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A Distributed Algorithm for Virtual Backbone Construction with Cellular Structure in WSNs
Yu Xiang,Xiaojuan Liu,Yong Tang,Juncong Xiao,Jun Zhang
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/831427
Abstract: The normal node in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) often has no constant energy supply. To make efficient use of limited energy resources significant, a major way to save limited energy resources is constructing a smaller virtual backbone in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a distributed algorithm for virtual backbone construction with cellular structure in WSNs (DBC), which is an improvement of algorithm ABP (Duresi and Paruchuri, 2008) and minimize the distortion of constructed cellular structure by improving the way of calculating strategic points using 1-hop neighbor information. Our simulation results show that algorithm DBC has smaller virtual backbone than algorithm ABP, and the number of backbone nodes is much fewer than that one.
Toward Reliable Contention-aware Data Dissemination in Multi-hop Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks  [PDF]
Mubashir Husain Rehmani,Aline Carneiro Viana,Hicham Khalife,Serge Fdida
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: This paper introduces a new channel selection strategy for reliable contentionaware data dissemination in multi-hop cognitive radio network. The key challenge here is to select channels providing a good tradeoff between connectivity and contention. In other words, channels with good opportunities for communication due to (1) low primary radio nodes (PRs) activities, and (2) limited contention of cognitive ratio nodes (CRs) acceding that channel, have to be selected. Thus, by dynamically exploring residual resources on channels and by monitoring the number of CRs on a particular channel, SURF allows building a connected network with limited contention where reliable communication can take place. Through simulations, we study the performance of SURF when compared with three other related approaches. Simulation results confirm that our approach is effective in selecting the best channels for efficient and reliable multi-hop data dissemination.
Virtual Backbone Trees for Most Minimal Energy Consumption and Increasing Network Lifetime In WSNs  [PDF]
S. Saibharath,J. Aarthi
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Virtual backbone trees have been used for efficient communication between sink node and any other node in the deployed area. But all the proposed virtual backbone trees are not fully energy efficient and EVBTs have few flaws associated with them. In this paper two such virtual backbones are proposed. The motive behind the first algorithm, Most Minimal Energy Virtual Backbone Tree (MMEVBT), is to minimise the energy consumption when packets are transmitted between sink and a target sensor node. The energy consumption is most minimal and optimal and it is shown why it always has minimal energy consumption during any transfer of packet between every node with the sink node. For every node, route path with most minimal energy consumption is identified and a new tree node is elected only when a better minimal energy consumption route is identified for a node to communicate with the sink and vice versa. By moving sink periodically it is ensured the battery of the nodes near sink is not completely drained out. Another backbone construction algorithm is proposed which maximises the network lifetime by increasing the lifetime of all tree nodes. Simulations are done in NS2 to practically test the algorithms and the results are discussed in detail.
AM-DisCNT: Angular Multi-hop DIStance based Circular Network Transmission Protocol for WSNs  [PDF]
A. Rao,M. Akbar,N. Javaid,S. N. Mohammad,S. Sarfraz
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) contain limited energy resources, which are needed to transmit data to base station (BS). Routing protocols are designed to reduce the energy consumption. Clustering algorithms are best in this aspect. Such clustering algorithms increase the stability and lifetime of the network. However, every routing protocol is not suitable for heterogeneous environments. AM-DisCNT is proposed and evaluated as a new energy efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks. AM-DisCNT uses circular deployment for even consumption of energy in entire wireless sensor network. Cluster-head selection is on the basis of energy. Highest energy node becomes CH for that round. Energy is again compared in the next round to check the highest energy node of that round. The simulation results show that AM-DisCNT performs better than the existing heterogeneous protocols on the basis of network lifetime, throughput and stability of the system.
A Study of Backbone Based Approaches Use for Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey
Awadhesh Kumar,,Dr. Neeraj Tyagi,,Vinay Kumar,,Prabhat Singh
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: wireless sensor networks consist of sinks, events, and a large number of tiny, multifunctional and battery-powered sensor nodes. Thousands of the sensor nodes are randomly distributed over a vast field to self-organize a large-scale wireless sensor network. The sensor nodes monitor some events in surrounding environments, such as temperature, humidity, sound, vibration, presence of objects, and so on. In Wireless Sensor Networks, data dissemination to multiple mobile sinks consumes a lot of energy. Various grid-based data dissemination schemes have been proposed over the years to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks. Energy is one of the most important aspects for designing a data dissemination protocol for the applications such as battle-field monitoring, habitat monitoring etc.
M-GEAR: Gateway-Based Energy-Aware Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for WSNs  [PDF]
Q. Nadeem,M. B. Rasheed,N. Javaid,Z. A. Khan,Y. Maqsood,A. Din
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In this research work, we advise gateway based energy-efficient routing protocol (M-GEAR) for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We divide the sensor nodes into four logical regions on the basis of their location in the sensing field. We install Base Station (BS) out of the sensing area and a gateway node at the centre of the sensing area. If the distance of a sensor node from BS or gateway is less than predefined distance threshold, the node uses direct communication. We divide the rest of nodes into two equal regions whose distance is beyond the threshold distance. We select cluster heads (CHs)in each region which are independent of the other region. These CHs are selected on the basis of a probability. We compare performance of our protocol with LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy). Performance analysis and compared statistic results show that our proposed protocol perform well in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime.
Secure Hop-by-Hop Aggregation of End-to-End Concealed Data in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Esam Mlaih,Salah A. Aly
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: In-network data aggregation is an essential technique in mission critical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for achieving effective transmission and hence better power conservation. Common security protocols for aggregated WSNs are either hop-by-hop or end-to-end, each of which has its own encryption schemes considering different security primitives. End-to-end encrypted data aggregation protocols introduce maximum data secrecy with in-efficient data aggregation and more vulnerability to active attacks, while hop-by-hop data aggregation protocols introduce maximum data integrity with efficient data aggregation and more vulnerability to passive attacks. In this paper, we propose a secure aggregation protocol for aggregated WSNs deployed in hostile environments in which dual attack modes are present. Our proposed protocol is a blend of flexible data aggregation as in hop-by-hop protocols and optimal data confidentiality as in end-to-end protocols. Our protocol introduces an efficient O(1) heuristic for checking data integrity along with cost-effective heuristic-based divide and conquer attestation process which is $O(\ln{n})$ in average -O(n) in the worst scenario- for further verification of aggregated results.
Generality Challenges and Approaches in WSNs  [PDF]
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.21007
Abstract: Ignoring the generality in the design of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) applications limits their benefits. Furthermore, the possibilities of future extension and adaptation are also restricted. In this paper, several methods to enhance the generality in WSNs are explained. We have further evaluated the suitability of these methods in centralized and de-centralized management scenarios.
Novel Detection Scheme Based on IBE in WSNs Selective Forwarding Attacks

