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Comparison of the Cosmed K4b2 Portable Metabolic System in Measuring Steady-State Walking Energy Expenditure  [PDF]
Jennifer A. Schrack,Eleanor M. Simonsick,Luigi Ferrucci
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009292
Abstract: Recent introduction of the Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic analyzer allows measurement of oxygen consumption outside of a laboratory setting in more typical clinical or household environments and thus may be used to obtain information on the metabolic costs of specific daily life activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of the Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic analyzer against a traditional, stationary gas exchange system (the Medgraphics D-Series) during steady-state, submaximal walking exercise.
Evaluation of a Portable Automated Serum Chemistry Analyzer for Field Assessment of Harlequin Ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus
Michael K. Stoskopf,Daniel M. Mulcahy,Daniel Esler
Veterinary Medicine International , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/418596
Abstract: A portable analytical chemistry analyzer was used to make field assessments of wild harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) in association with telemetry studies of winter survival in Prince William Sound, Alaska. We compared serum chemistry results obtained on-site with results from a traditional laboratory. Particular attention was paid to serum glucose and potassium concentrations as potential indicators of high-risk surgical candidates based on evaluation of the field data. The median differential for glucose values (=82) between methods was 0.6 mmol/L (quartiles 0.3 and 0.9 mmol/L) with the median value higher when assayed on site. Analysis of potassium on site returned a median of 2.7 mmol/L (=88 ; quartiles 2.4 and 3.0 mmol/L). Serum potassium values were too low for quantitation by the traditional laboratory. Changes in several serum chemistry values following a three-day storm during the study support the value of on site evaluation of serum potassium to identify presurgical patients with increased anesthetic risk.
Clinical Performance of a Novel Portable epoc Analyzer for Arterial Blood Gas and Electrolyte Testing in Operating Rooms
Shigekazu Sugino, Yoshiya Ishioka, Shun-suke Tachibana, Tomo Hayase and Michiaki Yamakage
Medical Equipment Insights , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/MEI.S9056
Abstract: Background: A new blood gas analyzer (epoc , Epocal Inc.) has recently been developed for the ambulatory monitoring of respiration and electrolyte balance. However, the accuracy of this instrument has not been fully elucidated. The present study compares the performance of the epoc analyzer and a conventional bench-top analyzer in operating rooms. Materials and Methods: Fifty blood samples were collected from anesthetized surgical patients and three samples were collected from volunteers into syringes containing lithium heparin. pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+ Ca2+, glucose, lactate and hemoglobin levels were measured using both the epoc and calibrated ABL700 analyzers (Radiometer). Data were statistically analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Results: Results showed excellent agreement between the values measured using the epoc analyzer and those obtained using the ABL700 analyzer, except for Na+. Conclusions: The epoc analyzer is useful in clinical settings, including operating rooms.
Turn Control of a Three-Dimensional Quasi-Passive Walking Robot by Utilizing a Mechanical Oscillator  [PDF]
Ying Cao, Soichiro Suzuki, Yohei Hoshino
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.62013
Abstract:

A turn control strategy is proposed in order to improve environmental adaptability of a quasi-passive walking robot by utilizing a mechanical oscillator. The target trajectory of the fmechanical oscillator is determined by online planning of its period, phase, amplitude and angle of the central axis of oscillation. The motion of the mechanical oscillator is always entrained with the rocking motion of the robot based on forced entrainment in order to stabilize the robot. The turn radius can be controlled by adjusting the inclination angle of the central axis of the mechanical oscillator movement, and the control method is numerically and experimentally examined. Results show that the robot can turn with different radius and it is possible for the robot to walk in various environments. Finally, the gait of turn is compared with that of straight walking and analyzed in terms of mechanical work and energy.

