oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors  [PDF]
Yasar Guneri Sahin,Tuncay Ercan
Sensors , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/s8074365
Abstract: Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.
Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors
Yasar Guneri Sahin,Tuncay Ercan
Sensors , 2008,
Abstract: Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.
Do Invasive Fire Ants Affect Habitat Selection within a Small Mammal Community?  [PDF]
Wendee N. Holtcamp,Christopher K. Williams,William E. Grant
International Journal of Ecology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/642412
Abstract: Animals must balance foraging with the need to avoid predators and risky habitats that decrease their fitness, and at the same time they must cope with competitors vying for habitat and resources. We examined how habitat selection and population density of four native small mammals were altered by the presence of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). When population size was low, hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and pigmy mice (Baiomys taylori) as well as white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) used the “safe”, low fire ant habitat, as predicted by theories of density-dependent habitat selection. However, as fire ant population sizes expanded, cotton rats appeared to displace pigmy mice into the fire ant-dense grassland drainage while white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) displaced all the other small mammals from low fire ant forest/brushland habitat. 1. Introduction Understanding how animals select and utilize habitat is a key component of conservation and community ecology. Population size, competitor density, and predators all interact to determine habitat selection [1–7]. Animals must balance foraging with the need to avoid predators and risky habitats that decrease their fitness [8, 9], and at the same time they must cope with competitors vying for habitat and resources. This relationship between habitat heterogeneity, competitors, and predators provide a complex set of interactive effects on prey habitat use and population dynamics. Predators can affect the competitive interaction of prey species in two ways: a “density-mediated” or direct effect where there is an increase in mortality rates on prey species and a “behaviorally mediated” effect where prey alter behavior (e.g., habitat and resource use) [3, 10]. Additionally, if a nonnative species is introduced that is not in evolutionary equilibrium with the community, there is the potential for disruption of the predicted community dynamics [11, 12]. Red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta; hereafter fire ants) were inadvertently introduced to the port of Mobile, Alabama in the 1930s and have since colonized over 100 million hectares [13]. Fire ants are known to affect small mammals both directly through mortality and indirectly through behavioral modification. Directly, fire ants have been known to consume small mammals alive in traps [14] and attack the eyes and mucous membranes of vertebrates, particularly the young or injured (reviewed in [15]). Indirectly, fire ants can reduce foraging area and effort by small mammals thus rendering high-quality habitats equivalent to
Opening-up of Forests for Fire Extinguishing Purposes  [PDF]
Andrea Majlingová
Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Information on the existence of forest roads as well as their quality is important not only for planning forest management activities, but also for fire management, which includes fire risk assessment and fire suppression. In the case of fire, the level of forest opening-up has a significant influence on the attendance time of fire brigades. Not sufficiently developed road network is often reflected on the elongation of fire-fighting attack and exactingness of shuttle water relay. Therefore, the level of forest opening-up is an important indicator and factor affecting the promptness of fire-fighting activities and further fire spreading, because forest roads also represent a natural barrier against fire. A simple approach to the assessment of the level of forest opening-up has been introduced from the aspect of terrain accessibility for the available mobile fire apparatus with the use of GIS and GNSS technologies. First, the forest road network was mapped using the GNSS technology, and then the information on the quality of particular roads was collected. These data were processed in the ArcGIS 9.3 environment and as a result the geodatabase was created. It was later used to process the opening-up analysis in IDRISI Taiga environment. The opening-up analysis was performed for the Hrabusice forest management district, located in the karst area of the Slovensky raj National Park and the available mobile fire apparatus – pumping appliance CAS 32 on Tatra 148 chassis and forest special UNIMOG on Mercedes chassis. The objective of the opening-up analysis was to identify the zone where the terrain is accessible for mobile fire apparatus and where fire hose piping is admissible. It was based on computation of the maximum range of fire hose piping (maximum sidelong distance), road spacing and the index of forest opening-up. The results of this analysis are valuable as a support for decision making for foresters dealing with forest protection, road planning and construction, for fire brigades in planning fire attacks, as well as for risk managers and crisis managers.
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF FOREST FIRE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Dr. S. Sridhar,Annam Zulfigar,Paramathma Senguttuvan
Signal & Image Processing , 2012,
Abstract: Forest fire is one of those natural disasters that have been causing huge destruction in terms of loss ofvegetation, animals and hence affects the economy. Image segmentation techniques have been applied onsatellite images of forest fire to extract fire object and some data mining techniques have been used forpredicting the spread of forest fire. This paper proposes a novel approach to isolation of fire region usingtime-sequenced images, classifying fire images from non-fire images, predicting its movement andestimating the area burnt. Once the images are enhanced, the fire region is segmented out. Featureextraction provides the necessary inputs for classification of images as fire and non-fire images. Linearregression is used to predict the movement of forest fire to facilitate better evacuation strategy. Burnt areais calculated from the difference image. This work is helpful in drafting evacuation strategies quickly bypredicting the movement of forest fire and facilitates the kick-off of rehabilitation activities by identifyingand assessing the burnt area.
