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Eco-hydrological model and critical conditions of hydrology of the wetland of Erdos Larus Relictus Nature Reserve

Fang Wang,Lili Liang,Yinsun Zhang,Runhong Gao,

生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: Erdos Larus Relictus Nature Reserve is the only wetland of international importance to protect Larus Relictus in China. From the early part of this century, the impact of water use, vegetation construction and the climate of the catchment area increasing on the wetland of this Nature Reserve has brought about severe water shortage. Until now, no eco-hydrological model at home or abroad integrates the wetland ecological and hydrological processes. This paper considers the relationship between the food chains of the Larus Relictus and environmental elements, and establishes the eco-hydrological processes from Larus Relictus to damselfly + Chironomidae and the salinity and the area of Bojiang Lake. It also establishes a relationship among Larus Relictus breeding, the area of islands outcropped in the levels of the lake and hydrological season based on the relationship between Larus Relictus breeding and environmental elements. The eco-hydrological model is then constructed according to these relationships. In virtue of the constraints of the lake salinity, the suitable area of the lake is 9.01 km2, and 4.88 km2 for the smallest area. While in accordance with the area of islands outcropped needed for Larus Relictus breeding, the lake area is 11.02 km2 in breeding season corresponding to critical high level.
遗鸥舌头微观结构研究
Ultrastructural Study of the Tongue of Larus relictus
 [PDF]

刘利,张乐,孙艳,苗春林,张刚,刘晓光
- , 2017, DOI: 10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160276
Abstract: 中文摘要:采用光学显微镜及电子扫描显微镜对遗鸥 Larus relictus舌头微观结构进行研究。结果显示:遗鸥的舌头呈细长三角形,由舌尖、舌体、舌根3部分构成。舌尖分叉先端特化为角质的舌突起,舌尖表面有大量脱落的上皮细胞,细胞表面为指纹状;舌体表面光滑,上皮细胞为细长形,表面呈微嵴状;舌根表面有少量的唾液腺开口分布。从功能上分类,遗鸥舌头符合采集食物型舌头结构特征。舌乳突发育不完善,仅锥状乳突在舌体和舌根分界处及上颌表面呈列状分布,乳突末端指向口腔内部。舌黏膜内未见味蕾分布。遗鸥口腔结构的特点与部分鸥科Laridae鸟类区别明显,这可能与遗鸥栖息环境不断恶化、食物种类和数量匮乏有关。
英文摘要:In this study, the ultrastructure of the tongue of Larus relictus was observed using light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of L. relictus was triangular in shape, and comprised 3 different parts:the lingual apex, lingual body, and lingual root. The tongue fork had keratinized processes at the lingual apex; the lingual apex had a large number of epithelial cells, and the cell surfaces appear to form a fingerprint. The surface of the lingual body was smooth, and the epithelial cells were elongated with cell surface microridges. The surface of the lingual root had a small number of salivary gland openings. These results indicated that the structure of the tongue of L. relictus was adapted to collecting food. Moreover, the papillae on the lingual mucosa were not perfectly developed and had a cone-shaped appearance, with a row-like distribution on the maxillary surface and at the boundary between the body and root, and the papillae ends point toward the intra-oral cavity. Taste buds in the lingual mucosa were also underdeveloped. Obvious differences existed in the characteristics of the oral structure between L. relictus and other members of the Laridae family, which may be related to habitat deterioration, changes in food type, or food scarcity. 2017,36(2): 181-186 收稿日期:2016-10-12 DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160276 分类号:Q959.7 基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31560598);内蒙古自治区自然科学基金项目(2015MS0321);教育部留学回国人员科研启动基金项目(2014-1685);内蒙古留学回区人员科研启动基金项目(2015-339) 作者简介:刘利(1978-),男,博士,讲师,研究方向:动物生态学,E-mail:liuli4304842@126.com *通讯作者:刘晓光,E-mail:lxg63121@163.com 参考文献: 刘文盈, 张秋良, 邢小军, 等. 2008. 