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An Econometric Analysis for CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Foreign Trade and Urbanization of Japan  [PDF]
Sharif Hossain
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2012.323013
Abstract: This paper examines the dynamic causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, foreign trade and urbanization using time series data for the period of 1960-2009. Short-run unidirectional causalities are found from energy consumption and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions, from trade openness to energy consumption, from carbon dioxide emissions to economic growth, and from economic growth to trade openness. The test results also support the evidence of existence of long-run relationship among the variables in the form of Equation (1) which also conform the results of bounds and Johansen conintegration tests. It is found that over time higher energy consumption in Japan gives rise to more carbon dioxide emissions as a result the environment will be polluted more. But in respect of economic growth, trade openness and urbanization the environmental quality is found to be normal good in the long-run.
Urbanization and physician maldistribution: a longitudinal study in Japan
Shinichi Tanihara, Yasuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Une, Ichiro Kawachi
BMC Health Services Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-260
Abstract: Our data cover six time points and span a decade: 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008. The spatial units for analysis are the secondary tier of medical care (STM) as defined by the Medical Service Law and related legislation. We examined trends in the geographic disparities in population and physician distribution among 348 STMs in Japan. We compared populations and the number of physicians per 100,000 populations in each STM. To measure maldistribution quantitatively, we calculated Gini coefficients for physician distribution.Between 1998 and 2008, the total population and the number of practicing physicians for every 100,000 people increased by 0.95% and 13.6%, respectively. However, the inequality of physician distribution remained constant, although small and mostly rural areas experienced an increase in physician to population ratios. In contrast, as the maldistribution of population escalated during the same period, the Gini coefficient of population rose. Although the absolute number of practicing physicians in small STMs decreased, the fall in the denominator population of the STMs resulted in an increase in the number of practicing physicians per population in those located in rural areas.A policy that increased the number of physicians and the physician to population ratios between 1998 and 2008 in all geographic areas of Japan, irrespective of size, did not lead to a more equal geographical distribution of physicians. The ratios of physicians to population in small rural STMs increased because of concurrent trends in urbanization and not because of a rise in the number of practicing physicians.A relative shortage of physicians in rural areas has been reported over the last few decades in Japan [1-5]. In the 1970s, the Japanese government introduced the policy of establishing at least one medical school per prefecture and increasing the total number of medical students. By the mid-1980s, the number of medical graduates, or newly certified physicians, pe
Exploration of Threshold Analysis in the Relation between Urbanization and Carbon Emissions: The Case of China  [PDF]
Qiuyuan Sun, Mingyue Wang
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2018.62032
In the process of urbanization, energy consumption has significant effect on carbon emissions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of urbanization on carbon emissions for different income levels across 29 provinces of China during 1995-2015. The improved STIRPAT model provides the theoretical foundation for this research. Then, the threshold analysis was used to assess the effect of urbanization on carbon emissions. On the basis of the average annual income, two threshold points that divide the whole sample into three groups were identified, namely, 1) an average annual income of 7400 RMB and 2) an average annual income of 16,250 RMB. The result shows that effect of urbanization on CO2 emissions varies in terms of income stages and specific regions. Finally, the policy implication was discussed.
Problems and Countermeasures in the Development of the Processing Trade between China and Japan  [cached]
Guangyu Zhang,Dan Wang
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n8p170
Abstract: Processing trade if the result of international division of labor. With the further development of opening up to the outside world and the economic globalization, the development of processing trade between China and Japan will certainly be promoted. However, in some domains, the development actuality of processing trade between China and Japan is not optimistic, and many problems still exist in concrete management, and relative policies have not be perfected. Based on that, after reviewing the deficiencies in the policy management of the processing trade between China and Japan, this article will try to find out the problems existing in the development of the processing trade between China and Japan, and propose some policies and advices strengthening the management.
Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2009,
Abstract: The present paper is aimed to give an analysis of trade ties between the EU and Japan, and to focus on most important factors which have shaped their mutual trade from 1995 until 2008. The analysis leads to the conclusion that mutual trade ties are becoming less and less important in the system of economic relations of the European Union and Japan. Despite the fact that after the year 1995 there have been relatively good conditions for the development of trade relations, the share of Japan in the aggregate volume of EU’s exports and imports has decreased, and, what is more, the EU has become a less important supply and demand market for Japan. The regression of mutual trade ties is a consequence of many factors, of which the most important are: globalization of economic activity; strong regionalization tendencies in the world economy as well as the EU’s and Japan’s trade policies towards Asian countries.
