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Blood biochemical profile of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) in captivity
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-79302001000200004
Abstract: blood samples were collected from 180 healthy specimens of the south american rattlesnake, crotalus durissus terrificus, in captivity. all animals were in good clinical condition. normal biochemical reference values were established for the following: total proteins, albumin, globulins, uric acid, creatinine, urea, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total lipids, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, got (ast), gpt (alt), and alkaline phosphatase (alp). samples were obtained by venipuncture of the ventral tail vein. values were compared with published data for boidae, elapidae, and viperidae.
Acute hepatotoxicity of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) venom in rats
Fran?a, RF;Vieira, RP;Ferrari, EF;Souza, RA;Osorio, RAL;Prianti-Jr, ACG;Hyslop, S;Zamuner, SR;Cogo, JC;Ribeiro, W;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992009000100007
Abstract: venom of the south american rattlesnake, crotalus durissus terrificus (cdt), presents myotoxic and neurotoxic outcomes, but reports on its effects on the liver are scarce. this study examined the hepatotoxicity resulting from cdt venom administration (100, 200 and 300 μg/kg) in male wistar rats. animals were studies at 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours after venom injection. the hepatotoxicity was assessed through serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ast), alanine aminotransferase (alt), alkaline phosphatase (ap), gamma glutamyl transferase (ggt), bilirrubin and also by histopathological evaluation. all the different concentrations of cdt venom resulted in increased levels of hepatic enzymes, when compared with the control group, except for the 100 μg/kg dose, which presented normal levels at 9 and 12 hours after venom administration. bilirrubin levels remained unchanged by cdt venom. histological analysis revealed endothelial damage, inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as sinusoidal and portal congestion. based on these observations, we may conclude that cdt venom causes dose- and time-dependent hepatic damage in rats, characterized by elevated hepatic enzyme levels and histological alterations.
The venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus)
Darin R Rokyta, Alan R Lemmon, Mark J Margres, Karalyn Aronow
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-312
Abstract: We describe the de novo assembly and analysis of the venom-gland transcriptome of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) based on 95,643,958 pairs of quality-filtered, 100-base-pair Illumina reads. We identified 123 unique, full-length toxin-coding sequences, which cluster into 78 groups with less than 1% nucleotide divergence, and 2,879 unique, full-length nontoxin coding sequences. The toxin sequences accounted for 35.4% of the total reads, and the nontoxin sequences for an additional 27.5%. The most highly expressed toxin was a small myotoxin related to crotamine, which accounted for 5.9% of the total reads. Snake-venom metalloproteinases accounted for the highest percentage of reads mapping to a toxin class (24.4%), followed by C-type lectins (22.2%) and serine proteinases (20.0%). The most diverse toxin classes were the C-type lectins (21 clusters), the snake-venom metalloproteinases (16 clusters), and the serine proteinases (14 clusters). The high-abundance nontoxin transcripts were predominantly those involved in protein folding and translation, consistent with the protein-secretory function of the tissue.We have provided the most complete characterization of the genes expressed in an active snake venom gland to date, producing insights into snakebite pathology and guidance for snakebite treatment for the largest rattlesnake species and arguably the most dangerous snake native to the United States of America, C. adamanteus. We have more than doubled the number of sequenced toxins for this species and created extensive genomic resources for snakes based entirely on de novo assembly of Illumina sequence data.