鄂尔多斯高原盐沼湿地底栖动物多样性特征与遗鸥繁殖期觅食的相关性研究[J]. 干旱区资源与环境, 22(4):185-192. 任永奇, 何芬奇. 2015. 遗鸥鄂尔多斯亚群主体另辟繁殖地[J]. 湿地科学与管理, 11(3):63. 田梠, 薛文, 马俊, 等. 1998. 遗鸥繁殖群在内蒙古东部的新发现[J]. 内蒙古大学学报(自然科学版), 29(5):694-696. 汪青雄, 肖红, 杨超, 等. 2015. 陕西红碱淖棕头鸥孵卵行为[J]. 生态学杂志, 34(3):760-764. 王岐山, 马鸣, 高玉仁. 2006. 中国动物志 鸟纲 第五卷[M]. 北京:科学出版社. 吴渊, 张海, 张有强, 等. 2016. 河北张家口康巴诺尔湖国家湿地公园遗鸥繁殖群新发现[J]. 动物学杂志, 51(4):668-670. 张荫荪, 丁文宁, 陈容伯, 等. 1993. 遗鸥(Larus relictus)繁殖生态研究[J]. 动物学报, 39(2):154-159. 郑光美. 2012. 鸟类学(第2版)[M]. 北京:北京师范大学出版社. Ahlam EB, Iwasaki S. 2014. Ultrastructure and histochemical study of the lingual salivary glands of some bird species[J]. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 46(2):553-559. Burcu O, Serife T, Murat K, et al. 2015.
孵化期遗鸥卵质量变化及卵参数测定
Eggs Mass Variation and Parameters Measurement of Larus relictus in Incubation Period
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汪青雄,杨超,肖红
- , 2017,
Abstract: 中文摘要:本研究在红碱淖湿地共收集遗鸥 Larus relictus卵111枚,采用实测和公式计算的方法进行卵参数测定。结果表明,同窝卵各参数随产卵顺序依次减少(卵质量:1=59.31 g±3.86 g,2=56.59 g±3.67 g,3=54.99 g±3.96 g),其中第1枚卵质量与第2、3枚卵质量差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。这可能与自身能量储备有关,通过减轻卵质量和缩小卵大小,但又不影响卵孵化率,以达到亲鸟最大繁殖适合度的策略。遗鸥在孵化阶段卵质量损失9.50 g±1.45 g,损失率为15.82%±1.94%。孵化后3~5 d和雏鸟出壳前2 d卵质量损失出现明显峰值,整体上卵质量损失速度与胚胎发育速度一致。野外调查中,当能获得卵鲜质量时,用Paganelli公式计算;反之,用Narhshin公式计算。但2种方法计算结果与实测结果差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。总体上,在遗鸥卵参数测定中,Paganelli公式比Narushin公式更简便、快捷。
英文摘要:In this study, a total of 111 eggs of relict gull ( Larus relictus) were collected in Hongjiannao wetland, and eggs parameters were determined by formula method and manual measure. The results showed that eggs parameters were reduced along with egg laying sequence in the same clutch (egg mass:1=59.31 g±3.86 g, 2=56.59 g±3.67 g, and 3=54.99 g±3.96 g), and the first egg had significant differences with the second and the third egg ( P<0.05). This might be due to the management of energy storage which could achieve the maximum breeding fitness of parental birds by reducing egg mass and egg size but without influencing the hatching rate of eggs. The mean mass loss of eggs was 9.50 g±1.45 g, and the loss rate was 15.82%±1.94%. Additionally, egg loss peaked in 3-5 d of post-hatching and 2 d of pre-nestling, on the whole, egg mass loss rate was consistent with the embryonic development. Paganelli formula was used to determine the raw mass of eggs in field investigation, where others were calculated by Narhshin formula. However, the results of both formula methods had not significant differences with that of manual measure ( P>0.05). Overall, Paganelli formula is simple and quick than Narushin formula in parameters measurement of L. relictus. 2017,36(5): 552-556 收稿日期:2016-12-15 DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160358 分类号:Q959.7;Q958 基金项目:陕西省科学院应用基础专项(2012K-06) 作者简介: *通讯作者:肖红,E-mail:xh4500@163.com 参考文献: 郑光美. 1995. 鸟类学[M]. 北京:北京师范大学出版社:281-286. 汪青雄, 肖红, 杨超. 2012. 陕西红碱淖同域分布遗鸥与棕头鸥巢址选择比较[J]. 生态学杂志, 31(4):949-953. 汪青雄, 杨超, 刘铮, 等. 2013. 红碱淖遗鸥孵卵行为[J]. 生态学杂志, 32(2):375-379. Amos AR, Hermann R. 1980. Water in the avian egg overall budget of incubation[J]. American Zoologist, 20(2):373-384. Carter TC. 1968. The hen's egg:a mathematical model with three parameters[J]. British Poultry Science, 9(2):165-171. Kilpi M, Hillstrom L, Lindstrom K. 1996. Egg-size variation and reproductive success in the herring gull Larus argentatus:adaptive or constrained size of the last egg?[J]. Ibis, 138(2):212-217. Martin TE, Schwabi H. 2008. Variation in maternal effects and embryonic development rates among passerine species[J].
