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Assessment of Irrigation Dynamics on Vegetable Production Safety in the Accra Metropolis
Sylvester Achio, Felix Kutsanedzie, Edmund Ameko
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101889
Abstract: This work assessed modes of irrigation on vegetable production in fifty (50) vegetable gardens from ten (10) sampled areas in the Accra Metropolis. Irrigation water sources include: pipe, segment, gutter, dug-well, dam, river, and drains. Demographic survey, nature of the surrounding of the water bodies, physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of irrigation waters were carried out and contrasted with standard values. The analysis of the parameters of various water samples was within the accepted standard values, except the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) value for the irrigation water from Opeibea (3020) and Kasoa (340), which were relatively high compared to standard value of 250. The faecal coliform counts for irrigation water at Abossey-Okai are also high (1150/100 ml) compared to the standard values of 1000/100 ml irrigation water. The vegetable farming was found to be a male dominated activity (86%), mostly practised by 21 - 30 year age group (69%). However the education levels of farmers are low; 70% either do not have formal education or only up to primary education levels. A greater percentage (68%) of the water used for irrigation was waste water, mostly from gutters and segments. Proper management practices of effluent are recommended for vegetable production.
Impact of Urban Agriculture on the Species Distribution and Insecticide Resistance Profile of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles coluzzii in Accra Metropolis, Ghana  [PDF]
Joseph Chabi, Miracle C. Eziefule, Rebecca Pwalia, Joannitta Joannides, Dorothy Obuobi, Godwin Amlalo, Charlotte A. Addae, Iddrisu Alidu, Dominic Acquah-Baidoo, Samuel Akporh, Sampson Gbagba, Kwadwo K. Frempong, Melinda P. Hadi, Helen Pates Jamet, Samuel K. Dadzie
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2018.63016
Abstract: Malaria incidence in urban areas has generally been low compared to rural areas but recent data indicate that urban malaria remains a public health problem. It is therefore important to understand the factors that promote urban malaria to help formulate future vector control strategies. This study compared Anopheles gambiae s.l. (A. gambiae s.l.) species composition, distribution and insecticide resistance mechanisms between vegetable and non-vegetable growing areas in Accra Metropolis. Four sites were selected within the city of Accra which comprised of two vegetable-growing and two non-vegetable growing areas. WHO susceptibility tests were carried out on adults A. gambiae s.l. reared from larvae collected from the sites. Five insecticides were tested and the A. gambiae complex, resistance genotypes and enzyme activities of each population were characterized. All A. gambiae s.l. populations tested were resistant to all the insecticides, but relatively lower mortalities were observed in the vegetable growing areas. The mortality against 0.05% deltamethrin was 2.6% (Opeibea) and 12.5% (Korle-Bu) for the vegetable growing areas and 36.2% (Achimota) and 38.9% (Mataheko) in the non-vegetable growing areas. Anopheles gambiae s.s. (95% of Opeibea population) and Anopheles coluzzii, (98% of Korle-Bu population) were the dominant species in the vegetable growing areas. The voltage-gated sodium channel (Vgsc-1014F) frequencies of all the populations were similar but the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1) frequencies were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in Korle-Bu and Mataheko populations. High level of P450s and esterases were observed in the A. gambiae s.l. from Opeibea than from the other areas. The contribution of urban agriculture in the development of insecticide resistance needs to be considered in the formulation of future vector control strategies alongside other domestic usages.
Evaluation of Effluent Quality Used for Irrigation of Vegetable Production in Different Districts of Potowar, Pakistan  [PDF]
Tahir Hussain Chattha,Mateen ul Hassan Khan,Muhammad Imran Latif
Journal of Agronomy , 2005,
Abstract: A study was conducted in different districts of Potowar region to evaluate the quality of sewage for irrigation purposes and heavy metal contents in sewage water. Sewage samples were collected from 25 sewage irrigated farms around Rawalpindi, Attock and Abotabad districts. Electrical conductivity of the samples ranged from 0.55-2.36 dS m-1. Sixty percent of the samples did not pose salinity hazard while forty percent were marginally fit for irrigation. Sodium adsorption ratio ranged from 0.24 to 4.36 showing that all the samples were low in Na contents. RSC varied from 0.0-8.1 mmol L-1 in the sewage samples under study; 59% of the samples had < 2.0 mmol L-1 of RSC showing that sewage represented by these samples had no risk of NaHCO3 hazard when applied to soils. Chloride contents in the samples were in the range of 0.5 to 4.7 mmol L-1 and were within safe limits. Zn and Pb contents in the sewage of various locations were found within safe limits (< 2.0 and 5.0 mg L-1, respectively) while Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr concentrations were found to exceed the maximum permissible limits. The effluent of areas under investigation are mixture of both domestic and industrial wastewater, high levels of HCO3- from washing soaps and detergents and excess of heavy metals from different industrial sources were present in the effluent. Therefore, sewage irrigation may cause deterioration of soil quality by causing salinity and introducing excessive contents of HCO3- in soils and poses health hazards by increasing heavy metal contents in vegetables and crops.
