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Visual Reranking with Improved Image Graph  [PDF]
Ziqiong Liu,Shengjin Wang,Liang Zheng,Qi Tian
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: This paper introduces an improved reranking method for the Bag-of-Words (BoW) based image search. Built on [1], a directed image graph robust to outlier distraction is proposed. In our approach, the relevance among images is encoded in the image graph, based on which the initial rank list is refined. Moreover, we show that the rank-level feature fusion can be adopted in this reranking method as well. Taking advantage of the complementary nature of various features, the reranking performance is further enhanced. Particularly, we exploit the reranking method combining the BoW and color information. Experiments on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that ourmethod yields significant improvements and the reranking results are competitive to the state-of-the-art methods.
Image Search Reranking  [PDF]
V Rajakumar,Vipeen V Bopche
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The existing methods for image search reranking suffer from the unfaithfulness of the assumptions under which the text-based images search result. The resulting images contain more irrelevant images. Hence the re ranking concept arises to re rank the retrieved images based on the text around the image and data of data of image and visual feature of image. A number of methods are differentiated for this re-ranking. The high ranked images are used as noisy data and a k means algorithm for classification is learned to rectify the ranking further. We are study the affect ability of the cross validation method to this training data. The pre eminent originality of the overall method is in collecting text/metadata of image and visual features in order to achieve an automatic ranking of the images. Supervision is initiated to learn the model weights offline, previous to reranking process. While model learning needs manual labeling of the results for a some limited queries, the resulting model is query autonomous and therefore applicable to any other query .Examples are given for a selection of other classes like vehicles, animals and other classes.
Sparse Transfer Learning for Interactive Video Search Reranking  [PDF]
Xinmei Tian,Dacheng Tao,Yong Rui
Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1145/0000000.0000000
Abstract: Visual reranking is effective to improve the performance of the text-based video search. However, existing reranking algorithms can only achieve limited improvement because of the well-known semantic gap between low level visual features and high level semantic concepts. In this paper, we adopt interactive video search reranking to bridge the semantic gap by introducing user's labeling effort. We propose a novel dimension reduction tool, termed sparse transfer learning (STL), to effectively and efficiently encode user's labeling information. STL is particularly designed for interactive video search reranking. Technically, it a) considers the pair-wise discriminative information to maximally separate labeled query relevant samples from labeled query irrelevant ones, b) achieves a sparse representation for the subspace to encodes user's intention by applying the elastic net penalty, and c) propagates user's labeling information from labeled samples to unlabeled samples by using the data distribution knowledge. We conducted extensive experiments on the TRECVID 2005, 2006 and 2007 benchmark datasets and compared STL with popular dimension reduction algorithms. We report superior performance by using the proposed STL based interactive video search reranking.
Out of Many, One: Spelling Bees and the United States National Spelling Bee  [cached]
Rachel McArthur
The English Languages : History, Diaspora, Culture , 2011,
Abstract: The spelling bee is a paradigmatically American institution. The cultural practice of spelling bees emerged in the United States in a nexus of social, political, pedagogical and linguistic factors roughly linked to the emergence of American English as a unitary category tied to America’s political identity after the Revolutionary War. Representations of spelling bees and spelling matches in the nineteenth century reflect this linguistic identity in the process of negotiation. In the twentieth century, spelling bees became media events and the unofficial, community-oriented practice of spelling bees was officialised in the form of the Scripps National Spelling Bee. In popular culture, the National Bee is implicated in a specific version of American identity, in which hard work leads to material success. As such, its focus is less on reinforcing and consolidating orthographical norms than on the perceived social and pedagogical benefits of the difficulty of performing, and, more specifically, learning to perform, those norms.
Spelling Correction in Agglutinative Languages  [PDF]
Kemal Oflazer
Computer Science , 1994,
Abstract: This paper presents an approach to spelling correction in agglutinative languages that is based on two-level morphology and a dynamic programming based search algorithm. Spelling correction in agglutinative languages is significantly different than in languages like English. The concept of a word in such languages is much wider that the entries found in a dictionary, owing to {}~productive word formation by derivational and inflectional affixations. After an overview of certain issues and relevant mathematical preliminaries, we formally present the problem and our solution. We then present results from our experiments with spelling correction in Turkish, a Ural--Altaic agglutinative language. Our results indicate that we can find the intended correct word in 95\% of the cases and offer it as the first candidate in 74\% of the cases, when the edit distance is 1.
Multi-Document Summarization via Discriminative Summary Reranking  [PDF]
Xiaojun Wan,Ziqiang Cao,Furu Wei,Sujian Li,Ming Zhou
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Existing multi-document summarization systems usually rely on a specific summarization model (i.e., a summarization method with a specific parameter setting) to extract summaries for different document sets with different topics. However, according to our quantitative analysis, none of the existing summarization models can always produce high-quality summaries for different document sets, and even a summarization model with good overall performance may produce low-quality summaries for some document sets. On the contrary, a baseline summarization model may produce high-quality summaries for some document sets. Based on the above observations, we treat the summaries produced by different summarization models as candidate summaries, and then explore discriminative reranking techniques to identify high-quality summaries from the candidates for difference document sets. We propose to extract a set of candidate summaries for each document set based on an ILP framework, and then leverage Ranking SVM for summary reranking. Various useful features have been developed for the reranking process, including word-level features, sentence-level features and summary-level features. Evaluation results on the benchmark DUC datasets validate the efficacy and robustness of our proposed approach.
