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Microbiological Profile of Some Ghanaian Herbal Preparations—Safety Issues and Implications for the Health Professions  [PDF]
Joseph A. Ampofo, Anthonia Andoh, Wilhermina Tetteh, Mohammed Bello
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.23018
Abstract: Thirty-one herbal preparations produced and sold on the Ghanaian market were randomly purchased from sales outlets and analyzed for their microbiological quality by testing for the presence of total coliform bacteria, faecal coliform bac- teria, and total heterotrophic bacteria count. Also tested for was detection of pathogenic bacteria such as the Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. Opportunistic bacterial pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and mould were also tested for. The herbal preparations tested came from different processing companies and in- cluded those labeled as suitable for treating arthritis, asthma, anaemia, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, cough, hypertension, dysmenorrhoea, malaria, urine retention and loss of appetite. Aliquots of the various herbal products were cultured on various selective media. Eight (8) of the products showed the presence of all microorganism analyzed for including the pathogenic ones and are recommended not be used. Five (5) of the products did not have any microorganism present. Eleven (11) products showed the presence of only total heterotrophic bacteria and the values ranged from 1 to 94 cfu per ml. These two groups of total of sixteen (16) products can be used without any microbiological risk. Another three (3) products showed presence of only total heterotrophic bacteria but the values ranged from 118 to 1648 cfu per ml. Majority of the herbal preparations showed the presence of pathogenic bacteria. These three products may pose danger to the user can be used with caution. None of the herbal products recorded the presence of Enterococcus spp.
Antibacterial activity of some powdered herbal preparations marketed in Kaduna metropolis
D Abba, H.I Inabo, S.E Yakubu, OS Olonitola
Science World Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the phytochemical components and the antibacterial activities of some powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal shops and retail outlets in different parts of Kaduna metropolis. Extracts obtained from the herbal preparations were screened for the presence of secondary metabolites using established procedures. Also, antibacterial activities of the extracts were evaluated. Carbohydrates and tannins were identified in 105 (70%) and 101 (67.3%) of the samples respectively. Alkaloids were found in 97 (64.7%); saponins were detected in 91 (60.7%), while anthraquinones, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were identified in 82 (54.7%), 80 (53.3%) and 60 (40%) of the herbal preparations respectively. All the methanolic extracts had inhibitory activities on the test bacterial isolates at various minimum inhibitory concentrations: 81 (54%) had inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, 74 (49.3%) on Escherichia coli, 74 (49.3%) on Salmonella typhi and 63 (42%) on Shigella spp. The uses of these products in herbal medicine are justified. However, further works are needed to identify the chemical nature of the active substances as well as their modes of actions on the bacterial cells and their roles in disease curing.
The use of herbal preparations for tick control in western Ethiopia  [cached]
A. Regassa
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v71i4.722
Abstract: Information on the traditional tick control methods used in Keffa, Illubabor and Wellega Provinces in western Ethiopia was obtained from 86 veterinary clinics and 865 peasant farmers through a questionnaire survey. Latexes of Euphorbia obovalifolia and Ficus brachypoda, juice of crushed leaves of Phytolaca dodecandra and Vernonia amygdalina, fruit juice of Solanum incanum, crushed seeds of Lepidium sativum mixed with fresh cattle faeces, juice of crushed leaves and bark of Calpurnea aurea and commercially available spice of Capsicum spp. mixed with butter, were used by peasant farmers to control ticks. Preliminary in vitro efficacy tests of these plant preparations were performed on engorged female Boophilus decoloratus. Preparations of Capsicum spp., E. obovalifolia, S. incanum and F. brachypoda were found to have 30-100 % killing effects. Subsequently, in vivo treatment trials of these preparations were conducted using indigenous Bos indicus cattle naturally infested with ticks. Results indicate that treatments at the rate of once per day for 5 consecutive days with the latexes of E. obovalifolia and F. brachypoda can reduce tick burdens by up to 70 % on cattle.