鄂尔多斯盆地南缘奥陶系平凉组等深流沉积*
Contourites of the Ordovician Pingliang Formation in southern margin of Ordos Basin
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李华,何幼斌,黄伟,刘朱睿鸷,张锦
- , 2016, DOI: 10.7605/gdlxb.2016.04.047
Abstract: 鄂尔多斯盆地南缘奥陶系平凉组发育石灰岩、泥岩和砂岩,夹放射虫硅岩及凝灰岩,深水原地沉积、重力流沉积及等深流沉积发育。等深流沉积主要为砾屑、砂屑、粉屑、灰泥及粉砂—砂质等深积岩。粉屑等深积岩顶部发育波痕及生物扰动,波痕不对称,迁移方向明显,波长1~5,cm,波高0.2~0.5,cm。等深流沉积具有灰泥等深积岩、粉屑等深积岩、砂屑等深积岩及砾屑等深积岩叠置组成的完整及不完整的细—粗—细沉积层序,厚度几毫米至数厘米。该层序既可由多层叠置而成,也可由单层组成或在相邻泥质纹层或缝合线之间直接出现,并存在向上变粗的逆递变和向上变细的正递变厚度不对称特征。等深流从东向西,大致平行于斜坡运动。平凉组下部发育深水原地沉积和重力流沉积,上部则发育深水原地沉积和等深流沉积。等深流沉积主要受构造运动、相对海平面升降、古地貌、流体能量及运动路径的影响。
The contourites,gravity flow deposits and deep water autochthonous deposits, consisting of limestone,mudstone with sandstone with radiolarian chert and volcanic tuff interbeds, were developed in the Ordovician Pingliang Formation in the southern margin of Ordos Basin. Contourites were divided into calciruditic contourites,calcarenitic contourites,calcisiltitic contourites,calcilutitic contourites and silt-sandy contourites. Ripples and bioturbation were well shaped on top of calcisiltitic contourites. The ripples,with wave length 1-5,cm and wave height 0.2-0.5,cm,were asymmetric and showed migration direction obviously. The complete and incomplete sedimentary sequences were composed of superimposed calcarenitic contouritse,calcisiltitic contourites and calcilutitic contourites,and displayed upward fine-coarse-fine trend with thickness several millimeters to centimeters. The sequences consisted of not only superimposed multilayer,but also single layer,or appeared between two adjacent muddy layers or stylolites;and the thickness of the upward ̄coarsening sequences and the upward ̄fining ones were asymmetrical. Contour current moved from the east to the west with path subparallel to the slope. The deep water autochthonous deposits and gravity flow deposits were developed in the lower part of the Lower Pingliang Formation; by contrast,the deep water autochthonous deposits and contourites were favored in the upper part. The contourites were mainly influenced by tectonic movements,relative sea-level rise,current energy,palaeotopography and motion path