Invented spelling in the Greek context.
Tantaros, S.
L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature , 2007,
Abstract: This paper attempts to present an overview of studies that have been conducted in Greece during recent years on the subject of emergent literacy and, more precisely, on preschoolers’ acquisition of writing. Its aim is to present the studies focusing on the subject from an “invented spelling” perspective and to discuss the results obtained. Results seem to be in accordance with the results obtained by similar studies in other countries and in different languages, thus supporting the idea of the existence of a universal character to the ways preschool children conceptualise writing.
Lexical neighborhood effects in pseudoword spelling  [PDF]
Marie-Josèphe Tainturier,Marie-Line Bosse,Daniel J. Roberts,Sylviane Valdois,Brenda Rapp
Frontiers in Psychology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00862
Abstract: The general aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive processes that underpin skilled adult spelling. More specifically, it investigates the influence of lexical neighbors on pseudo-word spelling with the goal of providing a more detailed account of the interaction between lexical and sublexical sources of knowledge in spelling. In prior research examining this topic, adult participants typically heard lists composed of both words and pseudo-words and had to make a lexical decision to each stimulus before writing the pseudo-words. However, these priming paradigms are susceptible to strategic influence and may therefore not give a clear picture of the processes normally engaged in spelling unfamiliar words. In our two Experiments involving 71 French-speaking literate adults, only pseudo-words were presented which participants were simply requested to write to dictation using the first spelling that came to mind. Unbeknownst to participants, pseudo-words varied according to whether they did or did not have a phonological word neighbor. Results revealed that low-probability phoneme/grapheme mappings (e.g., /o/ -> aud in French) were used significantly more often in spelling pseudo-words with a close phonological lexical neighbor with that spelling (e.g., /krepo/ derived from “crapaud,” /krapo/) than in spelling pseudo-words with no close neighbors (e.g., /fr?po/). In addition, the strength of this lexical influence increased with the lexical frequency of the word neighbors as well as with their degree of phonetic overlap with the pseudo-word targets. These results indicate that information from lexical and sublexical processes is integrated in the course of spelling, and a specific theoretical account as to how such integration may occur is introduced.
A Case Based Reasoning Approach for Answer Reranking in Question Answering  [PDF]
Karl-Heinz Weis
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In this document I present an approach to answer validation and reranking for question answering (QA) systems. A cased-based reasoning (CBR) system judges answer candidates for questions from annotated answer candidates for earlier questions. The promise of this approach is that user feedback will result in improved answers of the QA system, due to the growing case base. In the paper, I present the adequate structuring of the case base and the appropriate selection of relevant similarity measures, in order to solve the answer validation problem. The structural case base is built from annotated MultiNet graphs, which provide representations for natural language expressions, and corresponding graph similarity measures. I cover a priori relations to experienced answer candidates for former questions. I compare the CBR System results to current approaches in an experiment integrating CBR into an existing framework for answer validation and reranking. This integration is achieved by adding CBR-related features to the input of a learned ranking model that determines the final answer ranking. In the experiments based on QA@CLEF questions, the best learned models make heavy use of CBR features. Observing the results with a continually growing case base, I present a positive effect of the size of the case base on the accuracy of the CBR subsystem.
Dyslexia in the Aspect of Malay Language Spelling  [PDF]
Wan Mohammad,Wan Muna Ruzanna,S. Vijayaletchumy,Adi Yasran Abd Aziz
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study was focusing on dyslexics who have problems with spellings from the aspects of learning bahasa Melayu. The purpose of the study was to see the errors made by the dyslexics according to the Levinson Theory 1994 especially from the angle of spelling errors. The study was conducted at Taman Maluri Secondary School, Cheras Kuala Lumpur. Interview and reading and spelling test were used in the study. The reading and spelling test was done by using the dyslexia exercise books and short stories as the instruments. This was done to determine the spelling errors listed by Levinson in his theory. The findings of the study said that dyslexics have difficulties in identifying phonemes. The exchanging of letters occurs very often during the spelling process. Among the letters that are often mixed-up by the students are ‘b-d’, ‘u-n’, ‘m-w’, ‘g-q’, ‘p-q’, and ‘b-p’. Dyslexics are gifted with many huge talents. Therefore, parents, teachers and society should give their best support to convince the dyslexics to continue striving for excellence in their life and study. Among the prominent dyslexics are Orlando Bloom, Jacky Chan, the Mc Dreamy, Patrick Dempsey, Whoopy Golberg, Albert Einstein, and Tom Cruise. For this study the researcher aims to see the correct techniques and process of the teaching and learning for these dyslexics.
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