Abstract:
The time dependent neutrino oscillation signals due to the passage of a shock wave through the supernovae are analyzed for the case of three active neutrinos and also for the case that there are two additional sterile neutrinos. It is shown that, even without flavour identification and energy measurement, detailed information about the masses and mixing angles of the neutrinos may be obtained with a detector with excellent time resolution such as IceCube. Such a signal would also give important information about the nature of the shock wave within the supernovae.

Abstract:
The effect of the shock propagation on neutrino oscillation in supernova is studied paying attention to evolution of average energy of $\nu_{e}$ and $\bar{\nu}_{e}$. We show that the effect appears as a decrease in average $\nu_{e}$ (in case of inverted mass hierarchy, $\bar{\nu}_{e}$) energy at stellar surface as the shock propagates. It is found that the effect is significant 2 seconds after bounce if $3 \times 10^{-5} < \sin^{2}{\theta_{13}} < 10^{-2}$.

Abstract:
We explore the effects of collective neutrino flavor oscillations due to neutrino-neutrino interactions on the neutrino heating behind a stalled core-collapse supernova shock. We carry out axisymmetric (2D) radiation-hydrodynamic core-collapse supernova simulations, tracking the first 400 ms of the post-core-bounce evolution in 11.2 solar mass and 15 solar mass progenitor stars. Using inputs from these 2D simulations, we perform neutrino flavor oscillation calculations in multi-energy single-angle and multi-angle single-energy approximations. Our results show that flavor conversions do not set in until close to or outside the stalled shock, enhancing heating by not more than a few percent in the most optimistic case. Consequently, we conclude that the postbounce pre-explosion dynamics of standard core-collapse supernovae remains unaffected by neutrino oscillations. Multi-angle effects in regions of high electron density can further inhibit collective oscillations, strengthening our conclusion.

Abstract:
We develop a new semi-dynamical method to study shock revival by neutrino heating in core- collapse supernovae. Our new approach is an extension of the previous studies that employ spherically symmetric, steady, shocked accretion flows together with the light bulb approximation. The latter has been widely used in the supernova community for the phenomenological investigation of the criteria for successful supernova explosions. In the present approach, on the other hand, we get rid of the steady-state condition and take into account shock wave motions instead. We have in mind the scenario that not the critical luminosity but the critical fluctuation generated by hydrodynamical instabilities such as SASI and neutrino-driven convection in the post-shock region determines the onset of shock revival. After confirming that the new approach indeed captures the dynamics of revived shock wave qualitatively, we then apply the method to various initial conditions and find that there is a critical fluctuation for shock revival, which can be well fit by the following formula: f_crit ~ 0.8 * (M_in/1.4M_sun) * {1- (rsh/10^8cm)}, in which fcrit denotes the critical pressure fluctuation normalized by the unperturbed post-shock value. Min and rsh stand for the mass of the central compact object and the shock radius, respectively. The critical fluctuation decreases with the shock radius, whereas it increases with the mass of the central object. We discuss the possible implications of our results for 3D effects on shock revival, which is currently controversial in the supernova community.

Abstract:
(Abridged) We present results from dynamical models of core-collapse supernovae in one spatial dimension, employing a newly-developed Boltzmann neutrino radiation transport algorithm, coupled to Lagrangean hydrodynamics and a consistent high-density nuclear equation of state. We focus on shock breakout and its neutrino signature and follow the dynamical evolution of the cores of 11 M_sun, 15 M_sun, and 20 M_sun progenitors through collapse and the first 250 milliseconds after bounce. We examine the effects on the emergent neutrino spectra, light curves, and mix of species of artificial opacity changes, the number of energy groups, the weak magnetism/recoil corrections, nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, neutrino-electron scattering, and the compressibility of nuclear matter. Furthermore, we present the first high-resolution look at the angular distribution of the neutrino radiation field both in the semi-transparent regime and at large radii and explore the accuracy with which our tangent-ray method tracks the free propagation of a pulse of radiation in a near vacuum. Finally, we fold the emergent neutrino spectra with the efficiencies and detection processes for a selection of modern underground neutrino observatories and argue that the prompt electron-neutrino breakout burst from the next galactic supernova is in principle observable and usefully diagnostic of fundamental collapse/supernova behavior. Though we are not in this study focusing on the supernova mechanism per se, our simulations support the theoretical conclusion (already reached by others) that spherical (1D) supernovae do not explode when good physics and transport methods are employed.