Effects of a 6-month exercise program pilot study on walking economy, peak physiological characteristics, and walking performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease
Crowther RG, Leicht AS, Spinks WL, Sangla K, Quigley F, Golledge J
Vascular Health and Risk Management , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S30056
Abstract: ts of a 6-month exercise program pilot study on walking economy, peak physiological characteristics, and walking performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease Original Research (2057) Total Article Views Authors: Crowther RG, Leicht AS, Spinks WL, Sangla K, Quigley F, Golledge J Published Date April 2012 Volume 2012:8 Pages 225 - 232 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S30056 Received: 19 January 2012 Accepted: 01 March 2012 Published: 17 April 2012 Robert G Crowther1, Anthony S Leicht1, Warwick L Spinks1, Kunwarjit Sangla2, Frank Quigley2, Jonathan Golledge2,3 1Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; 2Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; 3The Vascular Biology Unit, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia Abstract : The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-month exercise program on submaximal walking economy in individuals with peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication (PAD-IC). Participants (n = 16) were randomly allocated to either a control PAD-IC group (CPAD-IC, n = 6) which received standard medical therapy, or a treatment PAD-IC group (TPAD-IC; n = 10) which took part in a supervised exercise program. During a graded treadmill test, physiological responses, including oxygen consumption, were assessed to calculate walking economy during submaximal and maximal walking performance. Differences between groups at baseline and post-intervention were analyzed via Kruskal–Wallis tests. At baseline, CPAD-IC and TPAD-IC groups demonstrated similar walking performance and physiological responses. Postintervention, TPAD-IC patients demonstrated significantly lower oxygen consumption during the graded exercise test, and greater maximal walking performance compared to CPAD-IC. These preliminary results indicate that 6 months of regular exercise improves both submaximal walking economy and maximal walking performance, without significant changes in maximal walking economy. Enhanced walking economy may contribute to physiological efficiency, which in turn may improve walking performance as demonstrated by PAD-IC patients following regular exercise programs.
Security Perception of a Portable PC User (The Difference Between Medical Doctors and Engineers): A Pilot Study
Kre?imir ?oli?,,Vesna Ilakovac
Medicinski Glasnik , 2009,
Abstract: Aim The aim of this pilot study was to compare knowledge on securitythreats and habits in dealing with computer security issues.Methods Two groups of researchers and teaching staff, portablepersonal computer (PC) users, coming from different environmentswere included in the study: School of Medicine (n=19) andSchool of Electrical Engineering (n=20). Participants were askedto complete an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 21 questionsabout basic demographic data, years of using PC, years ofowning/using portable PC, position at the School, habits in dealingwith security issues and knowledge about potential securitythreats.Results Both groups demonstrated similar pattern of behaviourin dealing with security issues. Participants from the School ofElectrical Engineering showed a higher level of knowledge inthree questions about security experts’ terminology (Fisher’s exactP<0.05 for all questions). Results also showed a very low frequencyof making security backups.Conclusion The results of this pilot study indicate that workingenvironment and background do not have a great impact on behaviourof highly educated portable PC users in connection withsecurity issues. However, it seems that information about the importanceof security backups should be presented more often toeach PC user.
A Comparative Analysis of Subjective Quality of the Mobility between a New Portable Electric Transportation Mode and Walking  [PDF]
Hiroyuki Ohta,Haruyuki Matsumoto,Daisuke Fukuda,Satoshi Fujii
International Journal of Vehicular Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/876892
Abstract: To analyze the psychological impacts of the introduction of new portable electric transportation modes, we implemented an experiment using a personal mobile vehicle (PMV). We investigated its effects on 2 types of the subjective quality of mobility (SQM): instrumental aspects including “easiness” and “speed”: and affective aspects including “enjoyment,” “seeing scenery,” and “enjoying the atmosphere.” The result indicated that PMV might contribute to the improvement of the instrumental aspects of SQM, but walking was regarded as more preferable in terms of the affective aspects. The results suggest that such a new transportation mode could contribute to the improvement of subjective quality of mobility, if and only if it can be introduced in an appropriate situation. 1. Introduction In the recent years, various personal mobility devices (PMDs) such as powered wheel chairs, scooters, and Segways have been developed with needs for high personal mobility in the aged society and for mitigating the environmental problem and so forth, since PMDs might be alternative travel modes to automobile in a short-trip travel. in Japan, especially the Segway has been sold for companies since 2006; “i-real” and “PIXY,” which are new PMDs on a conceptual phase, were exhibited at the Tokyo Motor Show 2007. These situations imply that new PMDs might be introduced into our society in the near future. PMDs might contribute to the improvement of personal mobility, but they could also cause some negative problems such as accidental risk, vehicles’ congestion, and health depression. To cope with these problems, Rodier et al. [1] tested the safety of low-speed transportation modes in the pedestrian environment, and Litman [2] suggested an appropriate way to manage some PMDs on nonmotorized facilities including walkways, sidewalks, and paths. Kin et al. [3, 4] proposed evaluation items of PMDs considering the human factors in terms of safety and risk and suggested the road assignment for various PMDs It is necessary to ensure the safety of PMDs, or to consider the road space assignment before these new vehicles will come into our society. However, it is still unclear how PMDs would influence the quality of people’s mobility. One can assume that there would be various psychological influences in terms of, for instance, comforts or enjoyments. 2. Quality of Mobility 2.1. Intrinsic Value of Travel Travel is not only a derived demand for the activities but also an activity for the travel itself. That means travel is not always regarded as a “cost” to be minimized, but travel has also
Assessing the Intensity of Dog Walking and Impact on Overall Physical Activity: A Pilot Study Using Accelerometry  [PDF]
Elizabeth A. Richards, Philip J. Troped, Eunjung Lim
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.47062
Abstract:

Introduction: Despite a growing body of research indicating that dog walking contributes to meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines, this literature is limited by the use of self-report measures of dog walking and overall PA. The objectives of this pilot study were to objectively assess dog walking with accelerometry, characterize the frequency, duration, and intensity of dog walking, and determine the contribution of dog walking to overall moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods: Sixty-five dog owners wore an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer for up to 7 consecutive days and recorded start/end times for dog walks with daily log sheets. Each minute with an activity count ≥ 760 was classified as MVPA. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize all variables. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between dog walking MVPA bouts and meeting PA guidelines, controlling for age, education, income, and gender. Results: Participants walked their dog an average of 1.2 ± 1.1 times/day, averaged 28.0 ± 15.6 minutes/walk, and accumulated 22.9 ± 17.5 minutes of MVPA/day during dog walks, of which 21.7 ± 17.9 minutes were accumulated in bouts ≥10 minutes. Seventy-eight percent of dog walking was classified as moderate-intensity and 3.5% was vigorous. Dog walking MVPA had a statistically significant positive association with meeting PA guidelines (OR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.06, 5.08). Conclusions: The majority of dog walking minutes were moderate-intensity and most minutes of MVPA during dog walking occurred in bouts. These findings suggest that dog walking is consistent with current PA guidelines for adults and should receive more consideration as a PA promotion strategy.

Motivations and barriers to utilizing adult walking buses: An examination of demographic correlates of willingness to participate in a community-based walking program  [PDF]
Adrienne Milner, Elizabeth Baker, Virginia Sisiopiku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.39070
Abstract:

Walking buses are a way to increase physical activity by encouraging people to walk rather than rely on motorized forms of transportation. Several communities support walking school buses as an alternative mode of pupil transportation to schools. A possible extension of this concept is the introduction of adult walking buses. Given the novelty of the concept, very little is currently known about the public’s perceptions regarding adult walking buses and their potential effectiveness to increase physical activity and decrease obesity among adults. To bridge this gap, this study examined motivations and barriers to participation in an adult walking bus program in Birmingham, Alabama using a comprehensive questionnaire survey. Analysis of over 340 responses revealed a positive reception of the concept among the survey responders. More specifically, 60.1% of the sample reported they would definitely or probably participate in a walking bus program. Results from nested ordinal logistic regression analysis indicate that health benefits are the strongest motivation for willingness to participate in a walking bus program. Sensitivity to environmental issues is also a significant predictor of willingness to participate across models. The most significant barrier to willingness to participate in a walking bus program is limited time. The significance of demographic variables (obesity, race/ ethnicity, and age) as predictors of willingness to participate is reduced once motivations and barriers are controlled. In conclusion, the positive response to the program among our sample is encouraging and suggests that adult walking buses should be explored further as an active alternative transportation option with a potential to improve the health and wellbeing of participants.

What is my walking neighbourhood? A pilot study of English adults' definitions of their local walking neighbourhoods
Graham Smith, Christopher Gidlow, Rachel Davey, Charles Foster
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-34
Abstract: We conducted 58 face-to-face interviews with participants randomly selected from 10 areas of Stoke-on-Trent, England. Participants were shown printed maps showing their local area with road names and places of interest (e.g. shops, services, green space) and were asked: (i) to recall usual walking destinations (from their home); (ii) to draw their 'neighbourhood walking area' on the map. Annotated maps were scanned back into GIS for analysis.When asked to draw their 'neighbourhood' boundary, the resulting area drawn by participants on average represented only 16 ± 20% of the commonly used total straight-line buffer of 1 mile (or 1.6 km) with a range of 0.3% to 111%. Even when repeated using a network buffer (rather than straight-line) the same comparison resulted in a mean of 36% (± 47%) and a range of 0.6 to 245%.We found that adults' interpretation of their neighbourhood area does not appear to relate accurately to the definitions typically used in research into environmental perceptions and walking. This mis-match warrants further investigation as definitions used in existing measures may be consistently misclassifying perceived local walking neighbourhoods.Policy makers are increasingly recognising that creating environments to encourage healthy behaviours and discourage unhealthy behaviours may help to reduce health inequalities [1]. This recognition has seen the introduction of legislative and environmental interventions to shape choices across a number of delivery sectors including transport, education and urban planning [2]. The negative impact of the built environment has been seen as a contributing factor to non-communicable disease, including cardio-vascular disease, cancer and obesity [1,3,4]. This impact has focused research to examine the relationship between the environment and different risk factors (e.g. physical inactivity) using the socio-ecological models of behaviour [5].Growth in environmental studies examining the socio-ecological correlates o
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