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STANDARDIZATION AND CONTAMINATION STUDIES ON NUTGALLS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER  [PDF]
Asif M,Ansari SH,Haque MR,Kalam N
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Drug consists of nutgalls of Quercus infectoria (Family-Fagaceae), commonly known as “Mazuphal”. Standardization parameters like, physical constants, ash content, solvent residues, phytochemical screening, fluorescence and microscopical analysis were carried out for the quality, strength and purity of the drug. The present work is an also attempt to evaluate contamination parameters for safety of an herbal drug Quercus infectoria such as microbial contamination, aflatoxins, pesticide residues and heavy metals. Result revealed that the total ash content and acid insoluble siliceous matter were found 2.11% and 0.22% respectively in the drug. The extractive values were varies at different solvent at different condition. Loss on drying and pH at 25(oC) were 9.97 and 6.1 respectively. Study revealed that total bacterial count and total fungal count were found to be within the permissible limit. Heavy metal like cadmium and mercury were not detected in the drug but arsenic (0.31 mg/kg) and lead (0.70 mg/kg) were found under permissible limit. Pesticide residue such as o, p- DDD, p, p- DDD, o p- DDE, p, p- DDE, o, p- DDT, p, p- DDT, α- Endosulfan, β – Endosulfan, Parathion, α- HCH, β- HCH, γ- HCH, δ- HCH was absent in the nutgalls.
Arborinol methyl ether from Areca catechu L.  [cached]
Xixin He,Yajun Li,Cuixian Zhang,Xiaopeng Hu
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2010, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536810030758
Abstract: The title compound isolated from Areca catechu L. (common name: arborinol methyl ether; a member of the arborane family) was established as 3α-methoxyarbor-9(11)-ene, C31H52O. Rings A/B/C/D assume a chair conformation, while ring E has an envelope conformation. The absolute configuration was determined to be (3R,5R,8S,10S,13R,14S,17S,18S, 21S) by analysis of Bijvoet pairs based on resonant scattering of light atoms, yielding a Hooft parameter y of 0.03 (3).
ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ARECA CATECHU (ARECA NUT) HUSK EXTRACTS AGAINST COMMON ORAL PATHOGENS
Maria Bobby Cyriac,Vidya Pai,Ipe Varghese,Manjula Shantaram
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The husk fibres of Areca catechu (areca nut) are reported to be used by the people of rural areas of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka for cleaning their teeth. The beneficial effects of these plant materials are not scientifically proven, so the study was carried out to estimate the antimicrobial properties of A.catechu against common oral pathogens. These antimicrobial properties in addition to mechanical cleansing property of the fibers of areca nut could improve the oral health. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of husk of Areca catechu were prepared and antimicrobial properties against common oral pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans, Prevotella intermedia were performed by agar well diffusion method. Alcoholic extract of Areca catechu husk fibers showed dose dependent positive inhibitory effect against Candida albicans with zone of inhibition of 5-9 mm. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts did not show significant antimicrobial activity against other tested organisms. As our study failed to demonstrate significant inhibitory effect on cariogenic organisms and a periodontal pathogen, we conclude that areca husk when used for routine oral care, would improve the oral health primarily through mechanical cleansing rather than antimicrobial activity. However, the results indicate that areca husk contains chemical components that has antifungal effect. Therefore this plant material can be a potential source for developing natural antifungal agents against C. albicans which is a common oral pathogen.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF ARECA CATECHU  [PDF]
Reena Rosy Nelson Anthikat* and A. Michael
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Context: The present investigation provides proof for the effectiveness of Arecanut extract as an anti-inflammatory agent. Arecanut extract is a natural plant product mimic of peroxidase.Objective: To explore the Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Areca catechu L in carrageenan, dextran and formalin induced inflammation models in Swiss albino mice, by injection into the interdigital area, through the subplantar region of the paw. To explore the antioxidant effects of Arecanut extract on the in-vitro system.Method: Treatment with aqueous extract at 250 mg/kg.bwt and 500 mg/kg.body weight and untreated group was started orally 1 hour prior to the subplantar injection of carrageenan. The paw volume was measured using vernier calipers, before and one hour after carrageenan injection. Similarly in the case of dextran, initial readings were taken on the first day, prior to Formalin administration. Day one readings were taken one hour post formalin administration. This was taken during seven consecutive days challenge period. The drug aqueous arecanut extract at 200mg/kg.bwt, 500 mg/kg.bwt produced reduction in inflammation of the paw produced due to carrageenan, formalin and dextran. In-vitro antioxidant studies showed that aqueous arecanut extract could inhibit superoxide radical production, could inhibit hydroxyl radicals, and could prevent lipid peroxidation. Arecanut extract could scavenge DPPH radicals and also ABTS. In FRAP assay, the reduction of ferric to ferrous is also seen in a concentration dependant manner.Results: The present investigation provides proof for the effectiveness of treatment as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. Compared with the control group, the arecanut treated group showed free radical scavenging ability. Compared with the control group, the treatment of mice with Arecanut extract showed reduction in paw oedema in a dose dependent manner at 200 mg/kg.bwt and 500 mg/kg.bwt.Discussion and Conclusion: Arecanut extract has some protective effects against peroxidative damage. It has anti inflammatory activity, thus it carries a great potential as a health product.
