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对格式塔主义关于知觉和思維等理論的批判
杜維涛
心理学报 , 1959,
Abstract: 格式塔心理学者否认知觉是联系、联想、条件反射,认为知觉不能分析为各种感觉,因而蔑视感觉的概念;否认知觉有賴于經驗,割断知觉和外界的联系,割断知觉和思維、意識的联系。現在分析批判于下: (一)知觉是联系、联想、条件反射 格式塔主义者反对反射論,认为反射只是对个别刺激的反射,不是对事物的关系的反射,因而不能解释知觉。巴甫洛夫做了一个实驗:用两个灰色箱子,一深一浅,把食物放在浅灰色箱子里,动物便常到浅灰色箱里去。然后再換两个深浅也不同的箱子,动物仍向那个較浅色的箱子里去,原
介绍润法  [PDF]
易经和
中国中药杂志 , 1987,
Abstract: <正>润法,也称焖法,是中药炮制中的重要环节。润法是把经水洗或浸过的药物,用箩筐、筲箕、缸或坛等适当容器盛装入内,上面盖上麻袋、蒲包或木盖,以保持药物湿润状态,使药物表面吸收的水分向内部渗透,达到内外一致,软硬均匀,便于切制。药物质地有硬有软,润药好坏直接影响药物的质量和疗效。润法常分为浸润、淋润、晾润、露润、闷
Soft lubrication  [PDF]
J. M. Skotheim,L. Mahadevan
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.245509
Abstract: We consider some basic principles of fluid-induced lubrication at soft interfaces. In particular, we show how the presence of a soft substrate leads to an increase in the physical separation between surfaces sliding past each other. By considering the model problem of a symmetric non-conforming contact moving tangentially to a thin elastic layer, we determine the normal force in the small and large deflection limit, and show that there is an optimal combination of material and geometric properties which maximizes the normal force. Our results can be generalized to a variety of other geometries which show the same qualitative behavior. Thus they are relevant in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication of soft elastic and poroelastic gels and shells, and in the context of bio-lubrication in cartilaginous joints.
白 三 叶 抗 旱 生 理 的 研 究  [PDF]
金忠民,沙 伟
北方园艺 , 2010, DOI: 10.11937/bfyy.201018019
Abstract:
黄连酒润法  [PDF]
张红专
中国中药杂志 , 1990,
Abstract: <正>笔者通过多年的加工经验,用酒润法切制黄连,临床验证效果较好,现介绍如下。取黄连剪去须根,筛去灰屑,勿水洗。然后将黄连置入竹箩中,用竹刷子蘸水洒在黄连上,边洒边翻,反复数次,使黄连受水均
砂润法初探  [PDF]
毛维伦,许腊英,汪扬帆,肖燕
中国中药杂志 , 1993,
Abstract: <正>陈绪纶教授是经国家中医药管理局批准,被确定的全国首批继承老中医药专家学术经验的指导老师,砂润法是其多年从事中药炮制所积累的宝贵经验之一。该法是以含充足水分的砂,通过与干燥的药材表面毛细管的接触,利
辛润浅议  [PDF]
杨柳
中国中药杂志 , 1988,
Abstract: <正>《素问·脏气法时论》曰:“肾苦燥,急食辛以润之,开腠理,致津液,通气也。”对于这段经文的辛润之说,如何理解?历有争论,莫衷一是,后学则每为之困惑。为此,作者进行了探讨,现介绍如下。辛润之说首倡于《内经》。原文说:“肾苦燥,急食辛以润之。”是燥证,故须润之,此为常理。但何能以辛为之润呢?这是不容易理解的。但原文紧接着有“开腠理,致津液,通气也”数语。笔者认为,此虽寥寥数语,却也是解答了疑问的。所以甚至有人认为这九个字不是原文而为读批注文呢。张介宾在《类经》中说:“肾为水脏,藏精者也,阴病者苦燥,故宜食辛以润之。盖其能开腠理致津液者,以辛能通气也。水中有真气,唯卒能达之,气至水亦至,故可以
Lubrication of soft viscoelastic solids  [PDF]
Anupam Pandey,Stefan Karpitschka,Kees Venner,Jacco Snoeijer
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics, and in nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubrication fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as viscoelastic: soft materials are typically not purely elastic, but dissipate energy under dynamical loading conditions. We present a method for viscoelastic lubrication and focus on three canonical examples, namely Kelvin-Voigt-, Standard Linear-, and Power Law-rheology. It is shown how the solid viscoelasticity affects the lubrication process when the timescale of loading becomes comparable to the rheological timescale. We derive asymptotic relations between lift force and sliding velocity, which give scaling laws that inherit a signature of the rheology. In all cases the lift is found to decrease with respect to purely elastic systems.
Progress in experimental study of aqueous lubrication
LiRan Ma,ChenHui Zhang,ShuHai Liu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5031-4
Abstract: Aqueous lubrication is commonly regarded as friendly to the environment. We review current knowledge of the behaviors and mechanisms of aqueous lubrication. Major methods for investigating aqueous lubrication are addressed. We describe studies on both friction and film formation performance of various water-based lubricants. Additionally, we discuss possible underlying mechanisms of aqueous lubrication. Attention is also drawn to continuing topics of investigation and some unsolved problems.
Analysis on mechanism of thin film lubrication
Chaohui Zhang,Jianbin Luo,Zhiqiang Huang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2005, DOI: 10.1007/BF03183664
Abstract: It is an important concern to explore the properties and principles of lubrication at nano or molecular scale. For a long time, measurement apparatus for film thickness of thin film lubrication (TFL) at nano scale have been devised on the basis of superthin interferometry technique. Many experiments were carried out to study the lubrication principles of TFL by taking advantages of aforementioned techniques, in an attempt to unveil the mechanism of TFL. Comprehensive experiments were conducted to explore the distinctive characteristics of TFL. Results show that TFL is a distinctive lubrication state other than any known lubrication ones, and serves as a bridge between elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and boundary lubrication (BL). Two main influence factors of TFL are the solid surface effects and the molecular properties of the lubricant, whose combination effects result in alignment of liquid molecules near the solid surfaces and subsequently lubrication with ordered film emerged. Results of theoretical analysis considering microstructure are consistent with experimental outcomes, thus validating the proposed mechanism.
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