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An Integrated ISFET Sensor Array  [PDF]
Kazuo Nakazato
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91108831
Abstract: A monolithically integrated ISFET sensor array and interface circuit are described. A new high-density, low-power source-drain follower was developed for the sensor array. ISFETs were formed by depositing Au/Ti extended-gate electrodes on standard MOSFETs, then thin silicon nitride layers using catalytic chemical vapor deposition and/or SU-8 protective layers were formed on the extended-gate electrodes. Applications for the array include: (1) pH detection by statistical distribution observing time and space fluctuations; (2) DNA detection using thiol-modified or silane-coupled oligonucleotides; (3) bio-image sensing by converting photons to electrons using Photosystem I of Thermosynechococcus elongatus, and sensing the converted electric charges by ISFETs.
Hardware Design for Low Power Integrated Sensor System  [PDF]
Maher Rizkalla, An Feng, Michael Knieser, Francis Bowen, Paul Salama, Brian King, Jasmin Radadia, Sarang Gadkari, Hossein Jafarian
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.53018
Abstract: An integrated sensor system is implemented using inter-integrated circuit mode (I2C) software, utilizing the PIC182585 MPLAB embedded control system utilizing hardware. The hardware implementation features high level of integration, reliability, high precision, and high speed communications. The system was demonstrated by temperature and CO2 sensors. An extension for Zigbee system is proposed to enhance the security of the integrated system. A bi-directional air/liquid flow sensor is also added to detect the flow magnitude and direction that can be applied to heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC), local and national security within subway systems, and medical equipment. The hardware design of the flow sensor included one heating element and two sensing elements to detect the bi-directional flow. Platinum sensors were found to be of high sensitivity and linear characteristics within 0℃ to 100℃ range, and their high temperature coefficient (0.00385 Ω/Ω/℃). Polyimide thin film heater was used as the heating element due to its high throughput and good thermal efficiency. Two bridge circuits were also designed to sense the temperature distribution in the vicinity of the sensing elements. Three high precision instrumentation low power amplifiers with offset voltage ~2.5 μV (50 μV max) were used for the overall design. The system security is also enhanced with the detection of poison gas using Carbon Nanotube devices (CNT). An antenna system was designed, and a frequency shift was detected to designate the type of poison gas used for a general threat.
C.M. Kumile,G. Bright
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Manufacturing companies of today face unpredictable, high frequency market changes driven by global competition. To stay competitive, these companies must have the characteristics of cost-effective rapid response to the market needs. As an engineering discipline, mechatronics strives to integrate mechanical, electronic, and computer systems optimally in order to create high precision products and manufacturing processes. This paper presents a methodology of increasing flexibility and reusability of a generic computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) cell-control system using simulation and modelling of mechatronic sensory system (MSS) concepts. The utilisation of sensors within the CIM cell is highlighted specifically for data acquisition, analysis, and multi-sensor data fusion. Thus the designed reference architecture provides comprehensive insight for the functions and methodologies of a generic shop-floor control system (SFCS), which consequently enables the rapid deployment of a flexible system. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hedendaagse vervaardigingsondernemings ervaar gereeld onvoorspelbare markveranderinge wat aangedryf word deur wêreldwye mededinging. Om kompeterend te bly moet hierdie ondernemings die eienskappe van kosteeffektiwiteit en snelle-respons op markfluktuasies toon. Megatronika streef daarna om meganiese, elektroniese en rekenaarstelsels optimaal te integreer om ho presisieprodukte en produksieprosesse daar te stel. Hierdie artikel suggereer 'n metodologie vir toenemende aanpasbaarheid en herbruikbaarheid van 'n generiese rekenaarge ntegreerde vervaardigingsel-beheersisteem deur die gebruik van simulasie en die modellering van megatroniese sensorsisteemkonsepte. Die aanwending van sensors binne die sel fasiliteer datavaslegging, ontleding en multisensordatafusie. Sodoende verskaf die ontwerpte argitektuur insig in die funksie en metodologie van 'n generiese stukwerkwinkelbeheersisteem wat die vinnige ontplooiing van 'n aanpasbare sisteem moontlik maak.
