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Evaluation of Smoke Density on Combustion of Wood Based Panel Products
International Journal of Materials and Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijmc.20120205.07
Abstract: Smoke density of wood based panel materials like General purpose plywood, Marine Plywood(BWP grade), Medium Density Fibre Board (MDF), Bamboo Mat Board (BMB), Pre-laminated Particle Board (PPB) were measured using chamber method (ASTM D 2843-70). The specimens are tested inside closed chamber and readings of light transmission were taken at 5-seconds interval. Measurements were made in terms of loss of light transmittance through an accumulated volume of smoke. It was observed that pre-laminated particle board and general purpose plywood with 22.20% &22.47% of smoke accumulation area respectively resulted lower values as compared to other panel products such as marine plywood (BWP grade), MDF, BMB etc. A uniform rate of smoke build-up was recorded. This study provides the basis for predicting the smoke production rate, time to ignite (TTI), and Toxicity index which can be developed by combustion of the wood product.
PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PANEL BASED ON OUTER BARK PARTICLES OF WHITE BIRCH: MIXED PANELS WITH WOOD PARTICLES VERSUS WOOD FIBRES
Pedieu,Roger; Riedl,Bernard; Pichette,André;
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-221X2008000300003
Abstract: the use of outer white birch bark in canoes is an example of its oldest use by the first nations in canada. this use confirms the hydrophobic characteristics of this bark, which can be capitalized on by using it in the outer layers of three-layer mixed composite panels in order to protect them from water infiltration from their surface. these panels were made up of outer white birch bark particles in the surface layers with coarse wood particles or wood fibres in the core layer. a factorial experiment used in a complete block design permitted to carry a suitable statistical analysis of measured properties. the two main considered factors were respectively the bark percentages in the surface layers with three levels and the type of material used in the core with two levels. four replicates were done for each panel. the panels with wood particles in the core layer gave physical and mechanical properties satisfying the indoor requirements for particleboards and those with wood fibres in the core layer passed the requirement of medium fibres density board. panel with 45% bark particles in the surface and 55% wood particles in the core was selected as the best because of its good dimensional stability.
CALIBRATIONS BASED ON NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC DATA TO ESTIMATE WOOD-CEMENT PANEL PROPERTIES  [PDF]
Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein,Vania Aparecida de Sá,Lina Bufalino,Lourival Marin Mendes
BioResources , 2009,
Abstract: Some scientific contributions have used near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and reliable tool for characterizing engineered wood products. However, to our knowledge, there are no published papers that used this technique in order to evaluate wood-cement panels. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the ability of NIR spectroscopy to estimate physical and mechanical properties in wood-cement panels. The wood-cement panels were produced using Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, Pinus taeda, and Toona ciliata woods with Portland cement under different manufacturing conditions. Wood-cement panels were characterized by traditional methods, and Partial Least Squares regressions were used to build calibrations. Our cross-validated models for MOR, IB, and TS24h of the panels yielded good coefficients of determination (0.80, 0.82, and 0.91, respectively). Based on the significant absorption bands and regression coefficients of the PLS models, our results indicate that cellulose and aromatic groups in lignin are components that play an important role in the calibrations.
Addition of Impregnated Paper Residue to Produce MDP Wood Panel: Example of Solid Waste Recycling
International Journal of Materials Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijme.20120206.01
Abstract: Brazilian market for wood panels is expanding. Among the types of produced panels, particleboards deserve, being MDP panel the main product. MDP means Medium Density Particleboard that is a lignocellulosic composite made with matrix of synthetic adhesive (urea formaldehyde resin) and reinforcement phase of particles of wood, and composed of three layers. This product can be marketed coated, being the Low Pressure (LP) coating the most widely used. The LP coating is defined as a special impregnated paper with melamine resin, fused to the wood panel by the action of heat and pressure. During production activities of the MDP with LP coating, impregnated paper waste are generated, which are commonly disposed in landfills, generating costs of transport and disposal of waste. However, this residue can be better applied. In order to promote better use of that waste, this study aims to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating the impregnated paper waste as an aggregate in the inner layer of the MDP. Other expected benefit from this proposal is the decrease of costs production because of optimization for wood consumption. For the new composite suggested a technical feasibility has been conducted by tests performed according to Brazilian standard NBR 14810/2006. To this end, physical tests were performed to determine the density of the panel, swelling in thickness, and water absorption. Also, mechanical tests were conducted of perpendicular tensile (internal adhesion) and static bending of specimens. To prepare the studied panel, were collected impregnated paper waste, and mixed them with the wood particles with resin, in proportions of 0% (condition 1), 4% (condition 2), 8% (condition 3) and 12% (condition 4), based on wood particles weight. It was checked that insertion of impregnated paper waste in the inner layer of MDP panel hasn’t affected the physical and mechanical properties in comparison with the conventional product. All the results were in line with the NBR 14810 for conditions 1, 2 and 3. Some problems were noted to condition 4, where part of the results were not in consonance with the Brazilian standard for particleboards. These conclusions were also engaged in the results of statistical variance analysis performed. However, the recycling proposal of utilization the impregnated paper waste is technically feasible, contributing favorably to the rational use of raw materials, reducing operational costs with waste treatment and a greater level of environmental sustainability within the industry.
