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Constitutional Basis for the Civil Rights of Illegitimate Children
Bernadeta Resti Nurhayati
Pattimura Law Journal , 2017, DOI: -
Abstract: The specification of children into "legitimate children" and "illegitimate children" is well-known legally and socially. Illegitimate children suffer discrimination because of their status. In law, they only have their mothers and mother's family. Although there has been a Constitutional Court Decision No. 046 / PUU-VIII / 2010, but it does not automatically raise the dignity of illegitimate children. On the other hand Law No. 24 of 2014 has made the children who were not born from a marriage by religion lose their rights to be recognized. This paper was aimed to find the constitutional basis for the civil rights of illegitimate children as the basis to provide the civil rights for illegitimate children so that their civil rights are protected.The method used in this paper was normative.Based on the review, there is a constitutional basis to provide the protection to the civil rights of illegitimate children.
A New Species of Bambusoideae from Guizhou
贵州竹亚科一新种

Yang Ya-ling,Hsueh Chi-ju,
杨雅玲
,薛纪如

中国科学院研究生院学报 , 1993,
Abstract: One new species of the genus lndocalamus (Bambusoideae) is describedfrom China . It is lndocalamus chishuiensis Y. L. Yang et Hsueh.
On Enriching the Levin-Wen model with Symmetry  [PDF]
Liang Chang,Meng Cheng,Shawn X. Cui,Yuting Hu,Wei Jin,Ramis Movassagh,Pieter Naaijkens,Zhenghan Wang,Amanda Young
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/48/12/12FT01
Abstract: Symmetry protected and symmetry enriched topological phases of matter are of great interest in condensed matter physics due to new materials such as topological insulators. The Levin-Wen model for spin/boson systems is an important rigorously solvable model for studying $2D$ topological phases. The input data for the Levin-Wen model is a unitary fusion category, but the same model also works for unitary multi-fusion categories. In this paper, we provide the details for this extension of the Levin-Wen model, and show that the extended Levin-Wen model is a natural playground for the theoretical study of symmetry protected and symmetry enriched topological phases of matter.
Some universal properties of Levin-Wen models  [PDF]
Liang Kong
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We review the key steps of the construction of Levin-Wen type of models on lattices with boundaries and defects of codimension 1,2,3 in a joint work with Alexei Kitaev. We emphasize some universal properties, such as boundary-bulk duality and duality-defect correspondence, shared by all these models. New results include a detailed analysis of the local properties of a boundary excitation and a conjecture on the functoriality of the monoidal center.
Origination of an X-Linked Testes Chimeric Gene by Illegitimate Recombination in Drosophila  [PDF]
J. Roman Arguello,Ying Chen,Shuang Yang,Wen Wang ,Manyuan Long
PLOS Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020077
Abstract: The formation of chimeric gene structures provides important routes by which novel proteins and functions are introduced into genomes. Signatures of these events have been identified in organisms from wide phylogenic distributions. However, the ability to characterize the early phases of these evolutionary processes has been difficult due to the ancient age of the genes or to the limitations of strictly computational approaches. While examples involving retrotransposition exist, our understanding of chimeric genes originating via illegitimate recombination is limited to speculations based on ancient genes or transfection experiments. Here we report a case of a young chimeric gene that has originated by illegitimate recombination in Drosophila. This gene was created within the last 2–3 million years, prior to the speciation of Drosophila simulans, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila mauritiana. The duplication, which involved the B?llchen gene on Chromosome 3R, was partial, removing substantial 3′ coding sequence. Subsequent to the duplication onto the X chromosome, intergenic sequence was recruited into the protein-coding region creating a chimeric peptide with ~ 33 new amino acid residues. In addition, a novel intron-containing 5′ UTR and novel 3′ UTR evolved. We further found that this new X-linked gene has evolved testes-specific expression. Following speciation of the D. simulans complex, this novel gene evolved lineage-specifically with evidence for positive selection acting along the D. simulans branch.
Origination of an X-linked testes chimeric gene by illegitimate recombination in Drosophila.  [cached]
Arguello J Roman,Chen Ying,Yang Shuang,Wang Wen
PLOS Genetics , 2006,
Abstract: The formation of chimeric gene structures provides important routes by which novel proteins and functions are introduced into genomes. Signatures of these events have been identified in organisms from wide phylogenic distributions. However, the ability to characterize the early phases of these evolutionary processes has been difficult due to the ancient age of the genes or to the limitations of strictly computational approaches. While examples involving retrotransposition exist, our understanding of chimeric genes originating via illegitimate recombination is limited to speculations based on ancient genes or transfection experiments. Here we report a case of a young chimeric gene that has originated by illegitimate recombination in Drosophila. This gene was created within the last 2-3 million years, prior to the speciation of Drosophila simulans, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila mauritiana. The duplication, which involved the B llchen gene on Chromosome 3R, was partial, removing substantial 3' coding sequence. Subsequent to the duplication onto the X chromosome, intergenic sequence was recruited into the protein-coding region creating a chimeric peptide with approximately 33 new amino acid residues. In addition, a novel intron-containing 5' UTR and novel 3' UTR evolved. We further found that this new X-linked gene has evolved testes-specific expression. Following speciation of the D. simulans complex, this novel gene evolved lineage-specifically with evidence for positive selection acting along the D. simulans branch.