Monolithically integrated multiple wavelength oscillator on silicon  [PDF]
Jacob S. Levy,Alexander Gondarenko,Mark A. Foster,Amy C. Turner-Foster,Alexander L. Gaeta,Michal Lipson
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Silicon photonics enables on-chip ultra-high bandwidth optical communications networks which is critical for the future of microelectronics1,2. By encoding information on-chip using multiple wavelength channels through the process of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), communication bandwidths in excess of 1 Tbit s-1 are possible3. Already several optical components critical to WDM networks have been demonstrated in silicon, however a fully integrated multiple wavelength source capable of driving such a network has not yet been realized. Optical amplification, a necessary component for producing a source, can be achieved in silicon through stimulated Raman scattering4,5, parametric mixing6, and the use of silicon nanocrystals7 or nanopatterned silicon8. Losses in most of these previously demonstrated devices have prevented oscillations in those structures. Raman oscillators have been demonstrated9-11, but the narrow Raman gain window limits operation to a tightly restricted (~ 1 nm) wavelength range and thus is insufficient for WDM. Losses in other previously demonstrated devices have prevented oscillations in those structures. Here we demonstrate the first monolithically integrated CMOS-compatible multiple wavelength source by creating an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) formed by a silicon nitride ring resonator on silicon coupled to an integrated waveguide. The device can generate more than 100 new wavelengths, spaced by a few nm, with operating powers below 50 mW. This source can form the backbone of a fully operational high-bandwidth optical communications network on a microelectronic chip enabling the next generation of multi-core microprocessors.
A Fully Integrated Humidity Sensor System-on-Chip Fabricated by Micro-Stamping Technology  [PDF]
Che-Wei Huang,Yu-Jie Huang,Shey-Shi Lu,Chih-Ting Lin
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120911592
Abstract: A fully integrated humidity sensor chip was designed, implemented, and tested. Utilizing the micro-stamping technology, the pseudo-3D sensor system-on-chip (SSoC) architecture can be implemented by stacking sensing materials directly on the top of a CMOS-fabricated chip. The fabricated sensor system-on-chip (2.28 mm × 2.48 mm) integrated a humidity sensor, an interface circuit, a digital controller, and an On-Off Keying (OOK) wireless transceiver. With low power consumption, i.e., 750 μW without RF operation, the sensitivity of developed sensor chip was experimentally verified in the relative humidity (RH) range from 32% to 60%. The response time of the chip was also experimentally verified to be within 5 seconds from RH 36% to RH 64%. As a consequence, the implemented humidity SSoC paves the way toward the an ultra-small sensor system for various applications.
Establishing an Integrated Secure Wireless Sensor Network System: A New Approach  [PDF]
Kalpana Sharma,S.K. Ghosh,M.K. Ghose
International Journal of Next-Generation Networks , 2010,
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are gaining a lot of popularity these days due to their application in anumber of areas. WSN’s provide an easily implementable and cheaper solution for many real worldproblems like data gathering, surveillance, monitoring and control etc. However they are also used in anumber of applications where security is a prime concern like military operations or other sensitiveprojects, whereby if the network is compromised then the outcomes can be disastrous. A lot of securityschemes have been proposed which address different layers of protocol stack but none of them are fullyintegrated. In this paper a new approach is presented to establish a secure wireless sensor network. Theproposed integrated approach addresses concerns like energy, and various security parameters likeauthenticity, confidentiality, integrity and requires lesser processing power.
Monolithically integrated waveguide-coupled silica microtoroids  [PDF]
Jens Richter,Maziar Pourabdollah Nezhad,Jeremy Witzens
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We report on the design and fabrication of a new type of microtoroid high-Q silica resonators monolithically coupled to on-chip silicon nanowire waveguides. In order to enable monolithic waveguide coupling, the microtoroid geometry is inverted such that the resonator is formed by thermal reflow at the circumference of a hole etched in a suspended SiO2 membrane. This configuration is shown to be conducive to integration with a fully functional Silicon Photonics technology platform.