Antiovulatory and abortifacient effects of Areca catechu (betel nut) in female rats  [cached]
Shrestha Jyoti,Shanbhag Tara,Shenoy Smita,Amuthan Arul
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives : To study the antiovulatory and abortifacient effects of ethanolic extract of Areca catechu in female rats. Materials and Methods : For antiovulatory effect, ethanolic extract of A. catechu at 100 and 300 mg/kg doses was administered orally for 15 days. Vaginal smears were examined daily microscopically for estrus cycle. Rats were sacrificed on 16 th day. Ovarian weight, cholesterol estimation, and histopathological studies were done. Abortifacient activity was studied in rats at 100 and 300 mg/kg doses administered orally from 6 th to 15 th day of pregnancy. Rats were laparotomised on 19 th day. The number of implantation sites and live fetuses were observed in both horns of the uterus. Results : The extract of A. catechu showed a significant decrease in the duration of estrus at 100 mg/kg (P = 0.015) and 300 mg/kg doses (P = 0.002) as compared with control. Metestrus phase was also significantly reduced at 100 mg/kg (P = 0.024) and 300 mg/kg doses (P = 0.002). There was a significant increase in proestrus (P < 0.001) phase. However, diestrus phase was unchanged. Histopathological study of the ovaries showed mainly primordial, primary, and secondary follicles in the test groups as compared to control. There was also a significant (P = 0.002) decrease in ovarian weight and a significant (P = 0.021) increase in ovarian cholesterol level at 100 mg/kg dose. In the study to evaluate abortifacient effect, the mean percentage of abortion with 100 and 300 mg/kg doses were 75.5% and 72.22%, respectively, which was significantly (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006, respectively) increased when compared with control. Conclusion : The ethanolic extract of A. catechu at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg has antiovulatory and abortifacient effects.
Areca catechu: Effect of topical ethanolic extract on burn wound healing in albino rats  [PDF]
Deepak Kumar Verma,Masuram Bharat,Deepak Nayak,Tara Shanbhag
International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.) is commonly used for skin ulcers in Indian traditional medicine. Areca nut oil is prepared and is applied topically for burn wound healing. However, scientific study has not been conducted so far. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate burn wound healing activity of Areca catechu. Objective: To evaluate the burn wound healing property of Areca catechu kernel in normal as well as dexamethasone treated rats.Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Areca catechu kernel was prepared and an ointment was made with 2% of this extract. Burn wound was induced by standard procedure. Rats with burn wound model received either vehicle, standard drug or test drug. Two other groups were injected with dexamethasone to delay the wound healing process. The dexamethasone treated groups received either vehicle or test drug topically. Wound contraction rate and period of epithelialization were measured. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The wound contraction rate was significantly increased in Areca catechu treated group in all the days compared to control. Period of epithelialization was faster in the drug treated group than control group. The dexamethasone treated group showed a significant delay in wound healing process when compared to control. Test drug showed a significant reversal in wound contraction rate and epithelialization period in dexamethasone suppressed burn wound healing model.Conclusion: This study has shown the wound healing property of Areca catechu. Further study is required to know the compounds responsible for its wound healing property and to understand the mechanism of action.
Comparative Double Blind Trial in Antihelmintic Efficacy Between Mebendazole and Areca catechu L.