Legal Harvesting, Sustainable Sourcing and Cascaded Use of Wood for Bioenergy: Their Coverage through Existing Certification Frameworks for Sustainable Forest Management  [PDF]
Richard Sikkema,Martin Junginger,Jinke van Dam,Gerben Stegeman,David Durrant,Andre Faaij
Forests , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/f5092163
Abstract: The first objective of this paper was to provide an inventory of developments of certification schemes for sustainable biomass production, following recent EU legislation (both formalized and under development). One main pillar is the EU Timber Regulation for legal harvesting; a second one is the EU’s 2010 recommendations for sustainable woody biomass sourcing for energy; the third one is the EU Waste Directive. The second objective was to benchmark the coverage of this (draft) legislation, when wood product certificates for sustainable forest management (SFM) are used as proof of the related legislative requirements. We studied North America, as it is a major biomass supplier to the EU-28. Together with existing forest legislation in the US and Canada, SFM certificates are actively used to cover the EU’s (draft) legislation. However, North American forests are only partially certified with fibers coming from certified forests; these are referred to as forest management (FM) fibers. Other certified fibers should come from complementary risk assessments downstream in the supply chain (risk based fibers). Our benchmark concludes that: (a) FM fiber certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) international standards show the highest level of coverage with EU’s (draft) legislation; (b) There is insufficient coverage for risk based fibers by FSC Controlled Wood (FSC-CW), PEFC Due Diligence (PEFC-DD), or SFI-fiber sourcing (SFI-FS). Other weaknesses identified for elaboration are: (c) Alignment in definitions are needed, such as for primary forest, high carbon stock, and wood waste (cascading); (d) Imperfect mass balance (fiber check downstream) needs to be solved, as non-certified fiber flows are inadequately monitored; (e) Add-on of a GHG calculation tool is needed, as GHG life cycle reporting is not covered by any of the SFM frameworks.
人造板厚度激光非接触测量研究
Non-contact Measurement of Wood-based Panel Thickness by Laser
 [PDF]

祖汉松,张厚江,贺昌勇,周卢婧
- , 2015, DOI: doi:10.3969/j.issn.1001-7461.2015.02.39
Abstract: 厚度是人造板重要参数之一,随着人造板工业的高速发展,对人造板厚度的测量精度和检测方法也提出了更高的要求。采用上下2台激光传感器对人造板厚度进行了静态和动态非接触测量试验研究,提出了上下2激光传感器间距的标定方法,认为人造板厚度激光非接触测量是完全可行的。在被测板材静止状态下,激光检测厚度与板材厚度实际值之间误差非常小;在板材移动状态下,可以实时得到板材激光检测厚度值。
Thickness is one of the most important parameters of wood-based panels. With the rapid development of wood-based panel industry, higher requirements are needed for the measurement precision and detection methods. In this paper, two laser sensors (up and down the panel) were adopted to carry out dynamic and static non-contact thickness measurement. The calibration method for the distance of two lasers was proposed. It was proved that when the panel was static, minor errors of the measurement was observed with actual values of thickness, with the mobile state of the panel, real-time measurement could be achieved, indicating that non-contact measurement of wood-based panel thickness was completely feasible
Thermoplastic Elastomer Infill Synthetic Turf
BHAKTI D.PATEL,PROF. RUPANDE N.DESAI
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Synthetic – turf or Astroturf, is a grass-like man-made surface manufactured from synthetic polymers. It is most used for sports field and in residential area where natural grass is difficult to grow. Synthetic turf consist three basic components – grass filaments, Infill and backing. Grass filaments require softness and impact strength. Through several generations, grass filaments developed from initially nylon, polypropylene and now from polyethylene. Crumb rubber is used as infill material which contains toxic chemicals present in tyre. Some of the drawbacks of these materials can be solved by modifications in materials like by introduction of TPE –thermoplastic elastomer, which has been presented in this paper.
