Abstract:
First part of the paper is devoted to applying the confinement mechanism proposed earlier by the author to estimate the possible parameters of the confining SU(3)-gluonic field in neutral kaons. The estimates obtained are consistent with the widths of the electromagnetic decays $K^0,\bar{K}^0\to2\gamma$ too. The corresponding estimates of the gluon concentrations, electric and magnetic colour field strengths are also adduced for the mentioned field at the scales of the mesons under consideration. The second part of the paper takes into account the results obtained previously by the author to estimate the purely gluonic contribution to the masses of all the mesons of pseudoscalar nonet and also to consider a possible relation with a phenomenological string-like picture of confinement. Finally, the problem of masses in particle physics is shortly discussed within the framework of approach to the chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) proposed recently by the author.

Abstract:
The paper is devoted to applying the confinement mechanism proposed earlier by one of the authors to estimate the possible parameters of the confining SU(3)-gluonic field in vector $\phi$-meson. The estimates obtained are consistent with the leptonic widths of the given meson. The corresponding estimates of the gluon concentrations, electric and magnetic colour field strengths are also adduced for the mentioned field at the scales of the meson under consideration.

Abstract:
The behavior of kaons and pions in strange quark matter in weak equilibrium, is investigated within the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio [NJL] model. This work focuses a region of high densities where the behavior of mesons has not been explored in the framework of this model. It is found that above the density where strange valence quarks appear in the medium, $\rho = 3.8 \rho_0$, a change of behavior of different observables is observed indicating a tendency to the restoration of flavor symmetry. In particular, the splitting between charge multiplets, $K^+, K^-; K^0, {\bar K^0} {and} \pi^+, \pi^-$ decrease and the low energy modes with quantum numbers of $K^-, \bar K^0 {and} \pi^+$, which are excitations of the Fermi sea, are less relevant than for lower densities.

Abstract:
Measurements of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged pions and charged and neutral kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of high energy muons off transversely polarised protons are presented. The results were obtained using all the available COMPASS proton data, which were taken in the years 2007 and 2010. The Collins asymmetries exhibit in the valence region a non-zero signal for pions and there are hints of non-zero signal also for kaons. The Sivers asymmetries are found to be positive for positive pions and kaons and compatible with zero otherwise.

Abstract:
We present new sets of pion and kaon fragmentation functions obtained in NLO combined analyses of single-inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation, proton-proton collisions, and deep-inelastic lepton-proton scattering with either pions or kaons identified in the final state. At variance with all previous fits, the present analyses take into account data where hadrons of different electrical charge are identified, which allow to discriminate quark from anti-quark fragmentation functions without the need of non trivial flavor symmetry assumptions. The resulting sets are in good agreement with all data analyzed, which cover a much wider kinematical range than in previous fits. An extensive use of the Lagrange multiplier technique is made in order to assess the uncertainties in the extraction of the fragmentation functions and the synergy from the complementary data sets in our global analysis.

Abstract:
We calculate the Collins fragmentation function in the framework of a spectator model with pseudoscalar pion-quark coupling and a Gaussian form factor at the vertex. We determine the model parameters by fitting the unpolarized fragmentation function for pions and kaons. We show that the Collins function for the pions in this model is in reasonable agreement with recent parametrizations obtained by fits of the available data. In addition, we compute for the first time the Collins function for the kaons.

Abstract:
Different hadron transverse momentum spectra are calculated in a non-extensive statistical, quark-coalescence model. For the low-pT part a gluonic string contribution is conjectured, its length distribution and fractality are fitted to RHIC data.

Abstract:
We present new sets of fragmentation functions for charged pions and kaons, both at leading and next-to-leading order. They are fitted to TPC data taken at energy $\sqrt s=29$~GeV and describe excellently a wealth of other $e^+e^-$ data on charged-hadron production, ranging from $\sqrt s=5.2$~GeV way up to LEP~1 energy. They also agree with data on the production of neutral pions and kaons, if one makes the natural assumption that the respective fragmentation functions are related to the charged counterparts by SU(2) symmetry. We also list simple parameterizations of the $x$ and $Q^2$ dependence of our results, which may be implemented conveniently in applications.

Abstract:
In the internal shock model of gamma ray bursts ultrahigh energy muons, pions, neutrons and kaons are likely to be produced in the interactions of shock accelerated relativistic protons with low energy photons (KeV-MeV). These particles subsequently decay to high energy neutrinos/antineutrinos and other secondaries. In the high internal magnetic fields of gamma ray bursts, the ultrahigh energy charged particles ($\mu^+$, $\pi^+$, $K^+$) lose energy significantly due to synchrotron radiations before decaying into secondary high energy neutrinos and antineutrinos. The relativistic neutrons decay to high energy antineutrinos, protons and electrons. We have calculated the total neutrino flux (neutrino and antineutrino) considering the decay channels of ultrahigh energy muons, pions, neutrons and kaons. We have shown that the total neutrino flux generated in neutron decay can be higher than that produced in $\mu^+$ and $\pi^+$ decay. The charged kaons being heavier than pions, lose energy slowly and their secondary total neutrino flux is more than that from muons and pions at very high energy. Our detailed calculations on secondary particle production in $p\gamma$ interactions give the total neutrino fluxes and their flavour ratios expected on earth. Depending on the values of the parameters (luminosity, Lorentz factor, variability time, spectral indices and break energy in the photon spectrum) of a gamma ray burst the contributions to the total neutrino flux from the decay of different particles (muon, pion, neutron and kaon) may vary and they would also be reflected on the neutrino flavour ratios.

Abstract:
The measurements of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries of identified hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering of 160 GeV/c muons on a transversely polarised 6LiD target at COMPASS are presented. The results for charged pions and charged and neutral kaons correspond to all data available, which were collected from 2002 to 2004. For all final state particles both the Collins and Sivers asymmetries turn out to be small, compatible with zero within the statistical errors, in line with the previously published results for not identified charged hadrons, and with the expected cancellation between the u- and d-quark contributions.