that the enforcement of chiral symmetry requires the use of a two-body operator, whose form does not depend on the choice of the pion-quark coupling. The coordinate space NN effective potential in the pion exchange channel is given as a sum of terms involving two gradients, that operate on both the usual Yukawa function and the confining potential. We also consider an application to the case of quarks bound by a harmonic potential and show that corrections due to the symmetry are important.