Forest Fire Prevention using Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
PRASHANTH,Prof K.Ashok Babu
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: Because of the rapid development of sensors, microprocessors, and network technology, a reliable technological condition has been provided for our automatic real-time monitoring of forest fires control. This paper presents a new type of early warning systems which use a wireless sensor network to collect the information of forest fire-prone sections for forest fire, wireless sensor nodes constitute a "smart" monitoring and control network through the self-organization and transmits the messages to the control center through the network, thus we can achieve the remote control of the forest fire.
Water Pressure Loss Analysis of Mobile Machine for Fire Fighting Purpose  [PDF]
CheeFai Tan,Ranjit Singh Sarban Singh,Mohd. Rizal Alkahari
International Journal of Soft Computing & Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Fire fighting is risky profession. They are not only extinguishing fires in tall buildings but also must drag heavy hoses, climb high ladders and carry people from buildings and other situations. There are many fire fighters lost their lives in the line of duty each year throughout the world. The statistics of the fire fighter fatalities are still maintain at high level every year and it may continue to increase if there is no improvement in fire fighting techniques and technology. The paper describes the water pressure loss analysis of mobile fire fighting machine prototype.
Localization of Mobile Sensors and Actuators for Intervention in Low-Visibility Conditions: The ZigBee Fingerprinting Approach
Jose V. Marti,Jorge Sales,Raul Marin,Ernesto Jimenez-Ruiz
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/951213
Abstract: Indoor localization in smoke conditions is one of the EU GUARDIANS project goals. When smoke density grows, optical sensors such as laser range finders and cameras cease to be efficient. Zigbee sensor networks provide an interesting approach due to the fact that radiofrequency signals are propagated easily in such conditions. Moreover, they permit having an alternative communication infrastructure to the emergency brigades, allowing also the implementation of localization algorithms for the mobile sensors, actuators, and firefighters. The overall localization method (i.e., ARIEL) aims to acquire the nodes position in real time during an intervention, using different sensor inputs such as laser, sonar, Zigbee, and Wifi signals. Moreover, a fine grained localization algorithm has been implemented to localize special points of interest such as emergency doors and fire extinguishers, using a Zigbee programmable high-intensity LED panel. This paper focuses on the Zigbee fingerprinting localization method used to obtain the position of the mobile sensors and actuators by training a database of radio signals for each scenario. Once this is done the proposed recognition method runs in a quite stable and accurate manner without needing any sophisticated hardware. Results compare the procedure with others such as KNN, and neural networks, demonstrating the feasibility of the method for a real emergency intervention.
Biological Sensors for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation  [PDF]
Teiti Yagura,Kazuo Makita,Hiromasa Yamamoto,Carlos F.M. Menck,André P. Schuch
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110404277
Abstract: Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the concern regarding deleterious consequences affecting both the biosphere and humans, thereby leading to an increase in scientific efforts to understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, mutagenesis, and cell death. In fact, the various UV-wavelengths evoke characteristic biological impacts that greatly depend on light absorption of biomolecules, especially DNA, in living organisms, thereby justifying the increasing importance of developing biological sensors for monitoring the harmful impact of solar UV radiation under various environmental conditions. In this review, several types of biosensors proposed for laboratory and field application, that measure the biological effects of the UV component of sunlight, are described. Basically, the applicability of sensors based on DNA, bacteria or even mammalian cells are presented and compared. Data are also presented showing that on using DNA-based sensors, the various types of damage produced differ when this molecule is exposed in either an aqueous buffer or a dry solution. Apart from the data thus generated, the development of novel biosensors could help in evaluating the biological effects of sunlight on the environment. They also emerge as alternative tools for using live animals in the search for protective sunscreen products.
Data Compression by Shape Compensation for Mobile Video Sensors  [PDF]
Ben-Shung Chow
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s90402461
Abstract: Most security systems, with their transmission bandwidth and computing power both being sufficient, emphasize their automatic recognition techniques. However, in some situations such as baby monitors and intruder avoidance by mobile sensors, the decision function sometimes can be shifted to the concerned human to reduce the transmission and computation cost. We therefore propose a binary video compression method in low resolution to achieve a low cost mobile video communication for inexpensive camera sensors. Shape compensation as proposed in this communication successfully replaces the standard Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) after motion compensation.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.