微尺度泊肃叶流的高阶连续模型分析  [PDF]
宋诚谦,尹协远,秦丰华
力学学报 , 2013, DOI: 10.6052/0459-1879-12-294
Abstract: 分别从分子运动论及连续流理论出发,对体积力驱动的微尺度平面泊肃叶(Poiseuille)流的横向分布特征进行了分析.分子水平模拟采用直接模拟蒙特卡罗(directsimulationMonteCarlo,DSMC)方法;连续流理论则主要考察了伯内特(Burnett)及超伯内特(Super-Burnett)等高阶连续模型,在平行流假设下,获得一组高阶非线性常微分方程,补充完整的边界条件,并应用龙格-库塔(Runge-Kutta)方法求解.结果表明,即使对于过渡领域流动,高阶连续模型可以给出与DSMC结果完全相符的压力分布,而速度分布当努森(Knudsen)数约为0.2时即在壁面开始出现偏差;对于温度的横向分布,伯内特模型回复到纳维-斯托克斯(Navier-Stokes)水平,不能得到与DSMC一致的双峰结构,而超伯内特模型在滑移流动领域与DSMC定性相符,在过渡领域却仅能正确预测主流区温度分布,壁面附近差异明显;横向热流与纳维-斯托克斯模型预测接近,但机理上存在本质区别.本文结果提示选用连续模型时,不仅要根据流动参数来判断,还可以根据所关注的物理量来进行调整,适度扩大连续模型的适用范围.但即使采用高阶本构关系,连续模型仍然不能完全描述壁面附近区域的非平衡效应(如努森层效应),这是试图扩大连续模型适用范围时必然会遇到的困难.
BREEDING HABITAT SELECTION OF THE RELICT GULL AND THE WETLAND BIRD COMMUNITY AROUNDITS BREEDING SITES
遗鸥繁殖生境选择及其繁殖地湿地鸟类群落研究

Zhang Yinsun He Fenqi,
张荫荪
,陈容伯

动物学研究 , 1993,
Abstract: In 1990-1991, two breeding sites of the Relict Gull (Larus relictus) were discovered successively on Ordos Highland of Inner Mongolia with a total of 1115 nests of colonies occuring in 1991 making it the largest breeding population of the gull in the world. By the field work results as well as previous reports on the gull, i. e., breeding in desert lakes and only nesting on islets as known so far of the breeding site selection, it might be concluded that this gull species is of high adaptability to the desert habitat and therefore might be properly regarded as one of the representatives of those desert birds. It is also observed that on Ordos Highland the Relict Gull and the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) are the companion species with each other, though in most cases the Relict Gull is dominant, competition and interdependence existing between the two species. The wetland birds community occuring at the breeding sites of the Relict Gull also shows a strong tendency of being a more affinity of the specific desert bird group.