ORFEL: super-fast detection of defamation and illegitimate promotion in online recommendation  [PDF]
Gabriel Gimenes,Jose F. Rodrigues Jr,Robson Cordeiro
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: What if a successful company starts to receive a torrent of low-valued (one or two stars) recommendations in its mobile apps from multiple users within a short (say one month) period? Is it legitimate evidence that the apps have lost quality, or an intentional plan (via lockstep behavior) to steal market share through defamation? In case of a systematic attack to one's reputation, it might not be possible to manually discern between legitimate and fraudulent interaction in the immense universe of possibilities of user-product recommendation. Previous works have focused on this issue, but none of them has considered the context, modeling, and scale that we work with in this paper. We propose one novel method named Online-Recommendation Fraud ExcLuder (\ORFEL) to detect defamation and/or illegitimate promotion of online products using vertex-centric asynchronous parallel processing of bipartite (users-products) graphs. With an innovative algorithm, our results demonstrate efficacy -- detecting over $95\%$ of potential attacks; and efficiency -- at least two orders of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art. Over our new methodology, we introduce three contributions: (1) a new algorithmic solution; (2) a scalable approach; and (3) a novel context and modeling of the problem, which now addresses both defamation and illegitimate promotion. Our work deals with relevant issues of the Web 2.0, potentially augmenting the credibility of online recommendation to prevent losses to both customers and vendors.
Analysis of illegitimate genomic integration mediated by zinc-finger nucleases: implications for specificity of targeted gene correction
Petter A Olsen, Monika Gelazauskaite, Markus Rand?l, Stefan Krauss
BMC Molecular Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-11-35
Abstract: A reporter cell line that contained consensus ZFN binding sites in an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene was used to measure ratios between HR and non-homologous integration of a plasmid template. Both in human cells (HEK 293) containing the consensus ZFN binding sites and in cells lacking the ZFN binding sites, a 3.5 fold increase in the level of illegitimate integration was observed upon ZFN expression. Since the reporter gene containing the consensus ZFN target sites was found to be intact in cells where illegitimate integration had occurred, increased rates of illegitimate integration most likely resulted from the formation of off-target genomic DSBs. Additionally, in a fraction of the ZFN treated cells the co-occurrence of both specific HR and illegitimate integration was observed. As a mean to minimize unspecific effects, cell cycle manipulation of the target cells by induction of a transient G2/M cell cycle arrest was shown to stimulate the activity of HR while having little effect on the levels of illegitimate integration, thus resulting in a nearly eight fold increase in the ratio between the two processes.The demonstration that ZFN expression, in addition to stimulating specific gene targeting by HR, leads to increased rates of illegitimate integration emphasizes the importance of careful characterization of ZFN treated cells. In order to reduce off-target events, reversible cell cycle arrest of the target cells in the G2/M phase is an efficient way for increasing the ratio between specific HR and illegitimate integration.Currently, gene targeting by homologous recombination (HR) is the standard method utilized for precise genome modification of mammalian cells. In this strategy the cellular DNA repair pathway, HR, mediates exchange of sequences between a given donor DNA sequence and a homologous genomic target sequence [1]. Although conventional gene targeting is very successful in some applications like in the creation of transgenic
Low Efficiency of Homology-Facilitated Illegitimate Recombination during Conjugation in Escherichia coli  [PDF]
Jihane Amarir-Bouhram, Mélodie Goin, Marie-Agnès Petit
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028876
Abstract: Homology-facilitated illegitimate recombination has been described in three naturally competent bacterial species. It permits integration of small linear DNA molecules into the chromosome by homologous recombination at one end of the linear DNA substrate, and illegitimate recombination at the other end. We report that homology-facilitated illegitimate recombination also occurs in Escherichia coli during conjugation with small non-replicative plasmids, but at a low frequency of 3×10?10 per recipient cell. The fate of linear DNA in E. coli is either RecBCD-dependent degradation, or circularisation by ligation, and integration into the chromosome by single crossing-over. We also report that the observed single crossing-overs are recA-dependent, but essentially recBCD, and recFOR independent. This suggests that other, still unknown, proteins may act as mediator for the loading of RecA on DNA during single crossing-over recombination in E. coli.
Quantum Circuits for Measuring Levin-Wen Operators  [PDF]
N. E. Bonesteel,D. P. DiVincenzo
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.165113
Abstract: We construct quantum circuits for measuring the commuting set of vertex and plaquette operators that appear in the Levin-Wen model for doubled Fibonacci anyons. Such measurements can be viewed as syndrome measurements for the quantum error-correcting code defined by the ground states of this model (the Fibonacci code). We quantify the complexity of these circuits with gate counts using different universal gate sets and find these measurements become significantly easier to perform if n-qubit Toffoli gates with n = 3,4 and 5 can be carried out directly. In addition to measurement circuits, we construct simplified quantum circuits requiring only a few qubits that can be used to verify that certain self-consistency conditions, including the pentagon equation, are satisfied by the Fibonacci code.
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