CHEN Dan-wei,HOU Nan,SUN Guo-zi,

计算机科学 , 2010,
Abstract: Since nodes in wireless sensor networks have limited capabilities,messages are generally transmitted between nodes through multi-hop.The multi-hop routing protocols provide a lot of convenience for the selective forwarding attack.As a result,a random checkpoint-based multi-hop acknowledge scheme to detect selective forwarding attacks in WSNs was brought out.At the same time,IBE and LEACH were adopted to improve the formal detecting scheme.Firstly,the overall framework of defense scheme and its working metho...
LEACH-CS:A Customizable Zone-spanned Multi-hop Routing Protocol in WSNs

GU Yue-yue,BAI Guang-wei,TAO Jin-jing,

计算机科学 , 2011,
Abstract: This paper, based on the existing LEACH routing algorithm, proposed a novel customizable zoncspanned multi-hop routing algorithm(LEACH-CS) for large-scale, energy limited wireless sensor networks. At first, we introduced the concept of "zone". On this basis,an additional cluster-head may be elected on demand during cluster-head selection process. The purpose is to optimize multi-hop routing with the constraint of multi-zone distance threshold. Our simulation experiment demonstrated that, compared with the existing LEACH protocol, the LEACH-CS could reduce the energy consumption of the cluster-heads significantly and extend the lifccycle of largcscale networks due to more uniformly distributed dead nodes.
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