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Efficacy of Static and Intermittent Gravity Inverted Therapy Techniques in Improvement of Motor Apraxia and Cognitive Abilities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  [PDF]
Ahmed M. Azam
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2018.82025
Abstract: This work was carried out to investigate the efficacy of static and intermittent gravity inverted therapy techniques in improvement of motor apraxia and cognitive abilities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). 30 children were randomly joined in this study into two groups; Group A (sensory integration therapy approach plus static and intermittent inversion therapy techniques) and Group B (sensory integration therapy approach only). Block design test was used to locate and follow constructional apraxia, computerized information processing speed test to locate and follow cognitive processing and grooved pegboard test was used to locate and follow fine motor skills. The variance between pre- and post-treatment results was highly significant in the study group in all variables. By comparison of the two groups in constructional apraxia variables test at post-treatment, there was a highly representative elevation in favour to study groups (p < 0.05). By comparison of the two groups in cognitive processing variable at post-treatment, there was a highly representative elevation in favour to study group (p < 0.05). By comparison of the two groups in fine motor skills variable at post-treatment, there was a highly representative elevation in favor to study group (p < 0.05). According to the outcomes of this study, it can be terminated that the sensory integration therapy approach plus static and intermittent inversion therapy techniques can be recommended in improvement constructional apraxia and cognitive processing abilities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children.
Cognitive Loading Affects Motor Awareness and Movement Kinematics but Not Locomotor Trajectories during Goal-Directed Walking in a Virtual Reality Environment  [PDF]
Oliver Alan Kannape, Arnaud Barré, Kamiar Aminian, Olaf Blanke
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085560
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive loading on movement kinematics and trajectory formation during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The secondary objective was to measure how participants corrected their trajectories for perturbed feedback and how participants' awareness of such perturbations changed under cognitive loading. We asked 14 healthy young adults to walk towards four different target locations in a VR environment while their movements were tracked and played back in real-time on a large projection screen. In 75% of all trials we introduced angular deviations of ±5° to ±30° between the veridical walking trajectory and the visual feedback. Participants performed a second experimental block under cognitive load (serial-7 subtraction, counter-balanced across participants). We measured walking kinematics (joint-angles, velocity profiles) and motor performance (end-point-compensation, trajectory-deviations). Motor awareness was determined by asking participants to rate the veracity of the feedback after every trial. In-line with previous findings in natural settings, participants displayed stereotypical walking trajectories in a VR environment. Our results extend these findings as they demonstrate that taxing cognitive resources did not affect trajectory formation and deviations although it interfered with the participants' movement kinematics, in particular walking velocity. Additionally, we report that motor awareness was selectively impaired by the secondary task in trials with high perceptual uncertainty. Compared with data on eye and arm movements our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) uses common mechanisms to govern goal-directed movements, including locomotion. We discuss our results with respect to the use of VR methods in gait control and rehabilitation.
Deafness and motor abilities level  [PDF]
A Zwierzchowska,K Gawlik,M Grabara
Biology of Sport , 2008,
Abstract: The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.
Effects of Aquatic Motor Activities on Early Childhood Cognitive and Motor Development  [PDF]
Michal Nissim, Ronit Ram-Tsur, Michal Zion, Zemira Mevarech, Tal Dotan Ben-Soussan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.212005
Abstract: While the mental and physical benefits of motor activity are well documented, the degree to which these benefits are dependent upon the environment within which the activity takes place remains unknown. Specifically, studies exploring the effects of aquatic motor activities on cognitive abilities are rare. The current study investigated the effects of aquatic motor activities—as compared to on-land motor activities and non-motor activities—on the development of motor and cognitive abilities in a sample of 94 children aged between four and six. Developmental-functionality tests—including fine and gross motor, time estimation, reasoning and processing speed tests—were used to measure the motor and cognitive abilities of participants before and after six months of intervention. Participation in the aquatic motor activities group was found to improve gross motor, time-estimation and reasoning abilities. Moreover, improvements in gross motor abilities mediated the association between participation in aquatic motor activities group and the children’s processing speed ability. These findings can improve the understanding of child development professionals, psychologists and educators regarding the connection between aquatic environment and cognitive and motor development, and may contribute to improved early childhood interventions.
Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy
Anne Sorsdahl, Rolf Moe-Nilssen, Helga K Kaale, Jannike Rieber, Liv Strand
BMC Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-26
Abstract: A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after intervention. Twenty-two children with hemiplegia (n = 7), diplegia (n = 11), quadriplegia (n = 2) and ataxia (n = 2) participated, age ranging 3-9 y. All levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) were represented. Parents and professionals participated in goal setting and training. ANOVA was used to analyse change over repeated measures.A main effect of time was shown in the primary outcome measure; Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66), mean change being 4.5 (p < 0.01) from last baseline to last follow up assessment. An interaction between time and GMFCS-levels was found, implying that children classified to GMFCS-levels I-II improved more than children classified to levels III-V. There were no main or interaction effects of age or anti-spastic medication. Change scores in the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) ranged 2.0-6.7, p < 0.01 in the Self-care domain of the Functional Skills dimension, and the Self-care and Mobility domains of the Caregiver Assistance dimension. The children's individual goals were on average attained, Mean Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) T-score being 51.3. Non-significant improved scores on the Gross Motor Performance Measure (GMPM) and the Quality of Upper Extremities Skills Test (QUEST) were demonstrated. Significant improvement in GMPM scores were found in improved items of the GMFM, not in items that maintained the same score.Basic motor abilities and self-care improved in young children with CP after goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy with involvement of their local environment, and their need for caregiver assistance in self-care and mobility decreased. The individualized training within a group context during a limited period of time was feasible and well-tolerated. The coherence between acquisition of basic motor
The possible benefits of reduced errors in the motor skills acquisition of children
Catherine M Capio, Cindy HP Sit, Bruce Abernethy, Rich SW Masters
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2555-4-1
Abstract: Motor learning is the process of acquiring movement skills [1]. Conventional (explicit) theories posit that motor skills are initially learned explicitly through cognitive processes that generate declarative knowledge [2]. Such knowledge is made up of information that learners can describe verbally [3], and includes rules for the execution of the desired movement [4]. With increasing proficiency, movement skills become automated and performance becomes implicit, such that the declarative knowledge becomes inaccessible or unnecessary for movement control [5]. Masters [6] developed an alternative, implicit motor learning approach, in which movements are acquired without early dependence on working memory; thereby possibly bypassing the declarative stage that is characteristic of early explicit learning [7].While there is considerable evidence to support the efficacy of an implicit motor learning approach, the bulk of the evidence comes from studies of adults. There is little evidence derived from children, whose information processing and cognitive abilities are still undergoing maturation [8]. As a consequence, the generalisability of implicit motor learning principles to children is unclear [9]. An understanding of children's movement skills learning is particularly important because engagement in motor activity is a prerequisite for development of the motor skills that are fundamental to functional tasks, school participation, and games and recreation [8] in later years of life. This paper aims to briefly review evidence from recent studies that have examined implicit motor learning in children using an errorless learning paradigm [10,11] and to explore the theoretical basis of implicit motor learning in children.Whether the experience of errors during motor learning is a desirable component or not is a subject of debate. One view is that skill learning benefits from mistakes [12], whereas another view is that the formation of correct motor programs is delayed by t
Early Presymptomatic and Long-Term Changes of Rest Activity Cycles and Cognitive Behavior in a MPTP-Monkey Model of Parkinson's Disease  [PDF]
Julien Vezoli, Karim Fifel, Vincent Leviel, Colette Dehay, Henry Kennedy, Howard M. Cooper, Claude Gronfier, Emmanuel Procyk
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023952
Abstract: Background It is increasingly recognized that non-motor symptoms are a prominent feature of Parkinson's disease and in the case of cognitive deficits can precede onset of the characteristic motor symptoms. Here, we examine in 4 monkeys chronically treated with low doses of the neurotoxin MPTP the early and long-term alterations of rest-activity rhythms in relationship to the appearance of motor and cognitive symptoms. Methodology/Principal Findings Behavioral activity recordings as well as motor and cognitive assessments were carried out continuously and in parallel before, during and for several months following MPTP-treatment (12–56 weeks). Cognitive abilities were assessed using a task that is dependent on the functional integrity of the fronto-striatal axis. Rest-activity cycles were monitored continuously using infrared movement detectors of locomotor activity. Motor impairment was evaluated using standardized scales for primates. Results show that MPTP treatment led to an immediate alteration (within one week) of rest-activity cycles and cognitive deficits. Parkinsonian motor deficits only became apparent 3 to 5 weeks after initiating chronic MPTP administration. In three of the four animals studied, clinical scores returned to control levels 5–7 weeks following cessation of MPTP treatment. In contrast, both cognitive deficits and chronobiological alterations persisted for many months. Levodopa treatment led to an improvement of cognitive performance but did not affect rest-activity rhythms in the two cases tested. Conclusions/Significance Present results show that i) changes in the rest activity cycles constituted early detectable consequences of MPTP treatment and, along with cognitive alterations, characterize the presymptomatic stage; ii) following motor recovery there is a long-term persistence of non-motor symptoms that could reflect differential underlying compensatory mechanisms in these domains; iii) the progressive MPTP-monkey model of presymptomatic ongoing parkinsonism offers possibilities for in-depth studies of early non-motor symptoms including sleep alterations and cognitive deficits.