鄂尔多斯盆地南部三叠系延长组湖相重力流沉积细粒岩及其油气地质意义
Fine-grained, lacustrine gravity-flow deposits and their hydrocarbon significance in the Triassic Yanchang Formation in southern Ordos Basin
 [PDF]

杨仁超,尹伟,樊爱萍,韩作振
- , 2017, DOI: 10.7605/gdlxb.2017.05.062
Abstract:

随着页岩油气勘探开发和相关领域研究的不断深入,细粒沉积物的搬运和沉积已成为当前沉积学研究的热点问题之一,但中国中生代湖泊环境中的泥质重力流沉积尚未引起应有的关注。通过岩心观察、薄片鉴定等手段及综合研究,分析了鄂尔多斯盆地晚三叠世湖相泥质重力流沉积特征,探讨了其形成机制与成因分类。鄂尔多斯盆地三叠系延长组湖相泥页岩结构类型多样,发育泥质块体流沉积、泥质碎屑流沉积、泥质浊流沉积和泥质异重流沉积等多种重力流沉积类型。按照泥质含量将重力流划分为砂质重力流、泥质重力流和混合重力流3种亚类,并根据成因将重力流划分为滑塌体、碎屑流、浊流及异重流等4种亚类;结合成因和泥质含量,将重力流沉积共划分为12种类型。滑塌岩、碎屑岩分布于三角洲前缘斜坡脚附近;浊积岩、异重岩广泛分布于三角洲斜坡至沉积中心。认为泥质沉积物可以在强水动力条件下搬运—沉积;重力流沉积细粒物质在湖相沉积中占据很大的比例;泥质重力流对泥页岩中的碎屑物质、黏土矿物及有机质的搬运和沉积起到重要作用,因而对于页岩油气的生烃、储集性能和压裂工艺研究具有重要意义。


With deepening research on the development of shale oil and gas development and related fields,transportation and deposition of fine-grained sediments have been a significant area of research in the stratigraphic community. However,muddy gravity ̄flow deposits in the Mesozoic lacustrine environment in China have received little attentions. Based on core examinations,thin section identifications and comprehensive analysis,current study investigate sedimentary features of muddy gravity ̄flow deposits in the Late Triassic southern Ordos Basin,and discuss their genesis and classifications. Various types of lacustrine mudstones or shales were recognized in the Yanchang Formation in the southern Ordos Basin,including muddy slumps,muddy debris flows,muddy turbidity currents and muddy hyperpycnal flows. Gravity ̄flow deposits are classified into three types, namely sandy gravity ̄flow deposits,muddy gravity ̄flow deposits and hybrid gravity ̄flow deposits. Based on mud contents and gravity flows’ originations, four types of slumps,debris flows,turbidity currents and hyperpycnal flows were inferred. And then they are classified into 12 types based on origination and mud content. Slumps and debrites mainly occur near to toe slope of delta fronts, while turbidites and hyperpycnites are well developed in large extent from delta slopes to basin plains. It is considered that (1) mud can be transported and deposited by active hydrodynamics; (2) fine-grained deposits created by gravity flows take a high percentage in lacustrine mudstones and shales; (3) muddy gravity flows are significant in transportations and depositions of clastic particles,clay minerals and organic matters, and are thus of great significance to hydrocarbon generating,reservoir capability and research on fracturing to unconventional oil and gas.

鄂尔多斯盆地北部泊尔江海子断裂对上古生界天然气成藏的控制
Control of Boerjianghaizi Fault on Gas Accumulation of Upper Paleozoic in Northern Ordos Basin
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李潍莲,纪文明,刘震,雷婷,朱景宇,
LI Wei-lian
,JI Wen-ming,LIU Zhen,LEI Ting,ZHU Jing-yu

- , 2015,
Abstract: 摘要: 为了揭示泊尔江海子断裂对鄂尔多斯盆地北部杭锦旗地区上古生界天然气成藏的控制作用,应用地震和钻井资料,在断裂活动性分析的基础上,根据断层泥比率和断层连通概率法对泊尔江海子断裂的侧向和垂向封闭性进行半定量评价,探讨断裂和天然气富集区的关系。结果表明:泊尔江海子断裂呈现3次明显的活动高峰期,分别为加里东期—早海西期的断裂形成期、印支期—早燕山期的挤压逆断裂活动期、中晚燕山期的走滑撕裂活动期,而中晚燕山期的走滑撕裂控制了上古生界天然气主要成藏期。断裂的封闭性具有“横向分段、纵向分层”的特点;横向上,以断层泥比率(SGR)等于0.3为界将泊尔江海子断裂分为侧向优势输导区和侧向封闭区;纵向上,在石千峰组和上石盒子组断裂启闭系数基本都小于1.0,断裂垂向封闭,在下石盒子组和山西组断裂启闭系数主要集中在4.0~10.0,断裂垂向开启。在断裂侧向优势输导区,断裂南部主力烃源区生成的天然气,经断裂发生垂向和侧向运移,易在断裂北部地区富集成藏;在侧向封闭区,则易在断裂南部地区富集成藏。
Abstract: In order to reveal the control functions of Boerjianghaizi fault on natural gas accumulation of Upper Paleozoic in Hangjinqi block of the northern Ordos Basin, the history of the fault activity, the lateral and vertical sealing ability of the fault were studied by using fault growth index evolution, fault shale gouge ratio method and fault connectivity probability method through seismic and drilling data of this area. Then Boerjianghaizi fault effects on the natural gas enrichment zones were discussed. The results showed that Boerjianghaizi fault had three obvious peaks of activity in the history of evolution, which were Caledonian to Early