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宋代应策时文概论  [PDF]
诸葛忆兵
- , 2016,
Abstract: 宋代应策时文最早出现在制科考试中,熙宁三年进士殿试,首次采用制策问答的方式考试,此后,殿试以策取士,大致沿袭不变。熙宁以后,士人逐渐将更多的学习热情转移到策问的写作上。殿试制策,考核士人两个方面的能力:对现实政治弊病的了解和应对方案,综合分析、归纳等逻辑思考能力和语言表达能力。宋代士人必须时时联系现实政治思考问题,他们进入仕途后,热衷于变革,时而大胆批评朝政,直抒己见,这与应策考试的训练有一定的关系。从格式角度考察,制策需要考核考生对现实社会和政治的多方面综合思考的能力,一道制策中总是提出多个问题。所以,应策时文事实上是由多篇政论文组成,与平常一题一议的政论文不同。应策时文受题目、时间、地点的限定,又有考试录取的现实目的,考生为了进入仕途,必须揣摩帝王或当政者的想法,以此作为应策时文的主要论点,贯穿全文。更有甚者,恶意攻击当时政坛上受排挤压迫的政治派别,应策时文遂堕落为朝廷鹰犬。此外,考生有个人经历的局限,回答问题时又有诸多功名利禄的考虑,面对现实政治和制策提问,绝大多数应策时文不可能提供深刻的见解,空疏肤浅是应策时文的通病。
Abstract:The stratagem and suggestion writing first appeared in the zhike examination (a special imperial examination in the Song Dynasty). In the palace examination in 1070, the text took a form of policy-making questionnaire. Afterwards, this kind of examination was regularized and inherited through dynasties. Thus scholars gradually devoted more efforts into stratagem and suggestion writing. In palace examination, two capacities were considered important: knowledge of political ills and corresponding policies, comprehensive analysis and expression ability. Song scholars, who were requested to consider problems with the context of real politics, were keen to make changes and bold in criticizing the government, which could be partly related to the training before examination. From the perspective of the format, the system needed to assess the candidates of comprehensive thinking on social and political dimensions, and usually had several questions under one subject. Therefore, the answering sheet was actually composed of a few pieces of article, different from the one-question-one-answering sheet. As the policy essays were limited by subject, time and place, with practical purposes in addition, most candidates tried to cater for the rulers in praise of the current politics. They would figure out the real thought of authority and took it as the main argument of the essay. Some of them went so far in malicious attacks against the groups in disadvantage. Limited by personal experiences and consideration on fame and fortune, most policy essays could not provide insightful opinions. Shallow emptiness was the common defect
Rotor-Router Aggregation on the Comb  [PDF]
Wilfried Huss,Ecaterina Sava
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We prove a shape theorem for rotor-router aggregation on the comb, for a specific initial rotor configuration and clockwise rotor sequence for all vertices. Furthermore, as an application of rotor-router walks, we describe the harmonic measure of the rotor-router aggregate and related shapes, which is useful in the study of other growth models on the comb. We also identify the shape for which the harmonic measure is uniform. This gives the first known example where the rotor-router cluster has non-uniform harmonic measure, and grows with different speeds in different directions.
大型风力发电机偏航系统控制策究现状及展望  [PDF]
沈小军,杜万里
电工技术学报 , 2015,
Abstract: 偏航系统控制策略直接决定着风力发电系统的经济效益。本文在介绍偏航系统工作原理的基础上,把风力发电机偏航系统控制策略分为重启对风策略和执行对风策略,并分别评述了研究现状。分析结果表明当前业界的研究热点主要集中于偏航系统执行对风策略方面,偏航系统重启对风策略新的研究开展较少。文中在量化分析偏航系统实际运行数据、风电场风速风向实测数据及风电机组功率曲线的基础上,指出传统的偏航系统重启对风策略存在过多将偏航系统寿命消耗在低风速区的不足,影响了偏航系统寿命周期综合经济效益;偏航系统重启对风策略制定需综合考虑风电场实际风能特征、风电机组发电功率特征等因素,研究能实现偏航系统动作寿命的高效利用的新型重启对风策略具有重要的价值,值得关注。
周代策命的礼仪背景及文体特点  [PDF]
董芬芬
- , 2013,
Abstract: 周代策命是周天子策封赏赐诸侯或臣下的仪式上使用的实用文体,一般在太庙举行策命仪式时颁布,见证者为傧者,宣读者多为内史,有时是尹氏或其他史官。周代策命形成稳定的体制,通常包括封赏的原因、具体的赏赐及教导与勉励三部分。周代策命语言诚挚恳切,语气温润亲切,典雅舒缓,成为后世策命文体模仿的典范。
The Single-Photon Router  [PDF]
Io-Chun Hoi,C. M. Wilson,G?ran Johansson,Tauno Palomaki,Borja Peropadre,Per Delsing
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.073601
Abstract: We have embedded an artificial atom, a superconducting "transmon" qubit, in an open transmission line and investigated the strong scattering of incident microwave photons ($\sim6$ GHz). When an input coherent state, with an average photon number $N\ll1$ is on resonance with the artificial atom, we observe extinction of up to 90% in the forward propagating field. We use two-tone spectroscopy to study scattering from excited states and we observe electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We then use EIT to make a single-photon router, where we can control to what output port an incoming signal is delivered. The maximum on-off ratio is around 90% with a rise and fall time on the order of nanoseconds, consistent with theoretical expectations. The router can easily be extended to have multiple output ports and it can be viewed as a rudimentary quantum node, an important step towards building quantum information networks.
