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Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Proinflammatory Responses by Buddleja officinalis Extract in BV-2 Microglial Cells via Negative Regulation of NF-kB and ERK1/2 Signaling  [PDF]
Won-Jun Oh,Uhee Jung,Hyun-Soo Eom,Hee-June Shin,Hae-Ran Park
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18089195
Abstract: Buddleja officinalis has been traditionally used in the supportive treatment of inflammatory and neuronal diseases in Korea and China. Although several reports have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of Buddleja officinalis, the anti-neuroinflammatory effect has remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of flower buds of B. officinalis Maximowicz water extract (BOWE) on LPS-induced inflammatory processes in BV-2 microglial cells. BOWE dose-dependently inhibited the production of nitric oxide as well as iNOS mRNA expression. Moreover, BOWE prevented IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression. However, BOWE had no effect on LPS-induced COX-2 or TNF-a mRNA expression. The extract also had no effect on LPS-stimulated p38 MAPK, JNK, and c-Jun phosphorylation, whereas ERK1/2 phosphorylation was strongly inhibited by BOWE. BOWE also inhibited the LPS-induced degradation of IkB-α, and LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65 NF-kB protein. These data indicate that BOWE inhibited the nitric oxide production and pro-inflammatory gene expression in BV-2 microglial cells, possibly through a negative regulation of the NF-kB and ERK1/2 pathways. Further identification of the direct target molecule(s) of BOWE is required to support its use as an anti-neuroinflammatory agent against the neurodegenerative disorders.
Effects of eye drops of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. extract on lacrimal gland cell apoptosis in castrated rats with dry eye
Qing-hua PENG
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To explore the possible mechanism of eye drops of Buddleja officinalis extract in treating dry eye of castrated rats by analyzing the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. Methods: Forty-five Wistar male rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, untreated group and eye drops of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. extract (treatment) group. The dry eye model was established with orchiectomy in the untreated group and treatment group. Rats in the treatment group were treated with eye drops of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. extract, one drop once, three times daily. Eyes of rats in the sham-operated group and untreated group were instilled with normal saline. After one-, two-, or three-month treatment, five rats in each group were scarified respectively. Then samples were taken to detect related indices. Expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 of lacrimal gland were checked by immunohistochemical method and quantity of apoptotic cells was counted.Results: After one-, two- or three-month treatment, the quantities of expressions of Bax in acinar epithelial cells and glandular tube cells were significantly lower, and those of Bcl-2 were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the untreated group, and the quantities of apoptotic cells of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the untreated group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The main components of extract of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. are flavonoids, which can significantly inhibit cell apoptosis in lacrimal gland.
Induction of Adipocyte Differentiation by Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in 3T3-L1 Cells  [PDF]
Emily W. Y. Tung, Adèle Boudreau, Michael G. Wade, Ella Atlas
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094583
Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants that were extensively used in commercial products. PBDEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are both lipophilic and bioaccumulative. Effects of PBDEs on adipogenesis were studied in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model in the presence and absence of a known adipogenic agent, dexamethasone (DEX). A PBDE mixture designed to mimic body burden of North Americans was tested, in addition to the technical mixture DE-71 and the individual congener BDE-47. The mixture, DE-71, and BDE-47 all induced adipocyte differentiation as assessed by markers for terminal differentiation [fatty acid binding protein 4 (aP2) and perilipin] and lipid accumulation. Characterization of the differentiation process in response to PBDEs indicated that adipogenesis induced by a minimally effective dose of DEX was enhanced by these PBDEs. Moreover, C/EBPα, PPARγ, and LXRα were induced late in the differentiation process. Taken together, these data indicate that adipocyte differentiation is induced by PBDEs; they act in the absence of glucocorticoid and enhance glucocorticoid-mediated adipogenesis.
Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture
Botelho, Adriana Prais;Santos-Zago, Lilia Ferreira;Oliveira, Admar Costa de;
Revista de Nutri??o , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-52732009000500017
Abstract: supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid may reduce fat body mass and increase lean body mass in various species. some studies have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat, in part, by inhibiting the activity of lipoprotein lipase in adipocytes. the objective of this work was to study the effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3t3-l1 adipocyte culture. 3t3-l1 adipocytes received linoleic acid (group c) or conjugated linoleic acid (group ae, supplemented with advantedge? cla, and group co, supplemented with cla one?) in concentrations of 1 mmol/l. heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity was analyzed by means of a 3t3-l1 adipocyte culture. after 7 days, heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity was lower in the groups ae and co supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. these results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which cla is capable of reducing body fat is by reducing lipoprotein lipase activity.