Use of certain herbal preparations in broiler feeds - A review  [cached]
Tirupathi Reddy Eevuri,Ramya Putturu
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.172-179
Abstract: The importance and use of herbal remedies (turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera etc.) has been reviewed systematically. Turmeric (curcumin), acts as an antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiinflamatory and antimicrobial agent and protect liver against a variety of toxicants. Tulsi (eugenol) have anticancer properties, reduced blood glucose levels, total cholesterol levels and promotes immune system function. Amla, richest source of vitamin-c and it's active tannoid principles have antimicrobial, antidiabetics, anticarcinogenic properties and enhances immune property. Aloe vera contains phytochemicals (Saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols), which is an indication of cosmetic and medicinal value. Turmeric, tulsi, amla and aloe vera preparations increased the body weight gain, feed efficiency and decreased the feed intake. These preparations decreased the mortality rates and the cost of feed has been decreased from 6.2% to 13.5%. They have reduced the fat accumulation, increased dressing percentage, liver weight, spleen weight and whole giblet weights. Significant reduction of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides and increased the humoral response against RD vaccine. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000): 172-179]
In-Vitro Studies on the Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to Some Ethno-Medicinal Preparations Sold around Kano, Nigeria
M Bashir, I Yusuf, AS Kutama
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Five traditional herbal preparations were sampled between May-June, 2009 in Kano. The samples were investigated for invitro antibacterial activities against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Likewise, phytochemical screening tests were conducted to determine some of the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic and water extracts of the samples. Various concentrations of the extracts were prepared using serial doubling dilutions (5000=l/ml, 2500=g/ml, 1250=g/ml, 625=g/ml and 312.5=g/ml). All the test extracts showed slight antibacterial activity against the test organism, with ethanolic extract of sample E having the highest zone diameter of inhibition, while sample H had the lowest diameter of inhibition. The standard antibiotic disc (Gentamicin) had demonstrated the highest activity on the test organisms. The results of the Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroid in all the samples, tannin in samples A, C, D and E, reducing sugars in sample A, D and E respectively. The result of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to be above 312.5=g/ml for samples C, D and E.
Evaluation of Microbiological Safety of Herbal Concoctions Sold in Some Markets in Gabasawa and Nassarawa Local Government Areas in Kano State
PU Ebo, MD Mukhtar, DW Taura
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: A study was carried out on the microbial safety of herbs sourced from some markets in Gabasawa Local Government and Nassarawa Local Government Areas in Kano state. A total of 12 different sample of herbal concoctions were collected from vendors in 2 market from the two Local Government Areas. Enumeration of coliform count, and aerobic bacterial count were carried out using MPN (Most Probable Number) and pour-plate techniques respectively. Enumeration of fungi was also carried out using pour-plate technique. Specific pathogens were also isolated and characterized using standard procedures. The result showed that coliform counts ranged between <3 and >2, 4000 MPN/ML. the mean aerobic viable bacterial count/ml ranged between <3 x 102 cfu/ml and TNC (too numerous to count) cfu/ml, while that of fungal counts ranged from <1x101 to TNC cfu/ml. the occurrence of Escherichia coli is 58.33%, yeast (75%), Aspergillus spps. (41.67%). Penicillium spps. (16.67%), Mucor spps. (33.33%), Rhizopus spps. (41.67%). The findings showed a high microbial contamination among the varieties of concoctions sampled. Adoption of hygiene and good manufacturing practices are therefore recommended as they can improve safety and acceptability of herbal preparations.
QUANTITATIVE AAS STIMATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN MARKETED AYURVEDIC CHURNA PREPARATIONS IN INDIA  [PDF]
Munish Garg* and Jaspreet Singh
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Churna preparations are an important and widely used form of Ayurvedic herbal formulations in India. These are prepared by mixing powdered form of single or mixture of several crude drugs meant to be dispensed as such. Since the quality of raw material plays an important role in the overall quality of a herbal formulation due to common practice of collecting and processing medicinal plants from different geographical sources and the fact presence of certain trace elements and heavy metals have a great significance in this matter, the present study is based on the screening of 19 popular herbal Churna preparations sold in the Indian market for the quantitative analysis of essential trace and toxic heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrometry. Heavy metals like Pb, Cd and trace metals like Ca, Mg, Al, Cu, Zn were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) and heavy metals such as As and Hg were determined by hydride generation technique (cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometery). The results reveal that among the trace (micronutrients) metals Ca and Mg were found in highest amount. Sixteen samples for Hg content and eight for Pb content were exceeding the WHO permissible limits. Arsenic was found below the permissible limit while Cd was above the permissible limit in all the tested samples. In conclusion, the quality of herbal Churna preparations sold in India market is questionable and need to be regulated efficiently before launching in to the market. Besides, the present paper provides a simple, convenient and reliable AAS method for the quantitative analysis of trace and heavy metals in herbal products which can be utilized for industrial purpose.