Cognition in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder  [PDF]
Jean-Fran?ois Gagnon
Frontiers in Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00082
Abstract: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by excessive muscle activity and undesirable motor events during REM sleep. RBD occurs in approximately 0.5% of the general population, with a higher prevalence in older men. RBD is a frequent feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), but is only rarely reported in Alzheimer’s disease. RBD is also a risk factor for α-synuclein-related diseases, such as DLB, Parkinson’s disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy. Therefore, RBD has major implications for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and for understanding specific neurodegeneration patterns. Several markers of neurodegeneration have been identified in RBD, including cognitive impairments such as deficits in attention, executive functions, learning capacities, and visuospatial abilities. Approximately 50% of RBD patients present mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, RBD is also associated with cognitive decline in PD.
Relationship between Motor Skill Impairments and Motor Imagery Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study Using the Hand Rotation Task  [PDF]
Shogo Hirata, Hideyuki Okuzumi, Yoshio Kitajima, Tomio Hosobuchi, Akio Nakai, Mitsuru Kokubun
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.66073
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motor skill impairments and motor imagery ability in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The participants were 19 children with ASD, aged 7 - 16 years. We conducted two tasks: movement assessment battery for children-2 (MABC-2) and hand rotation task. The MABC-2 is a motor test that can assess total motor ability, and three sub-domain abilities. Hand rotation is a cognitive task that can evaluate motor imagery ability. Results indicated the possibility that severities of motor skill impairments were interrelated with motor imagery ability in children with ASD. First, fine motor control ability was strongly interrelated with the general response speed of the hand rotation task. Second, balance ability was interrelated with the fit and slope coefficients of the hand rotation task. The internal modeling deficit seems to play an important role in children, either with developmental coordina-tion disorder or ASD.
INFLUENCE OF MOTOR ABILITIES ON LEARNING OF ALPINE SKI TECHNIQUE
Vjekoslav Cigrovski,Igor Bo?i?,Nikola Prlenda
SportLogia , 2012, DOI: 10.5550/sgia.120802.en.108c
Abstract: The research determined influence of motor abilities on alpine ski learning. Moreover, the aim was also to estimate the contribution of some morphological characteristics to acquisition of ski knowledge. At the beginning of the study, participants were tested by tests evaluating balance, agility, explosive and static strength, movement frequency and flexibility. After evaluation of motor abilities, basic morphological characteristics were noted and then participants entered a seven days alpine ski course. Acquired alpine ski knowledge was assessed through demonstration of seven elements of alpine ski technique, by five independent judges. Data analysis showed positive influence of agility on all tested elements of alpine ski technique (traversing, β = .38; β = .26; uphill turn, β = .33; β = .23; basic turn, β = .18; parallel turn, β = .32; short turn, β = .34). Subjects’ results in squat endurance test assessing the static leg strength contribute to learning uphill turn (β = .19), basic turn (β = .35) and parallel turn (β = .27). Test used to measure balance (single leg balance test) significantly influences learning of basic elements of alpine ski technique (traversing right, β = .23; traversing left, β = .28; uphill turn to the left, β = .24). Body height has a negative effect on alpine ski learning (β = -0.5), indicating that taller ski beginners tend to have more difficulties during alpine ski learning than shorter alpine ski beginners. According to our results, agility, static leg strength and balance are the motor abilities with the greatest influence on beginners’ alpine ski learning
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