Genetic Basis for Variation of Metalloproteinase-Associated Biochemical Activity in Venom of the Mojave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus)  [PDF]
Ruben K. Dagda,Sardar Gasanov,Ysidro De La OIII,Eppie D. Rael,Carl S. Lieb
Biochemistry Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/251474
Abstract: The metalloproteinase composition and biochemical profiles of rattlesnake venom can be highly variable among rattlesnakes of the same species. We have previously shown that the neurotoxic properties of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) are associated with the presence of the Mojave toxin A subunit suggesting the existence of a genetic basis for rattlesnake venom composition. In this report, we hypothesized the existence of a genetic basis for intraspecies variation in metalloproteinase-associated biochemical properties of rattlesnake venom of the Mojave rattlesnake. To address this question, we PCR-amplified and compared the genomic DNA nucleotide sequences that code for the mature metalloproteinase domain of fourteen Mojave rattlesnakes captured from different geographical locations across the southwest region of the United States. In addition, the venoms from the same rattlesnakes were tested for their ability to hydrolyze fibrinogen, fibrin, casein, and hide powder azure and for induction of hemorrhage in mice. Overall, based on genomic sequencing and biochemical data, we classified Mojave rattlesnake venom into four distinct groups of metalloproteinases. These findings indicate that differences in nucleotide sequences encoding the mature proteinase domain and noncoding regions contribute to differences in venom metalloproteinase activities among rattlesnakes of the same species. 1. Introduction Rattlesnake venom metalloproteinases are zinc-dependent enzymes that hydrolyze fibrin and fibrinogen, inactivate complement proteins, and promote hemorrhage in vivo [1–4]. In addition, rattlesnake venom metalloproteinases show differences in substrate specificity, proteolytic activity, molecular weight, and composition of structural domains [5, 6]. Rattlesnake venom metalloproteinases are members of the Reprolysin superfamily of metalloproteinases [7]. These venom enzymes have been subcategorized into four classes (P-I to P-IV) based on the differences in structural domains, molecular weight, and biochemical properties [7, 8]. The P-I group of rattlesnake venom metalloproteinases contains a proteinase domain, whereas the P-II group contains an additional disintegrin-like domain. The P-III group has an additional disintegrin-like domain and cysteine-rich sequence, whereas the P-IV group has an additional lectin-like sequence [8]. The P-II and P-III classes of rattlesnake venom metalloproteinases are one- to twofold more potent at inducing hemorrhage than the P-I metalloproteinases [8–11]. This observation suggests that the
On the unsual hemorrhagic and necrotic activities caused by the rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus cumanensis) in a Venezuelan patient
Yoshida-Kanashiro,Erika; Navarrete,Luis F.; Rodríguez-Acosta,Alexis;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2003,
Abstract: the hemorrhagic, necrotic and edematous effects observed in a 23-year-old patient from lagunetica, los teques, state of miranda, venezuela, that was bitten by a commom venezuelan rattlesnake (crotalus durissus cumanensi), were described. the patient was treated with polyvalente serum, antibiotics and autograft. this finding allows to suggest that the poison of some venezuelan common rattlesnakes has a systemic effect on the skeletal muscle and on capillaries that generate edema, hemorragic phenomena and necrosis
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-79302002000100013
Abstract: this study reports the isolation of an ophidian paramyxovirus (opmv) in sputum of a captive rattlesnake (crotalus durissus terrificus) kept in a serpentarium located in botucatu, s?o paulo state, brazil. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and nested-pcr were performed for the identification of the isolated virus.
Shallow phylogeographic structure in the declining Mexican Lance-headed Rattlesnake, Crotalus polystictus (Serpentes: Viperidae)
Jesse M. Meik,Jeffrey W. Streicher,Estrella Moci?o-Deloya,Kirk Setser
Phyllomedusa : Journal of Herpetology , 2012,
Abstract: We investigated matrilineal relationships among populations of the Mexican lance-headed rattlesnake (Crotalus polystictus), a pitviper inhabiting high-elevation valleys of the densely populated southernMexican Plateau. A fragment of the mitochondrial ATPase 8 and 6 genes (589 base pairs) revealed comparatively low levels of genetic diversity, with few nucleotide polymorphisms across the portion of the geographic distribution sampled. The shallow intraspecificsequence divergence (1.0%) in C. polystictus ATPase 8 and 6 genes contrasts with deep divergences (~1.0–14.1%) observed within other montane rattlesnake lineages from the Mexican highlands, and is more typical of intraspecific variation observed in lowland rattlesnake species with similar distributional extents (e.g., C. tigris). We posit that the low genetic diversity in C. polystictus relative to that of other highland rattlesnakes may reflect ecological differences resulting in a different evolutionary response to Pleistocene climatic events. Our finding of apparently low genetic diversity in C. polystictus highlights the importance of conservation initiatives to protect high elevation grasslands in central Mexico.