Microbiological quality of “Khebab” consumed in the Accra metropolis
D Agbodaze, PNA Nmai, FC Robertson, D Yeboah-Manu, K Owusu-Darko, KK Addo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: The study was carried out in 2003 to evaluate the microbial load in “khebab”, meat products from pork, and beef, which are vended in most of the streets and some public drinking places, either with alcoholic or non-alcoholic drinks. Osu (Alata), Nima-Kotobabi and Central Accra (Adabraka – very close to the main lorry station), all in the Accra Metropolis, were selected for the investigation. The main reason for the selection of these sites was based on the population density as well as patronage for the khebab. Our main interest for this investigation was to assess the microbial load in khebab as far as enteric pathogen and other pathogenic micro-organisms reported earlier in the raw meat are concerned. Thirty samples of khebab were bought from these sampling points. Results obtained from samples at Osu recorded mean total plate count (TPC) of 5.02, Accra Central samples had TPC of 4.08 and those from Nima had TPC of 4.80 log10 colony-forming units (cfu) per gram of khebab. Samples from Accra Central recorded the highest mean coliform count (5.12) whist samples bought from Osu and Nima recorded 4.41 and 3.70 log10 cfu/g respectively. Accra Central samples again recorded the highest faecal coliforms (4.4 log10 cfu/g) as compared to 3.98 and 3.80 log10 cfu/g for samples bought from Osu and Nima respectively. Salmonella ssp were not isolated from the samples bought at the three sampling sites. Khebab samples from sites were contaminated with E. coli, other gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus species, whose virulence factor(s) are yet to be determined. The faecal coliforms enumerated could originate from either humans or the animals slaughtered for the khebab. Staphylococcus species could originate from the vendors. Vendors have to be educated on hygienic practices which could help reduce risks of food-borne infection. Skin disinfection can be done by a thorough wash. Vendors could also be educated to stop selling their products to customers once they have bouts of diarrhoea, vomiting and “fever”. Washing of their hands with soap and water before serving their customers could also help reduce the risk of food-borne infection from eating their products.
DESIGN OF DRIP IRRIGATION SET FOR SMALL VEGETABLE GARDENS
Ngozi Rita EDOGA,M. O. EDOGA
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2006,
Abstract: The need for an affordable small scale irrigation system in most small gardens in Nigeria today is on increase and as a result an attempt has been made to design a drip irrigation set for small vegetable gardens. The drip irrigation set dimensionally consists of a main line diameter of 12.7 mm, three lateral lines of diameter 19.05 mm and emitters of diameter 1.5 mm spaced 60 cm along the lateral lines. The emitters discharge rate was found to be 2.12 litres / hour and this will hopefully complete one irrigation of the area (5 m x 10 m) designed for 4 hours at peak consumptive use periods, employing two shifts of the three laterals.
Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Patients Diagnosed with HIV in Accra and Kumasi Metropolis
I Baidoo, RR Boatin, T Adom, D Datohe, T Voure, D Bansa, C Brown, A Diaba
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2012,
Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is RNA virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In Ghana the AIDS epidemic is spreading very fast in densely populated areas with higher numbers of cases occurring in the southern regions especially the densely populated capitals such as Kumasi, Koforidua and Accra as well as mining towns like Obuasi and Tarkwa, and in border towns. Data was collected from Accra and Kumasi on socio-economic backgrounds such as age, sex, education, marital status, household size, among others with a structured questionnaire and analysed using statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. About 72% females and 28% males were interviewed with close to 74% lying between 22 to 40 age brackets. Also 63% of these completed JHS/Middle school, Seventeen (36.1%) are married people, 15 (31.9%) widowed. Majority of them are Akans who are also Christians with different denominations. Among these people, 20 (42.6%) of them are unemployed, and 3 (6.4%) claimed to be self-employed in various disciplines. Most of them said they use condoms as contraceptives in order to prevent the spread of the disease. Income level of the respondents predominantly lies between GH¢50.00- GH¢450.00 per annum. Some of the interventions for preventing the disease include promoting abstinence and faithfulness, promoting reductions in the number of sexual partners, encouraging delays in the onset of sexual activity among others.
Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Level in Groundwater from Selected Areas in Accra Metropolis
E.J.M. Nguelem,E.O. Darko,M.M. Ndontchueng,C. Schandorf
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of this present study was to assess natural radioactivity levels in selected groundwater (boreholes and wells) used as domestic purposes in particular and drinking as well in some communities in Adentan and Abokobi areas in Greater Accra region of Ghana. This was achieved by first measuring the activity concentration of 222Rn, 40K and 232 232Th in groundwater samples using High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. These concentrations of 40K, 222Rn and 232Th were used with their ingested dose conversion factors to estimate annual effective dose for Adult members of public due to consumption of the groundwater. The estimated average annual effective dose due to consumption of 40K, 222Rn and 232Th in the water samples from Adentan and Abokobi were 113.007±3.940 and 76.568±2.321 μSv/y, respectively. These were compared with the estimated average annual dose due to ingestion of nuclides in water by the WHO (100 μSv/y) and the estimated average dose due to ingestion of radionuclides in food and water (290 μSv/y) by UNSCEAR (2000). They are found within the range even though Adentan value is slightly higher than the WHO average value. The results show that consumption of groundwater may not pose any radiological health hazard to the public.
Variation in Metal Contents of Plants in Vegetable Garden Sites in Kano Metropolis
AA Audu, AO Lawal
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2006,
Abstract: The concentrations (mg/Kg) of Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in seven different vegetables which were obtained from sharada, kwakwachi and Jakara irrigation gardens in the Kano metropolis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Samples were collected during both dry and rainy seasons. The mean levels of metals obtained ranged widely from 0.34 mg/Kg Cr to 27.35 mg/Kg Fe. The relative abundance of metals in vegetables analyzed followed the sequence Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Co > Cr. Reductions of metal levels ranging from 8.25% Fe in onion to 45.19% Ni in Okra were recorded in rainy season samples over those of the dry season. @JASEM
LOW HEAD IRRIGATION PROJECTS OF WATERING VEGETABLE AND FRUIT GROPS Низконапорные оросительные системы для полива овощных и плодовых культур  [PDF]
Degtyareva K. A.
Polythematic Online Scientific Journal of Kuban State Agrarian University , 2013,
Abstract: In this article, the analysis of the developed local irrigation system with the simultaneous nutrient application is given. On the basis of the experimental data, the author pointed out that to solve the problem, the process design ensuring sufficient application of nutrients for growing vegetable and fruit crops is required. The fertilizer and water mixing device according to the Patent #2448450 is considered
Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lettuce Grown in Soils Irrigated with Different Water Sources in the Accra Metropolis
Mark O. Akrong,Samuel J. Cobbina,Joseph A. Ampofo
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the levels of different heavy metals like Iron, Manganese, Copper, Zinc, Cadmium and Lead in three different irrigation water sources, irrigated soils and irrigated lettuce. The result indicates positive and significant correlation of heavy metals concentrations between the irrigation water, irrigated soils and irrigated lettuce. The range of various heavy metals in drained water irrigated lettuce was 162.00-190.00, 60.25-78.25, 6.03-8.80 and 23.88-52.00 mg/kg in Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn, respectively. Generally, mean heavy metal concentrations of the water, soil and lettuce from two vegetable growing sites were within the FAO/WHO recommended maximum concentrations for crop production. Although the levels of heavy metals in the irrigation water, irrigated soils and irrigated lettuce were below the recommended limits, regular monitoring of these metal levels from these sources is essential to prevent excessive heavy metal buildup in vegetables in general.
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