STATUS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION ON SECONDARY WOOD INDUSTRIES INCLUDING RESIDENTIAL, CABINET, MILLWORK, AND PANEL MARKETS  [PDF]
Adrian Pirraglia,Daniel Saloni,Herman van Dyk
BioResources , 2009,
Abstract: Lean Manufacturing has helped several industries to achieve operational and manufacturing excellence by increasing productivity and enhancing quality, while reducing waste and costs. However, the wood industry has been historically slow in adopting this philosophy and its many tools. In times when overseas competition has taken big portions of the traditional market share for U.S based wood industries, it has become important that companies start to take actions in order to regain competitiveness. In this sense, Lean Manufacturing could provide a competitive advantage. Main findings of this project includes high percentages of Lean Manufacturing implementation among companies from the Wood Component Manufacturing Association, substantial differences in the tools implemented by companies on an early vs. extensive Lean Manufacturing implementation stage, as well as identification of main reasons and advantages derived from its implementation, and how Lean Manufacturing is rated among these companies. Findings lead to the conclusions that many companies are pursuing cost savings strategies without implementing Lean Manufacturing. Training and education on Lean Manufacturing, and well implemented Lean Manufacturing programs would help members of the Wood Component Manufacturing Association to regain competitiveness and achieve substantial cost reductions.
Evaluation of Infill Development Potential in Zone 8 of Tabriz by Analysis Network Process Method  [PDF]
Mohammadtaghi Razavian, Roghayeh Samadi
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.42009
Abstract: One of the most important issues in the development of modern cities is the dispersed and horizontal expansion of cities. Due to a substantial effect of the form of a city on its stability, it is necessary to know, study and understand its different dimensions and guide it to achieve sustainable development. Thus, infill development that is the simplest interpretation of urban endogenous development is considered as one of the urban smart growth strategies. Focusing on the vacant and abandoned lands in cities, infill development tries to load development on these lands. This study aimed to use infill development approach to achieve future development of Zone 8 of Tabriz and identify its potentials, in which several indicators have been used including quality of buildings, access and permeability, compressibility and granularity. In order to determine the final capacity of development and the effect of each indicator, the indicators were weighted by analytic network process (ANP) approach. The results of the study indicated that 38 hectares of the area under study had very high potential of development that accounted for 12.14%. Therefore, Zone 8 of Tabriz has much potential in the infill development. It could be said that half of the total area within the study area is prone to the internal development that requires formulating a suitable planning based on the principles of smart growth.
Synthetic xylan-binding modules for mapping of pulp fibres and wood sections
Lada Filonova, Lavinia Gunnarsson, Geoffrey Daniel, Mats Ohlin
BMC Plant Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-7-54
Abstract: A panel of synthetic xylan-binding CBMs, previously selected from a molecular library based on the scaffold of CBM4-2 from xylanase Xyn10A of Rhodothermus marinus, was used in this study. The wild type CBM4-2 and evolved modules both showed binding to wood sections. However, differences were observed in the staining patterns suggesting that these modules have different xylan-binding properties. Also the staining stability varied between the CBMs, the most stable staining being obtained with one (X-2) of the synthetic modules. Treatment of wood materials resulted in altered signal intensities, thereby also demonstrating the potential application of engineered CBMs as analytical tools for quality assessment of diverse plant material processes.In this study we have demonstrated the usefulness of synthetic xylan-binding modules as specific probes in analysis of hemicelluloses (xylan) in wood and fibre materials.Wood cell walls represent highly complex biocomposites that consists of repertoires of polysaccharides and lignins integrated into a three-dimensional conglomerate [1,2]. At the microstructural level, wood cell walls are composed of both primary- and dominating secondary cell wall layers in which the major (cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses) and minor (pectins, proteins) chemical components are heterogeneously dispersed and integrated. Understanding the cell wall's complexity is of great interest both for plant biology and for plant processing in food and pulp industry.One of the key main challenges for an improved understanding of wood cell wall structure especially, in relation to properties, is an ability to specifically localise and visualised the spatial distribution of the major polysaccharide components (cellulose and hemicelluloses) in vivo. In lignified cell walls this is quite challenging since the hemicelluloses interface between the cellulose and lignin forming a heterogeneous polymer complex and it is exacting to distinguish between the various co
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