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Three New Phytoecdysteroids Containing a Furan Ring from the Roots of Achyranthes bidentata Bl.  [PDF]
Qiu-Hong Wang,Liu Yang,Hai Jiang,Zhi-Bin Wang,Bing-You Yang,Hai-Xue Kuang
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16075989
Abstract: Three new phytoecdysteroid compounds, named niuxixinsterone A (1), B (2) and C (3) with acetal functions in the side-chain were isolated from Achyranthes bidentata Bl. The structures were established as (20R,22R,24S)-20-O,22-O-(5′-hydroxymethyl)-furfurylidene-2β,3β,14α,25-tetrahydroxy-5β-ergost-7-en-6-one (1), (20R,22R)-20-O,22-O-(5′-hydroxymethyl)-furfurylidene-2β,3β,25-trihydroxy-14β-methyl-18-nor-5β-cholesta-7,12-dien-6-one (2) and (20R,22R,25R)-20-O,22-O-(5′-hydroxymethyl)-furfurylidene-2β, 3β,5β,14α,26-pentahydroxycholest-7-en-6-one (3) by means of spectroscopic evidence.
Antibacterial, In vitro Lipid per Oxidation and Phytochemical Observation on Achyranthes Bidentata Blume
P. Uma Devi,S. Murugan,S. Suja,S. Selvi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of Achyranthes bidentata against seven different microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilin, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas species and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The values of zone of inhibition were measured and compared with standard values. All the extracts of root, stem, leaves and flowers showed high sensitive to Proteus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilin, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, moderate and less sensitivity to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas species. The antiperoxidative effect of various parts of Achyranthes bidentata was also done. Goat liver was used as the lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by the measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the experimental mixtures of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that the ethanolic extracts of Achyranthes bidentata root and flowers possessed significant in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities, which is possibly attributed to its free radical scavenging properties. All the parts of plant extracts were subjected to qualitative analysis to find out phytoconstituents present in them. Results showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, and steroids and the absence of saponins, glycosides and tannins.
The Anomalous Structures of Achyranthes bidentata Blume(Amaranthaceae)

LI Jin-Ting,GAO Peng,ZHU Ming-Wei,HU Zheng-Hai,

植物科学学报 , 2008,
Abstract: 应用植物解剖学方法研究了牛膝(Achyranthes bidentata Blume)轴器官中异常结构的发育过程.研究结果表明,在牛膝根的发育过程中,其初生生长和早期的次生生长类似于一般双子叶植物.以后在正常维管柱的外围发生4~5轮额外形成层,并以双向活动方式形成同心环状排列的三生维管束和其间的薄壁结合组织.而在牛膝的茎中存在两种不同类型的异常结构.在茎的发育过程中,当次生维管束分化将完成时,由其外侧保留的1~2层原形成层细胞恢复分裂能力产生一轮额外形成层,额外形成层活动形成一轮三生维管束.茎中的2个外韧型髓维管束也来源于原形成层,与正常维管束在位置上没有相关性,但其结构类型存在多样性,有时可形成不完全的周木型髓维管束.
The Influence of Polysaccharides from the Roots of Achyranthes bidentata on Biochemical Parameters Related to Oxidative Stress Induced by Exhaustive Exercise of Rats
Jinyang Lin,Zhuoying Zhang
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.4693.4696
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polysaccharides from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata (ABP) on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress by measuring related biochemical parameters of rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group): one control group and three ABP administered groups. The control group was given saline solution and the administered groups were given different doses of ABP (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1) by gavage once a day. After 21 days, the rats performed an exhaustive exercise test on a graded treadmill, along with the determination of related oxidative stress parameters. The results showed that ABP could significantly increase Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT) activities, decrease Malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in muscle of rats which meant that ABP effectively attenuates oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise.
Chemical Constituents from Roots of Achyranthes bidentata