The Evolutionary Implications of Hemipenial Morphology of Rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurent, 1768) (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae)  [PDF]
Marcovan Porto, Marco Antonio de Oliveira, Lorenzo Pissinatti, Renata Lopes Rodrigues, Julio Alejandro Rojas-Moscoso, José Carlos Cogo, Konradin Metze, Edson Antunes, César Nahoum, Fabíola Z. Mónica, Gilberto De Nucci
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066903
Abstract: Most amniotes vertebrates have an intromittent organ to deliver semen. The reptile Sphenodon and most birds lost the ancestral penis and developed a cloaca-cloaca mating. Known as hemipenises, the copulatory organ of Squamata shows unique features between the amniotes intromittent organ. They are the only paired intromittent organs across amniotes and are fully inverted and encapsulated in the tail when not in use. The histology and ultrastructure of the hemipenes of Crotalus durissus rattlesnake is described as the evolutionary implications of the main features discussed. The organization of hemipenis of Crotalus durissus terrificus in two concentric corpora cavernosa is similar to other Squamata but differ markedly from the organization of the penis found in crocodilians, testudinata, birds and mammals. Based on the available data, the penis of the ancestral amniotes was made of connective tissue and the incorporation of smooth muscle in the framework of the sinusoids occurred independently in mammals and Crotalus durissus. The propulsor action of the muscle retractor penis basalis was confirmed and therefore the named should be changed to musculus hemipenis propulsor.The retractor penis magnus found in Squamata has no homology to the retractor penis of mammals, although both are responsible for the retraction of the copulatory organ.
On the unsual hemorrhagic and necrotic activities caused by the rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus cumanensis) in a Venezuelan patient  [cached]
Erika Yoshida-Kanashiro,Luis F. Navarrete,Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2003,
Abstract: The hemorrhagic, necrotic and edematous effects observed in a 23-year-old patient from Lagunetica, Los Teques, state of Miranda, Venezuela, that was bitten by a commom Venezuelan rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus cumanensi), were described. The patient was treated with polyvalente serum, antibiotics and autograft. This finding allows to suggest that the poison of some Venezuelan common rattlesnakes has a systemic effect on the skeletal muscle and on capillaries that generate edema, hemorragic phenomena and necrosis Se describieron los efectos hemorrágico, necrótico y edematoso en un paciente de 23 a os, proveniente de Lagunetica, Los Teques, estado Miranda, Venezuela, ocasionados por la mordedura de una serpiente cascabel común venezolana (Crotalus durissus cumanensis). El paciente recibió tratamiento con suero polivalente, antibióticos y un autoinjerto. Este hallazgo, permite sugerir que el veneno de algunas serpientes cascabeles comunes en Venezuela, poseen un efecto sistémico sobre el músculo esquelético, y también efectos sobre capilares que generan edema, fenómenos hemorrágicos y necrosis.
American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) bite accidents in dogs in Argentina
Koscinczuk, P.;Acosta de Pérez, O.;Teibler, P.;Maru?ak, S.;Rosciani, A.S.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352000000200007
Abstract: the symptomatology and treatment of two dogs bitten by crotalus durissus terrificus are described. neurological signs were present few minutes after the accident with local anesthesia and ataxia of the affected limb and neurotoxic fascia. alanine aminotransferase (alt), aspartate aminotransferase (ast), creatinine kinase (ck), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and calcium were evaluated in an attempt to investigate muscle damage. renal failure was not observed but some alterations were detected in urine. urine density was low and the urinary sediment contained granular clumps and small round cells. muscle samples were obtained from both legs for histopathological study, showing edema and isolated necrotic fibers. both dogs received treatment within four hours after the accident by intravenous route. the antivenom was administered diluted in 250ml of ringer solution in a dose enough to inactivate more than 8mg of venom. dexamethasone was applied previously to the antivenom. clinical evolution was good and both patients were in good health condition on the second day after the accident.
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