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诱集物对金龟子诱集作用  [PDF]
李仲秀,刘春芹,王庆雷,崔景岳
华北农学报 , 1995, DOI: 10.3321/j.issn:1000-7091.1995.z1.033
Abstract: 研究表明,从日本金龟子中提取性诱集物对我国北方丽金龟中Popillia属有很强诱集力,其中对四纹丽金龟、琉璃丽金龟诱集量最大;从玫瑰花中提取诱集物对我国北方花金龟中白星花金龟和小青花金龟等诱集力最强,尤以后者为甚。这两种诱集物可作为上述金龟子预测预报和防治手段。
An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge
E. Vázquez-Su é, J. Carrera, I. Tubau, X. Sánchez-Vila,A. Soler
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2010,
Abstract: Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, ...). The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i) Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii) Selection of tracers, (iii) Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv) Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%), the sewage network losses (30%), rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%), from runoff infiltration (20%), and the Besòs River (11%). Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide), sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H, and 34S) behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.
An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge
E. Vázquez-Su?é,J. Carrera,I. Tubau,X. Sánchez-Vila
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-7-2543-2010
Abstract: Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, ...). The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i) Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii) Selection of tracers, (iii) Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv) Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%), the sewage network losses (30%), rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%), from runoff infiltration (20%), and the Besòs River (11%). Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide), sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O2H, and 34S) behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.
桃小食心虫与金纹细蛾不同性诱芯的诱蛾效果  [PDF]
于海利?,张林林?,张国辉?
西北农林科技大学学报(自然科学版) , 2010,
Abstract: 【目的】筛选高效诱芯,研究其科学使用技术,为提高性诱剂诱捕目标害虫效果提供技术支撑。【方法】于200907-09,选用桃小食心虫2种诱芯及桃小食心虫与金纹细蛾的单一诱芯和复合诱芯,在陕西省白水县选择桃小食心虫和金纹细蛾混合发生的苹果园进行田间诱捕试验。【结果】桃小食心虫2种不同诱芯的平均日诱蛾量和不同时段诱蛾量均无显著差异,而诱蛾量的动态趋势有一定差异。桃小食心虫和金纹细蛾单一诱芯的诱蛾效果均极显著高于复合诱芯;不同时段诱蛾效果表现为,试验初期桃小食心虫单一诱芯的诱蛾量极显著高于复合诱芯,而金纹细蛾单一诱芯在整个试验期间诱蛾量均极显著或显著高于复合诱芯;单一诱芯和复合诱芯诱蛾量动态比较一致,单一诱芯的诱蛾高峰均高于复合诱芯。【结论】桃小食心虫2种诱芯都能起到诱集成虫的作用,但a诱芯能更好地监测成虫的发生动态。在桃小食心虫和金纹细蛾混合发生的果园,将2种诱芯分开使用效果较好。
Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge across Australia
O. V. Barron, R. S. Crosbie, W. R. Dawes, S. P. Charles, T. Pickett,M. J. Donn
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2012,
Abstract: Reviews of field studies of groundwater recharge have attempted to investigate how climate characteristics control recharge, but due to a lack of data have not been able to draw any strong conclusions beyond that rainfall is the major determinant. This study has used numerical modelling for a range of K ppen-Geiger climate types (tropical, arid and temperate) to investigate the effect of climate variables on recharge for different soil and vegetation types. For the majority of climate types, the correlation between the modelled recharge and total annual rainfall is weaker than the correlation between recharge and the annual rainfall parameters reflecting rainfall intensity. Under similar soil and vegetation conditions for the same annual rainfall, annual recharge in regions with winter-dominated rainfall is greater than in regions with summer-dominated rainfall. The importance of climate parameters other than rainfall in recharge estimation is highest in the tropical climate type. Mean annual values of solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit show a greater importance in recharge estimation than mean annual values of the daily mean temperature. Climate parameters have the lowest relative importance in recharge estimation in the arid climate type (with cold winters) and the temperate climate type. For 75% of all soil, vegetation and climate types investigated, recharge elasticity varies between 2 and 4 indicating a 20% to 40% change in recharge for a 10% change in annual rainfall. Understanding how climate controls recharge under the observed historical climate allows more informed choices of analogue sites if they are to be used for climate change impact assessments.
Can the dataset of field based recharge estimates in Australia be used to predict recharge in data-poor areas?