TANG Xin,PEI Gang,ZHOU Zhong-yu,TAN Jian-wen,

热带亚热带植物学报 , 2013,
Abstract: 为了解中药材牛膝(Achyranthes bidentata Blume)根中的有效成分,用色谱技术从牛膝根中分离得到12个化合物。经波谱分析分别鉴定为:水龙骨甾酮B (1),shidasterone (2),齐墩果酸(3),齐墩果酸-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸-6′-O-甲酯 (4),竹节参苷Ⅳa甲酯 (5),N-顺式阿魏酰基酪胺(6),N-顺式阿魏酰-3-甲氧基酪胺(7),N-反式阿魏酰基酪胺(8),N-反式阿魏酰-3-甲氧基酪胺(9),(9E)-8,11,12-三羟基-十八碳烯酸(10),(9E)-8,11,12-三羟基-十八碳烯酸甲酯(11)和亚油酸(12)。其中化合物2、6、7和10~12为首次从牛膝中分离得到。这有利于对牛膝根进行更好地开发利用。
Intravenous Administration of Achyranthes Bidentata Polypeptides Supports Recovery from Experimental Ischemic Stroke in Vivo  [PDF]
Hongmei Shen, Xinmin Wu, Yuzhong Zhu, Hualing Sun
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057055
Abstract: Background Achyranthes bidentata Blume (A. bidentata) is a commonly prescribed Chinese medicinal herb. A. bidentata polypeptides (ABPP) is an active composite constituent, separated from the aqueous extract of A. bidentata. Our previous studies have found that ABPP have the neuroprotective function in vitro and in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in attenuating the brain infract area induced by focal ischemia-reperfusion. However, the ultimate goal of the stroke treatment is the restoration of behavioral function. Identifying behavioral deficits and therapeutic treatments in animal models of ischemic stroke is essential for potential translational applications. Methodology and Principal Findings The effect of ABPP on motor, sensory, and cognitive function in an ischemic stroke model with MCAO was investigated up to day 30. The function recovery monitored by the neurological deficit score, grip test, body asymmetry, beam-balancing task, and the Morris Water Maze. In this study, systemic administration of ABPP by i.v after MCAO decreased the neurological deficit score, ameliorated the forepaw muscle strength, and diminished the motor and sensory asymmetry on 7th and 30th day after MCAO. MCAO has been observed to cause prolonged disturbance of spatial learning and memory in rats using the MWM, and ABPP treatment could improve the spatial learning and memory function, which is impaired by MCAO in rats, on 30th day after MCAO. Then, the viable cells in CA1 region of hippocampus were counted by Nissl staining, and the neuronal cell death were significantly suppressed in the ABPP treated group. Conclusion ABPP could improve the recovery of sensory, motor and coordination, and cognitive function in MCAO-induced ischemic rats. And this recovery had a good correlation to the less of neuronal injury in brain.
Achyranthes bidentata Polypeptides Reduces Oxidative Stress and Exerts Protective Effects against Myocardial Ischemic/Reperfusion Injury in Rats  [PDF]
Ru Tie,Lele Ji,Ying Nan,Wenqing Wang,Xiangyan Liang,Fei Tian,Wenjuan Xing,Miaozhang Zhu,Rong Li,Haifeng Zhang
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms141019792
Abstract: Achyranthes bidentata, a Chinese medicinal herb, is reported to be neuroprotective. However, its role in cardioprotection remains largely unknown. Our present study aimed to investigate the effects of Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides (ABPP) preconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury and to test the possible mechanisms. Rats were treated with ABPP (10 mg/kg/d, i.p.) or saline once daily for one week. Afterward, all the animals were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by 4 h of reperfusion. ABPP preconditioning for one week significantly improved cardiac function following MI/R. Meanwhile, ABPP reduced infarct size, plasma creatine kinase (CK)/lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and myocardial apoptosis at the end of reperfusion in rat hearts. Moreover, ABPP preconditioning significantly inhibited superoxide generation, gp91 ph ox expression, malonaldialdehyde formation and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in I/R hearts. Furthermore, ABPP treatment inhibited PTEN expression and increased Akt phosphorylation in I/R rat heart. PI3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked Akt activation, and abolished ABPP-stimulated anti-oxidant effect and cardioprotection. Our study demonstrated for the first time that ABPP reduces oxidative stress and exerts cardioprotection against MI/R injury in rats. Inhibition of PTEN and activation of Akt may contribute to the anti-oxidant capacity and cardioprotection of ABPP.
Pharmacognostic investigations of Achyranthes aspera Linn.  [cached]
Brij Raj Singh,Sanjay Yadav,Satyawan Singh,Lokesh Brind
International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Aims & objective: Some pharmacognostical investigations were carried out on the leaves, stems and roots of Achyranthes aspera Linn to record parameters for identifying and differentiating various species of Achyranthes. Methods: The research specimens were authenticated and preserved both in fresh and dry forms. The leaves and stems were morphologically screened followed by anatomical studies with the aid of Labphot 2 microscopic units. Powder microscopy and micrometric studies, including leaf constants, were performed using suitable tools and reagents under different magnifications. Important observations and results: The leaves were petiolate and opposite, decussate, elliptic-obovate, acute apex with decurrent base, abaxial surfaces which turned blackish on storage, and had irritant smell with a slightly bitter taste. The vein islets were squarish and polygonal. Covering and glandular trichomes; anisocytic and anomocytic stomata were evident. Anomalous secondary growth of xylem and phloem in stem and roots; Vessels were helical, spiral and pitted; rosette shaped calcium oxalate crystals were also evident.
Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the crude petroleum spirit and methanol extracts of the stem bark, leaves and roots of Ficus thoningii (blume)
IG Ndukwe, AI Bello, JD Habila, C John
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Ficus thoningii which has some traditional medicinal uses was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the stem bark, leaves and roots gave positive results for carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins and alkaloids. Antimicrobial screening of the crude petroleum spirit and methanol extracts showed activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Providencia stauti and Bacillus subtilis but no activity was observed against Salmonella typhi. The crude petroleum spirit extracts of the leaves and stem bark of the plant had minimum inhibitory concentrations at 50 mg/ml while the roots had no minimum inhibitory concentration at the test concentration. The crude methanol extracts of the various plant parts showed minimum inhibitory concentration at 50 mg/ml on all the pathogens tested for.
M. A. Mansury,N Manocha,V. Deshmukh
Journal of Global Pharma Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.1234/jgpt.v2i12.322
Abstract: Phytoecdysteroids are plant derived ecdysteroids.Chemically they are classed as triterpenoids, the group of compounds that includes triterpene saponins, phytosterols, and phytoecdysteroids. Only Plants, synthesize phytoecdysteroids from mevalonic acid in the mevalonate pathway of the plant cell. 20-hydroxyecdysone is basic moeity possessing the cholesterol nucleus, is present in Ajuga turkestanica (Labiatae), Vitex glabrata (Verbenaceae), etc. Ecdysteroids attribute their desired effects by influencing signal transduction pathways, like the anabolic steroids; possibly via membrane bound receptors (Do not bind to the cytosolic steroid receptors). Experimental findings on ecdysteroids have indicated their anabolic and cholesterol level reducing effects and antiglycaemic activity. Ecdysteroid- containing preparations are recommended for hypotension, hepatoprotective, immunoprotective, antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents. It also can be used as a novel drug molecule with potent biological activity as it possess basic steroidal moiety but have higher margin of safety as compared to the chemical steroid derivatives (with low margin of safety). Further research is envisaged towards the search of new phytoecdysteroid molecules and also optimization of techniques involved in extraction and isolation of potent phytochemicals so as to preserve its pharmacological properties.
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