Abstract:
We present 3D simulations of core-collapse supernovae from blast-wave initiation by the neutrino-driven mechanism to shock breakout from the stellar surface, considering two 15 Msun red supergiants (RSG) and two blue supergiants (BSG) of 15 Msun and 20 Msun. We demonstrate that the metal-rich ejecta in homologous expansion still carry fingerprints of asymmetries at the beginning of the explosion, but the final metal distribution is massively affected by the detailed progenitor structure. The most extended and fastest metal fingers and clumps are correlated with the biggest and fastest-rising plumes of neutrino-heated matter, because these plumes most effectively seed the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the C+O/He and He/H composition-shell interfaces after the passage of the SN shock. The extent of radial mixing, global asymmetry of the metal-rich ejecta, RT-induced fragmentation of initial plumes to smaller-scale fingers, and maximal Ni and minimal H velocities do not only depend on the initial asphericity and explosion energy (which determine the shock and initial Ni velocities) but also on the density profiles and widths of C+O core and He shell and on the density gradient at the He/H transition, which lead to unsteady shock propagation and the formation of reverse shocks. Both RSG explosions retain a great global metal asymmetry with pronounced clumpiness and substructure, deep penetration of Ni fingers into the H-envelope (with maximum velocities of 4000-5000 km/s for an explosion energy around 1.5 bethe) and efficient inward H-mixing. While the 15 Msun BSG shares these properties (maximum Ni speeds up to ~3500 km/s), the 20 Msun BSG develops a much more roundish geometry without pronounced metal fingers (maximum Ni velocities only ~2200 km/s) because of reverse-shock deceleration and insufficient time for strong RT growth and fragmentation at the He/H interface.

Abstract:
The mathematical model of periodically amplitude and phase modulated sinusoidal oscillation is studied, and its Fourier spectrum is given analytically. The Fourier spectrum of the model explains the main features of the frequency spectrum of RR Lyrae stars showing light curve modulation called the Blazhko effect: among others the appearance of multiplets, the rapid decrease of their amplitudes in increasing orders, the asymmetry of the amplitudes of the side frequency pairs, and the possibility of the occurrence of frequency doublets instead of triplets in the spectrum. The good agreement of the results of this mathematical model with observational facts favours those physical models of the Blazhko effect which explain the phenomenon as a modulation of the oscillation with the modulation frequency, f_m.

Abstract:
We investigate the effects of a mixing of active and sterile neutrinos on the ratios of supernova electron neutrino flux ($F_e$) and antineutrino flux ($F_{\bar e}$) to the total flux of the other neutrino and antineutrino flavours ($F_a$). We assume that the heaviest (in the normal hierarchy) Standard Model neutrino $\nu_3$ mixes with a sterile neutrino resulting in a pair of mass eigenstates with a small mass gap. Using the density matrix formalism we solve numerically the the evolution of neutrino states in the envelope of a supernova and determine the flux ratios $F_e/F_a$ and $F_{\bar{e}}/F_a$ as a function of the active-sterile mixing angle and for the experimentally allowed range of the standard active-active mixing angle $\theta_{13}$.

Abstract:
We perform some experimental simulations in spherical symmetry and axisymmetry to understand the post-shock-revival evolution of core-collapse supernovae. Assuming that the stalled shock wave is relaunched by neutrino heating and employing the so-called light bulb approximation, we induce shock revival by raising the neutrino luminosity by hand up to the critical value, which is also de- termined by dynamical simulations. A 15M_{sun} progenitor model is employed. We incorporate nuclear network calculations with a consistent equation of state in the simulations to account for the energy release by nuclear reactions and their feedback to hydrodynamics. Varying the shock-relaunch time rather arbitrarily, we investigate the ensuing long-term evolutions systematically, paying particular attention to the explosion energy and nucleosynthetic yields as a function of this relaunch time, or equivalently the accretion rate at shock revival. We study in detail how the diagnostic explosion energy approaches the asymptotic value and which physical processes contribute to the explosion energy in what proportions as well as their dependence on the relaunch time and the dimension of dynamics. We find that the contribution of nuclear reactions to the explosion energy is comparable to or greater than that of neutrino heating. In particular, recombinations are dominant over burnings in the contributions of nuclear reactions. Interestingly 1D models studied in this paper cannot produce the appropriate explosion energy and nickel mass simultaneously, overproducing nickels, whereas this problem is resolved in 2D models if the shock is relaunched at 300-400ms after bounce.

Abstract:
We conduct a series of numerical experiments into the nature of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics in the postbounce stalled-shock phase of core-collapse supernovae using 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a $27$-$M_\odot$ progenitor star with a neutrino leakage/heating scheme. We vary the strength of neutrino heating and find three cases of 3D dynamics: (1) neutrino-driven convection, (2) initially neutrino-driven convection and subsequent development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), (3) SASI dominated evolution. This confirms previous 3D results of Hanke et al. 2013, ApJ 770, 66 and Couch & Connor 2014, ApJ 785, 123. We carry out simulations with resolutions differing by up to a factor of $\sim$4 and demonstrate that low resolution is artificially favorable for explosion in the 3D convection-dominated case, since it decreases the efficiency of energy transport to small scales. Low resolution results in higher radial convective fluxes of energy and enthalpy, more fully buoyant mass, and stronger neutrino heating. In the SASI-dominated case, lower resolution damps SASI oscillations. In the convection-dominated case, a quasi-stationary angular kinetic energy spectrum $E(\ell)$ develops in the heating layer. Like other 3D studies, we find $E(\ell) \propto \ell^{-1}$ in the "inertial range," while theory and local simulations argue for $E(\ell) \propto \ell^{-5/3}$. We argue that current 3D simulations do not resolve the inertial range of turbulence and are affected by numerical viscosity up to the energy containing scale, creating a "bottleneck" that prevents an efficient turbulent cascade.