R. S. Crosbie, I. D. Jolly, F. W. Leaney,C. Petheram
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2010,
Abstract: Effective management of water resources requires that all elements of the water balance be estimated. Groundwater recharge measurements are difficult, time consuming and expensive. In some cases a field study cannot be justified and simple empirical relationships are used to estimate recharge, and often the value chosen is simply a percentage of rainfall. This paper aims to use a database of 4386 field based estimates of recharge from 172 studies in Australia to produce simple empirical relationships that relate recharge to nationally available datasets and hence can be used to estimate recharge in data-poor areas in a scientifically defensible way. It was found that the vegetation and soil type were critical determinants in forming relationships between average annual rainfall and average annual recharge. Climate zones and surface geology (lithology) were not found to be significant determinants in the relationship between rainfall and recharge. The method used to estimate recharge had an impact upon the magnitude of the recharge estimates due to the spatial and temporal scales over which the different methods estimate recharge. Relationships have been developed here between average annual rainfall and average annual recharge for combinations of soil and vegetation type that can be used with only nationally available datasets to provide a recharge estimate. These relationships can explain 60% of the variance in recharge measurements across Australia. The uncertainty in the recharge estimated using these relationships is generally greater than an order of magnitude. This means that if these relationships are used to help determine water allocations, then the precautionary principle should limit allocations to less than about 5% of the estimated recharge. If allocations are greater than this, a more detailed site specific study is warranted.
建设沈阳生态城  [PDF]
陈涛
生态学杂志 , 2003,
Abstract: ?生态城是人类生态文明的集中反映.本文提出了可持续发展思想和生态学原理是建设生态城的指导思想.本文还提出了治理沈阳生态环境的几个重要措施.①生态环境实行区域治理;②植树造林,治理冬季煤烟污染;③推进小城镇建设,治理周边和城乡结合部环境;④提高市民生态环境意识.
Can the dataset of field based recharge estimates in Australia be used to predict recharge in data-poor areas?
R. S. Crosbie,I. D. Jolly,F. W. Leaney,C. Petheram
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-7-5647-2010
Abstract: Effective management of water resources requires that all elements of the water balance be estimated. Groundwater recharge measurements are difficult, time consuming and expensive. In some cases a field study cannot be justified and simple empirical relationships are used to estimate recharge, and often the value chosen is simply a percentage of rainfall. This paper aims to use a data-base of 4386 field based estimates of recharge from 172 studies in Australia to produce simple empirical relationships that relate recharge to nationally available datasets and hence can be used to estimate recharge in data-poor areas in a scientifically defensible way. It was found that the vegetation and soil type were critical determinants in forming relationships between average annual rainfall and average annual recharge. Climate zones and surface geology were not found to be significant determinants in the relationship between rainfall and recharge. The method used to estimate recharge had an impact upon the magnitude of the recharge estimates due to the spatial and temporal scales over which the different methods estimate recharge. Relationships have been developed here between average annual rainfall and average annual recharge for combinations of soil and vegetation type that can be used with only nationally available datasets to provide a recharge estimate. The 95 percent confidence limits about the recharge predicted using these relationships is generally greater than an order of magnitude either side of the relationship developed. This means that if these relationships are used to help determine water allocations then the precautionary principle should limit allocations to less than about 5% of the estimated recharge, if allocations are greater than this a more detailed site specific study is warranted.
关于?粒??理???之??  [PDF]
?云龙
地质与勘探 , 1957,
Abstract: 关于?粒?进之原理??,目前还?有一个完整?点。苏联也正在进行??。几年?,虽然我?在?探效率上、?量上,有了?大的提高,但在理论上仍然是落后的。为了改变这一情况,有必要在?粒?进的理?研究上,进行一番??时?的??研究工作,以便用技术理?去指导实际工作,进一步提高?探工作的技术水平。目前?粒?进理?,虽然还?有获得?一的?点,然而基本上是在下边三种说法中进行??:第一种主?是:未被破碎的?粒,在?心压力的参助下对岩石压碎和碾磨;第二种主?是:已被破碎之?粒在?心压力的作
Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge across Australia
O. V. Barron,R. S. Crosbie,D. Pollock,W. R. Dawes
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-9-6023-2012
Abstract: Reviews of field studies of groundwater recharge have attempted to investigate how climate characteristics control recharge, but due to a lack of data have not been able to draw any strong conclusions beyond that rainfall is the major determinant. This study has used numerical modeling for a range of K ppen-Geiger climate types (tropical, arid and temperate) to investigate the effect of climate variables on recharge for different soil and vegetation types. For the majority of climate types the total annual rainfall had a weaker correlation with recharge than the rainfall parameters reflecting rainfall intensity. In regions with winter-dominated rainfall, annual recharge under the same annual rainfall, soils and vegetation conditions is greater than in regions with summer-dominated rainfall. The relative importance of climate parameters other than rainfall is higher for recharge under annual vegetation, but overall is highest in the tropical climate type. Solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit show a greater relative importance than mean annual daily mean temperature. Climate parameters have lowest relative importance in the arid climate type (with cold winters) and the temperate climate type. For 75% of all considered cases of soil, vegetation and climate types recharge elasticity varies between 2 and 4, indicating a 20% to 40% change in recharge for a 10% change in annual rainfall Understanding how climate controls recharge under the observed historical climate allows more informed choices of analogue sites if they are to be used for climate change impact assessments.
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