Anthocyanidins-enriched bilberry extracts inhibit 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation via the insulin pathway
Rieko Suzuki, Masami Tanaka, Masakatsu Takanashi, Aashiq Hussain, Bo Yuan, Hiroo Toyoda, Masahiko Kuroda
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-8-14
Abstract: Utilizing 3T3-L1 cell line, we investigated that bilberry extracts and anthocyanidins induced inhibition of lipid accumulation during adipogenesis. To identify what is the most important bilberry mediated-effect, we analyzed the expressions of key transcriptional factors associated with adipocyte differentiation by Real Time (RT)-PCR. From the results of RT-PCR, we hypothesized that bilberry extracts and anthocyanidins blocks insulin signal, we determined the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein by western blotting analysis. In addition, we compared the whole-genome expression profiles of early stage of adipocyte differentiation under four different growth conditions (DMSO, bilberry, two anthocyanidins) by microarray analyses and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA).Exposure to bilberry extracts and anthocyanidins during adipocyte differentiation inhibited 3T3-L1 differentiation. During this period, bilberry extracts and anthocyanidin significantly decreased a key adipocyte differentiation-associated marker, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (Ppar γ ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c). Western blotting analysis showed that bilberry extracts and anthocyanidin decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of IRS1. In addition, microarray experiments and GSEA data revealed significantly altered expression of the known genes of the insulin pathway in cells treated with bilberry extracts or anthocyanidins in the early differentiation stages.Our data demonstrate that anthocyanidin enriched bilberry extracts strongly inhibit the adipocyte differentiation via the insulin pathway. Furthermore, bilberry extracts might be used as a potential complementary treatment for the obese patients with metabolic syndrome.Obesity is the main cause of metabolic syndrome. It can lead to various complications, including hardening of the arteries and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, and there
The Mixed-Lineage Kinase DLK Is a Key Regulator of 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation  [PDF]
Jean-Philippe Couture, Alex Daviau, Julie Fradette, Richard Blouin
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004743
Abstract: Background The mixed-lineage kinase (MLK) family member DLK has been proposed to serve as a regulator of differentiation in various cell types; however, its role in adipogenesis has not been investigated. In this study, we used the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line as a model to examine the function of DLK in adipocyte differentiation. Methods and Findings Immunoblot analyses and kinase assays performed on 3T3-L1 cells showed that the expression and activity of DLK substantially increase as differentiation occurs. Interestingly, DLK appears crucial for differentiation since its depletion by RNA interference impairs lipid accumulation as well as expression of the master regulators of adipogenesis C/EBPα and PPARγ2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, neither the expression nor the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, an activator for C/EBPα and PPARγ, is affected by DLK loss. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that DLK is important for expression of mature adipocyte markers and that its action most likely takes place via regulation of C/EBPβ transcriptional activity and/or initiation of C/EBPα and PPARγ2 gene transcription.
Bisphosphonates and adipogenesis: Evidence for alendronate inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through a vitamin D receptor mediated effect  [PDF]
C. Mammi, M. Calanchini, A. Antelmi, A. Feraco, L. Gnessi, S. Falcone, F. Quintarelli, G. M. Rosano, A. Fabbri, M. Caprio
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.58116
Abstract:

Background: Adipocyte and osteoblast derive from the same mesenchimal progenitor. Age-related decrease in bone mass is accompanied by an increase in marrow adipose tissue. Vitamin D3 (VD3) inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Recently it has been demonstrated that alendronate (ALN) inhibits adipogenesis while promoting osteoblast differentiation of mesenchimal stem cells. Aim of the Study: To evaluate the role of ALN on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and the potential synergic role of VD3 co-treatment. Procedures: Murine 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A preadipocytes were routinely differentiated in presence of ALN and VD3 10-9 - 10-7 M for 7 days and then stained with Oil Red O. The effect of these treatments on mRNA expression of the main molecular markers of adipocyte differentiation (PPARγ and C/EBPα) and VD Receptor (VDR) were analyzed through RT-PCR. Results: Both ALN and VD3 showed a marked anti-adipogenic effect on 3T3-L1 cells. Co-incubation of ALN 10-8 M and VD3 10-9 M displayed no synergic effect on inhibition of adipogenesis. PPARγ mRNA expression was significantly reduced by ALN and VD3. mRNA expression of C/EBPα was reduced only by VD3 treatment. An increase in VDR mRNA expression of 3T3-L1 cells was observed with both ALN and VD3. On the contrary, 3T3-F442A cells, which are in a more advanced adipogenic differentiation stage compared to 3T3-L1, did not express detectable levels of VDR. Interestingly, adipose differentiation of 3T3-F442A was not affected by ALN nor VD3. These results suggest that VDR may represent the molecular target of the anti-adipogenic effect of ALN. Conclusion: VDR plays a critical role in mediating the anti-adipogenic effect of ALN. Further studies to clarify this mechanism are warranted.

Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Gallotannins from Galla Rhois with Inhibitory Effects on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells  [PDF]
O Jun Kwon,Jong-Sup Bae,Ha Yeong Lee,Ju-Young Hwang,Eun-Woo Lee,Hideyuki Ito,Tae Hoon Kim
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules180910629
Abstract: Activity-guided isolation of a methanolic extract of Galla Rhois using pancreatic lipase and 3T3-L1 adipocytes led to the isolation of seven phenolic compounds: protoaphin- fb ( 1), 2- O-digalloyl-1,3,4,6-tetra- O-galloyl-b-D-glucose ( 2), 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-b-D-glucose ( 3), 1,2,4,6-tetra- O-galloyl-b-D-glucose ( 4), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxy-phenol 1- O-b-D-glucoside ( 5), methylgallate ( 6), and gallic acid ( 7). Their structures were established on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase, and compounds 1-5 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on this enzyme, with IC 50 values ranging from 30.6 ± 2.4 to 3.5 ± 0.5 mM. In addition, the highly galloylated compound 2 was also found to induce potent inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.
Effect of Caralluma Fimbriata Extract on 3T3-L1 Pre-Adipocyte Cell Division  [PDF]
Soundararajan Kamalakkannan, Ramaswamy Rajendran, Ramasamy V. Venkatesh, Paul Clayton, Mohammad A. Akbarsha
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24047
Abstract: A standardized extract of the plant Caralluma fimbriata (Slimaluma?) is widely used in the management of obesity but its mode of action is not yet clarified. This study investigated the ability of Caralluma fimbriata extract (CFE) to modify pre-adipocyte cell division and thus the development of hyper-plastic obesity. Mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line samples were treated with different concentrations of an extract of CFE standardized against its pregnane glycoside content. Plain medium formed the negative control and hydroxyurea was the positive control. The cells were counted at 12-hour intervals, and their viability tested using the MTT assay. The treated cells were subjected to direct and indirect immunofluorescent assays for cyclin D1. CFE inhibited 3T3-L1 cell growth in a dose and duration-dependent manner, with results comparable to those produced by hydroxyurea. The viability of CFE-treated cells was reduced. Direct and indirect immunofluorescent assays demonstrated that CFE inhibits import of cyclin D1into the nucleus. CFE appears to inhibit pre-adipocyte cell division by interfering with a mechanism preceding the import of cyclin D1-CDk4/6 complex into the nucleus during the early G1 phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that CFE has the potential to inhibit hyperplastic obesity.
Mammalian Ste20-Like Kinase and SAV1 Promote 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation by Activation of PPARγ  [PDF]
Byoung Hee Park, Dae Soon Kim, Gun Woo Won, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Byung-Chul Oh, YoungJoo Lee, Eung-Gook Kim, Yong Hee Lee
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030983
Abstract: The mammalian ste20 kinase (MST) signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle control. We sought to understand the role of MST2 kinase and Salvador homolog 1 (SAV1), a scaffolding protein that functions in the MST pathway, in adipocyte differentiation. MST2 and MST1 stimulated the binding of SAV1 to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a transcription factor that plays a key role in adipogenesis. The interaction of endogenous SAV1 and PPARγ was detected in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This binding required the kinase activity of MST2 and was mediated by the WW domains of SAV1 and the PPYY motif of PPARγ. Overexpression of MST2 and SAV1 increased PPARγ levels by stabilizing the protein, and the knockdown of SAV1 resulted in a decrease of endogenous PPARγ protein in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. During the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes, MST2 and SAV1 expression began to increase at 2 days when PPARγ expression also begins to increase. MST2 and SAV1 significantly increased PPARγ transactivation, and SAV1 was shown to be required for the activation of PPARγ by rosiglitazone. Finally, differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells was augmented by MST2 and SAV1 expression and inhibited by knockdown of MST1/2 or SAV1. These results suggest that PPARγ activation by the MST signaling pathway may be a novel regulatory mechanism of adipogenesis.
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