Detecting Specific Health-Related Events Using an Integrated Sensor System for Vital Sign Monitoring  [PDF]
Mourad Adnane,Zhongwei Jiang,Samjin Choi,Hoyoung Jang
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s90906897
Abstract: In this paper, a new method for the detection of apnea/hypopnea periods in physiological data is presented. The method is based on the intelligent combination of an integrated sensor system for long-time cardiorespiratory signal monitoring and dedicated signal-processing packages. Integrated sensors are a PVDF film and conductive fabric sheets. The signal processing package includes dedicated respiratory cycle (RC) and QRS complex detection algorithms and a new method using the respiratory cycle variability (RCV) for detecting apnea/hypopnea periods in physiological data. Results show that our method is suitable for online analysis of long time series data.
Research and Establishment of the Integrated Project of Barcode Acquisition Technology and ERP System in the Regenerated Textile Chemical Fiber Industry  [cached]
Guohua Zhang,Jieyu Chen
Computer and Information Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/cis.v2n2p53
Abstract: Through the research of the demand of the ERP information system of Ningbo Dafa Chemical Fiber Co., Ltd which is the leading enterprise in the regenerated textile chemical fiber industry, in this article, we put forward the solution project of the integrated logistics information system based on barcode acquisition technology and ERP system, discussed the logistics information processing flow and implementation method according with the characters of the industry, and mainly studied the implementations of barcode data acquisition method and technological project.
Smart Integrated Sensor for Multiple Detections of Glucose and L-Lactate Using On-Chip Electrochemical System  [PDF]
Tomoyuki Yamazaki,Takaaki Ikeda,Byounghyun Lim,Koichi Okumura,Makoto Ishida,Kazuaki Sawada
Journal of Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/190284
Abstract: Multiple sensor electrodes, a supplementary electrode, a reference electrode, and signal-processing circuits were integrated on a single chip to develop a chip-shaped electrochemical sensing system. L-lactate and glucose were measured using on-chip working electrodes modified by polyion complex to immobilize lactate oxidase and glucose oxidase, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were conducted using an on-chip potentiostat. Selective and quantitative detection of glucose and L-lactate and the interference behavior were studied. Hydrogen peroxide generated by enzymatic reactions was detected by an increase in anodic oxidation current. Reaction currents at +0.7?V versus Ag/AgCl were used to obtain calibration plots. The measured dynamic ranges for L-lactate and glucose were 0.2–1.0?mM and 2.0–8.0?mM, respectively. The sensitivities were 65?nA/mM and 15?nA/mM, respectively, using a working electrode of 0.5?mm2. The 3σ detection limit was 0.19?mM and 1.1?mM, respectively. We have achieved multiple biomaterial detections on a circuit-equipped single chip. This integrated electrochemical sensor chip could be the best candidate for realizing point-of-care testing due to its portability and potential for mass production. 1. Introduction Electrochemical sensors have attracted attention in recent decades because they have been used in clinical inspection, environmental assessment, and battery technology. Generally, biosensors need fewer chemicals and a smaller sample volume and require few pretreatments. In addition, because of their selectivity and sensitivity, biosensors are of great importance for future health checkups. Many studies have examined clinical diagnosis, including detection of L-lactate [1–4], detection of glucose [5–7], and detection of other biomaterials or combinations of biomaterials [8–10]. Some reports on miniaturizing the entire sensing system have appeared recently [11]. With rising demands for personal care, portable, reliable, and fast biosensors are desired. Bulky electrochemical instruments should be miniaturized for future on-site measurement applications. To fulfill these requirements, electrochemical sensors using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits could be the best candidate [12–15]. The entire system can be integrated into a single chip using a standard CMOS technique and a few electrode fabrication processes, which is promising because of the potential for mass production. Our objective is to fabricate a compact intelligent sensor chip to realize a portable and reliable sensing system that combines
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