Hercynian fracture period, Indosinian to Early Yanshanian squeezing thrust fault activity period, and Mid-late-Yanshanian strike-slip tearing activity period. Mid-late-Yanshanian strike-slip tearing activity period matched well with the main stage of gas accumulation of Upper Paleozoic. It was pointed out that sealing ability of Boerjianghaizi fault had the characteristics of “horizontal sectioning, vertical layering”. In the horizontal direction, Boerjianghaizi faults were divided into lateral migration fault areas and lateral sealed fault areas according to the shale gouge ratio (SGR) which equals to 0.3 as the dividing line. In the vertical direction , the fault plane was vertically sealed in Upper Shihezi and Shiqianfeng formations because the fault sealing coefficients were almost less than 1.0 in the section, while the fault plane was vertically open in Lower Shihezi and Shanxi formations because the fault sealing coefficients mostly range from 4.0 to 10.0 in the section. Meanwhile, in the lateral migration fault areas, natural gas generated from the main source areas which were in the south side of Boerjianghaizi fault was transmitted in the vertical and lateral direction through the fault, then natural gas accumulated in large amount in the north side of the fault easily, but in the lateral sealed fault areas, it is easy to find the natural gas pools in the south side of the fault
Reduced oxygen diffusion across the shell of Gray gull (Larus modestus) eggs
MONGE,C C; OSTOJIC,H; AGUILAR,R; CIFUENTES,V;
Biological Research , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602000000300007
Abstract: gray gulls, larus modestus, nest 1500 m above sea level in northern chile's atacama desert, one of the driest in the world. their eggshell gas permeability, one third of that found in other larus species, is an adaptation that reduces water loss, but at the expense of oxygen diffusion into the air cell with resultant hypoxia and reduced metabolic rate. this contrasts with characteristics found in birds nesting at very high altitudes where oxygen diffusion across the egg shell is maximized at the expense of water conservation. the oxygen consumption (mo2) of larus modestus is 66% that of larus argentatus; the oxygen conductance (go2) is equivalent to 48% of that obtained in 5 other bird species. the oxygen partial pressure (pao2) in the air chamber of larus modestus (84 torr) is lower than that of 10 other bird species whose average (pao2) is 106 torr. the co2 partial pressure (paco2) in the air chamber of larus modestus is 68 torr, a higher value than that found in 9 other bird species whose average (paco2) is 39 torr.
Reduced oxygen diffusion across the shell of Gray gull (Larus modestus) eggs
C C MONGE,H OSTOJIC,R AGUILAR,V CIFUENTES
Biological Research , 2000,
Abstract: Gray gulls, Larus modestus, nest 1500 m above sea level in northern Chile's Atacama Desert, one of the driest in the world. Their eggshell gas permeability, one third of that found in other Larus species, is an adaptation that reduces water loss, but at the expense of oxygen diffusion into the air cell with resultant hypoxia and reduced metabolic rate. This contrasts with characteristics found in birds nesting at very high altitudes where oxygen diffusion across the egg shell is maximized at the expense of water conservation. The oxygen consumption (MO2) of Larus modestus is 66% that of Larus argentatus; the oxygen conductance (GO2) is equivalent to 48% of that obtained in 5 other bird species. The oxygen partial pressure (PAO2) in the air chamber of Larus modestus (84 Torr) is lower than that of 10 other bird species whose average (PAO2) is 106 Torr. The CO2 partial pressure (PACO2) in the air chamber of Larus modestus is 68 Torr, a higher value than that found in 9 other bird species whose average (PACO2) is 39 Torr.
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