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE CLICK MODULAR Router and the NetFPGA Router  [PDF]
Leonardo Linguaglossa,Alfio Lombardo,Diego Reforgiato,Giovanni Schembra
International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications , 2011,
Abstract: 1It is possible to forward minimum-sized packets at rates of hundreds of Mbps using commodity hardware and Linux. We had a preference for the Click Modular Router platform due its flexibility and the fact that it claimed to have equal or higher performance than native forwarding if used with its polling drivers. Moreover, the NetFPGA is an open networking platform accelerator that enables researchers and instructors to build working prototypes of high-speed, hardware-accelerated networking systems. NetFPGA reference designs comprised in the system include an IPv4 router, an Ethernet switch, a fourport NIC, and SCONE (Software Component of NetFPGA). Researchers have used the platform to build advanced network flow processing systems. We have followed the RFC1242 - Benchmarking Terminology for Network Interconnection Devices - and the RFC2544 - Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnection Devices - in order to define the specific set of tests to use to describe the performance characteristics of the two routers. We have also shown a test comparison between the NetFPGA and the Click router about a file transfer using the FTP and the HTTP protocol.Overall, the NetFPGA router performance outperforms the Click router performance.
The Rotor-Router Model  [PDF]
Lionel Levine
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: Building on earlier work of Diaconis and Fulton (1991) and Lawler, Bramson, and Griffeath (1992), Propp in 2001 defined a deterministic analogue of internal diffusion-limited aggregation. This growth model is a "convergent game" of the sort studied by Eriksson (1996). In one dimension, we show that the model is equivalent to a simple dynamical system with three integer-valued parameters; an invariant of this dynamical system yields links between the behavior of the system and diophantine approximation of quadratic irrationals. In two dimensions, we give constraints on the shape of the occupied region, as well as evidence for the proposition that the asymptotic shape of the boundary, suitably rescaled as time goes to infinity, is a circle. While the rotor-router model displays many of the same intriguing features as the Bak-Tang-Weisenfeld abelian sandpile model, we suggest that the new model is likely to be easier to analyze rigorously.
The rotor-router group of directed covers of graphs  [PDF]
Wilfried Huss,Ecaterina Sava
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: A rotor-router walk is a deterministic version of a random walk, in which the walker is routed to each of the neighbouring vertices in some fixed cyclic order. We consider here directed covers of graphs (called also periodic trees) and we study several quantities related to rotor-router walks on directed covers. The quantities under consideration are: order of the rotor-router group, order of the root element in the rotor-router group and the connection with random walks.
新发现唐朝最早''策学''之作考证  [PDF]
龚延明
浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版) , 2013,
Abstract: ?唐初的科举考试,不论进士科、明经科、制科都试策问。为了应对科考,举子习作策论,官员也撰写作为辅导性质的策论,大量策论遂应运而生,从而在唐代形成一种特殊文体———策论。研究唐代的策论,则成为“策学”。时至今日,唐代时务策留存甚少,能够确定的最早的科场进士时务策,为贞观间上官仪之进士对策。至于作为习作或辅导性质的策学之作,有学者认为中唐诗人白居易成书于元和间的《白氏策林》四卷是唐代留存至今的最早策学著作。其实,迄今为止所能见到的唐代保存至今的最早策学之作,当属日藏《令集解》中所载唐太宗贞观初魏徵撰写的进士《时务策》,它比《白氏策林》早出一百七十年左右。
書報述評  [PDF]
B.P.Urarov?
气象学报 , 1941, DOI: 10.11676/qxxb1941.014
Abstract: 主要氣象要素,對於一般昆蟲之活動,究有若何之影響乎?本文特對此有趣味之問題,分為温度,濕度,降水,光及輻射,雲量,風,氣壓及大氣帶電情況等八項討論之,文中數噱,雖僅限某數種昆蟲,然吾人固可由此區區者,而窺得此問題之全豹也。(一)温度(1)温度與昆蟲遷移之關係。因温度之改變,蝗蟲幼蟲遂有成羣遷移之現象,為温度影響昆蟲浩動最佳之證明,惟開始遷移之温度,則因種類不同,而各有異。
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