Changes in Temperatures in Okayama Area Compared with Different Urbanization Areas, Japan  [PDF]
Noriko Sakano, Nobuyuki Miyatake, Shoko Murakami, Takeshi Suzue, Tomohiro Hirao, Keiki Ogino
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22018
Abstract: To investigate the changes in temperatures in Okayama area compared with different levels of three urbanization areas such as Tsuyama, Tokyo areas and Hachijo island in Japan. Data of temperatures in Okayama (1891-2009), Tsuyama (1943-2009), Tokyo areas (1876-2009) and Hachijo Island (1907-2009) in Japan was obtained from Japan Meteorological Agency. Changes in temperatures in 4 areas in Japan were analyzed and compared. By using data from 1943 to 2009, some parameters of temperatures were significantly correlated with years. The change in parameters of temperatures in Hachijo Island was calmest among 4 areas. The changes in mean temperature in August and in a year in Okayama area for 50 years were the highest (August: 1.55?C, Year: 2.05?C) among 4 areas. In addition, correlation coefficient rate between years and the number of days over 35?C in August in Okayama area was highest (r = 0.407, p = 0.0037). Parameters of temperatures were gradually increased with years in Okayama area, especially in recent years. However, those associations were not clearly noted in Hachijo Island. In conclusion, global warming in Okayama might be accelerated more rapidly than that in Tokyo area in recent 50 years.
Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biodiversity-Conscious Farming: A Case of Stork-Friendly Farming in Japan  [PDF]
Daisuke Sawauchi, Yasutaka Yamamoto
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2015.61002
Abstract: Although agriculture can contribute to ecosystem services, it can also be a source of disservices, including loss of biodiversity and emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. In this study, we evaluate the biodiversity-conscious farming method in terms of the impact on global warming by using the life cycle assessment (LCA) taking stork-friendly farming in Japan as a case of farming method. The results show that efforts for biodiversity conservation and countermeasures against global warming may be in a trade-off relationship. The results suggest that expansion of the farming scale and switch from low-agrichemical to agrichemical-free farming may be two possible paths towards a lower carbon dioxide emission than the current level.
Mohammed Ansari,Carl H. Tong,Allen L. Bures
Essays in Economic & Business History , 2000,
Abstract: The US trade deficit with the rest of the world rose during the 1985-1995 period and the trade deficit with Japan accounted for the major share of the overall US trade deficit. This article provides measures of US trade deficits with Japan, offers an analysis of the measures of competitiveness, and discusses some macro-level factors which seem to have contributed to the large US trade deficit with Japan.
A study of dynamic econometric relationship between urbanization and service industries growth in china  [cached]
Congjun Cheng
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management , 2013, DOI: 10.3926/jiem.657
Abstract: Purpose: The paper is going to analyze that there are dynamic quantitative relationships between Chinese urbanization and service industry. Design/methodology/approach: According to the index number of value-added of service industry and town population/ total population ratio during the year of 1978 to 2012 in China, the paper is designed with models which are analyzed by ADF test, co-integration test, error correction model and Granger causality test, finally get the conclusion. Findings: The paper achieves the two conclusions, one is that urbanization is the important power of service industry’s growth; the other is that the level of urbanization improves the level of service industry recently. Originality/value: Chinese urbanization and service industry have close relationship, and they also have dynamic changes. The paper studies their dynamic changes through collecting a lot of data from the year 1978 to 2010 and developing models to make quantitative analysis, for example, tables and quotations in the paper are the best proof. At last, the paper also puts forward some suggestions after get the conclusion that Chinese urbanization is the motive power to the growth of service industry.
Analysis of the Factors Influencing Japan’s Soybean Import Trade: Based on Gravity Model  [PDF]
Jiayou Wang
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2016.62011
Abstract: Since 2004, Japan’s soybean import has been reduced gradually. In order to analyze this phenomenon, this article introduces situation of Japan’s soybean production and import, on the basis of qualitative analysis of factors influencing soybean import trade, and uses the gravity model for quantitative evaluation of the main factors influencing Japan’s soybean import trade.
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