Self-medication with nutritional supplements and herbal over-thecounter products
Tolga Eichhorn,Henry Johannes Greten,Thomas Efferth
Natural Products and Bioprospecting , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13659-011-0029-1
Abstract: In recent years, the popularity increased for nutritional supplements and herbal products. Prescription drugs, but not herbal therapies are paid by health insurances. They are sold over-the-counter (OTC) on the patients’ own expense. However, there are potential risks of self-medication, e.g. incorrect self-diagnosis, severe adverse reactions, dangerous drug interactions, risk of addiction etc. They are often used by patients at their own discretion without knowledge of and control by their physicians. Certain users are at risk of intoxication. Multiple medications taken by older patients increase the risk for adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and compliance problems for this age group (polypharmacy). Herbals should be discontinued prior to operations to avoid interactions with anesthetics or anticoagulants. Herbal preparations may also be carcinogenic or interfere with cancer treatments. Pregnant women use various OTC preparations. However, in many cases, it is unclear whether their use is safe for mother or baby. Self-medication with herbals is also largely distributed among anxious and depressive patients, and patients with other conditions and symptoms. The popularity of herbal products has also brought concerns on quality, efficacy and safety. Cases of botanical misidentification, contaminations with heavy metals, pesticides, radioactivity, organic solvents, microbials as well as adulteration with chemical drugs necessitate the establishment of international quality control standards. Hepatotoxic effects have been reported for more than 300 plant species, and some commonly used herbs have been demonstrated to interact with Western medication. Health care professionals have a critical responsibility assessing the self-care ability of their patients. Databases are available for pharmacists with information on action, side effects and toxicities as well as herb-drug interactions. There is a need for established guidelines regarding the correct use of nutritional supplements and herbal OTC preparations (phytovigilance). Physicians, pharmacists, and other health care professionals have to counsel patients and the general public on the benefits and risks associated with herbal drugs. Information centers for consumers and general practitioners are needed, and convincing evidence on safety and efficacy of herbal products has to be demonstrated in placebo-controlled, double blind and randomized clinical trials.
Comparative Microbial Quality of Jedi Drinks Sold in Two Major Cities in Nigeria  [PDF]
M.O. Osungunna,B.B. Oluremi,I. Talabi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: The microbial quality of ten samples of Jedi herbal preparations sold for the treatment of anal fistula in major motor parks of Sagamu and Ibadan, both in Nigeria was studied and compared. Phytochemical analysis of the samples revealed that all the samples contained Saponins and Tannins. Alkaloids and cardenolides were also present to varying extent. These secondary metabolites are known to be responsible for the prevention of anal fistula. 100% contained Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 80% from Sagamu contained Klebsiella spp; 60% from Ibadan contained Bacillus spp, 30% of the samples contained Staphylococcus aureus and 70% contained fungi. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns revealed that the Gram-negative isolates were most sensitive to ofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic while the Gram-positive isolates were most sensitive to Streptomycin, an aminoglycoside.
Development and Validation of a Combined Methodology for Assessing the Total Quality Control of Herbal Medicinal Products – Application to Oleuropein Preparations  [PDF]
Nikolaos Lemonakis, Evagelos Gikas, Maria Halabalaki, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078277
Abstract: Oleuropein (OE) is a secoiridoid glycoside, which occurs mostly in the Oleaceae family presenting several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, cardio-protective, anti-atherogenic effects etc. Based on these findings OE is commercially available, as Herbal Medicinal Product (HMP), claimed for its antioxidant effects. As there are general provisions of the medicine regulating bodies e.g. European Medicines Agency, the quality of the HMP’s must always be demonstrated. Therefore, a novel LC-MS methodology was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of OE and its main degradation product, hydroxytyrosol (HT), for the relevant OE claimed HMP’s. The internal standard (IS) methodology was employed and separation of OE, HT and IS was achieved on a C18 Fused Core column with 3.1 min overall run time employing the SIM method for the analytical signal acquisition. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation requirements and the results show adequate linearity (r2 > 0.99) over a wide concentration range [0.1–15 μg/mL (n=12)] and a LLOQ value of 0.1 μg/mL, for both OE and HT. Furthermore, as it would be beneficial to control the quality taking into account all the substances of the OE claimed HMP’s; a metabolomics-like approach has been developed and applied for the total quality control of the different preparations employing UHPLC-HRMS-multivariate analysis (MVA). Four OE-claimed commercial HMP’s have been randomly selected and MVA similarity-based measurements were performed. The results showed that the examined samples could also be differentiated as evidenced according to their scores plot. Batch to batch reproducibility between the samples of the same brand has also been determined and found to be acceptable. Overall, the developed combined methodology has been found to be an efficient tool for the monitoring of the HMP’s total quality. Only one OE HMP has been found to be consistent to its label claim.
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