Buavaroon Srichaikul,Supachai Samappito,Gordon Bakker,Weerasuk Seubsoh,Kittiphong Boonsong
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2012.124.128
Abstract: This study was carried out in Mahasarakham Primary Healthcare Centre, Mahasarakham province in the area of Northeastern of Thailand. The experiment was randomized control trial comparative clinical study in order to examine the efficacy of Areca catechu Linn. and Mebendazole in the treatment of antihelmintic activity of mixed worms infection in human. The experimental group consisted of 10 patients and 5 patients for control group with inclusion and exclusion criteria which were screened by the selection of mixed worm infection symptoms samples. The investigation and extraction of worm Eggs Per Gram of patient feces method (EPG) were performed with Ether Formalin Sedimentation test. The percentage of reduction of Eggs Per Gram (EPG) of patient feces were collected, counted and confirmed by parasitologist and the clinical efficacy was investigated by the physician and the pharmacist. The % EPG data were collected before and after the treatment with Areca catechu Linn. and with placebo. The result showed and confirmed by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test and also confirmed Kruskal Wallis Method which showed that Mebendazole had higher in antihelmintic activity than Areca catechu Linn. The efficacy in antihelmintic activity in % reduction of worm eggs per gram (in patient feces) by Mebendazole treatment was 87.50 and % reduction of eggs per gram by Areca catechu Linn. was 68.12%. The suggestion of this study should increase the number of samples of worm infected patients which the samples can be identified with the specification helminthes genus and species in order to obtain more accurate by the treatment Areca catechu Linn. and Mebendazole. The future study can be carried out in various dosage forms in order to obtain the maximum efficacy in pharmacokinetic and pharmacological activity.
Comparative Double Blind Clinical Trial Study of Side Effects of Areca catechu L., TTHF, and Mebendazole, in Treatment of Human Mixed Worm Infection  [cached]
Buavaroon Srichaikul,Weerasak Seubsoh,Supachai Samappito,Gordon Bakker
Advances in Natural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ans.1715787020120502.1846
Abstract: This study was carried out in Mahasarakham Primary Healthcare Centre, Mahasarakham province in the area of Northeastern of Thailand. The experiment was carried on with 200 samples with randomized control trial clinical study in order to examine the side effects of Areca catechu Linn., TTHF and Mebendazole after the treatment of antihelmintic activity of mixed worms infection in human . The 3 experimental groups consisted of 50 patients in each group and 50 patients for control group testing with placebo with inclusion and exclusion criteria which were screened by parasitologist of mixed worm infection symptoms samples. The investigation of side effects were investigated after treating the first dose of Areca catechu Linn, TTHF and Mebendazole which were confirmed by the physician and the pharmacist. The side effects data were collected before and after the treatment with Areca catechu Linn. and with placebo. The result showed that Areca catechu Linn. had 20% of diarrhea and 20% of nausea, 20% of diarrhea in Mebendazole and 0% in TTHF. The suggestion of this study should increase the number of samples of worm infected patients and also the numbers of locations in Thailand in order to obtain various kinds of helminthes. Key words: TTHF (Thai Traditional Herbal Formula); Mebendazole; Areca catechu Linn.; Side effects; Antihelmintic activity
The influence of Se content of the seed and the root of Areca catechu by fermenting of Acetobacter–Saccharomyces consortium as an antimicrobial gargle  [PDF]
TITIN YULINERI,ERNAWATI KASIM,NOVIK NURHIDAYAT
Biodiversitas , 2006,
Abstract: The research on the using of Areca catechu seeds and roots extract contain selenium which fermented by Acetobacter–Saccharomyces consortium as a gargle had been conducted. The aim of the research was to know the influence of Se content of the seed and the root of Areca catechu by fermenting of Acetobacter–Saccharomyces consortium on the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The research consisted of four stages i.e. fermented the extract, isolated S. mutans, tested the activity of the antimicrobial and analyzed selenium concentration in the extract. The result showed that the concentration of selenium has fluctuation. The highest content of selenium of the seeds extract at 2.2 g/L concentration was 3.05 ppb on the fifteenth day while on the root extract at 8.8 g/L was 14.03 ppb on the twenty first day fermentation. Both of the extract has potential used as antiseptic gargle. The antimicrobial agents could inhibit the growth of S. mutans better than the three kinds of commercial gargles.
The Comparative Double Blind Clinical Trial of Antihelmintic Efficacy Among Mebendazole, Thai Traditional Herbal Formulae and Areca catechu L.  [cached]
Buavaroon Srichaikul,Supachai Samappito,Choosak Nitiketkoon,Surapote Wongyai
Advances in Natural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.ans.1715787020120502.1339
Abstract: This study was carried out in Mahasarakham Primary Healthcare Centre, Mahasarakham province in the area of Northeastern of Thailand. The experiment was randomized control trial clinical comparative study in order to examine the antihelmintic activity efficacy among Mebendazole, Thai Traditional Formulae, Areca catechu Linn. in the treatment of 200 mixed worms infection in human. The experimental group consisted of 150 patients and 50 patients for control group with inclusion and exclusion criteria which were screened by the selected mix worm infected patients samples. The investigation and extraction of worm eggs per gram of patient feces method (EPG) were performed with Ether Formalin Sedimentation test. The percentage of reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of patient feces were collected, counted and confirmed by parasitologist and the clinical efficacy were investigated by the physician and the pharmacist. The % EPG data were collected before and after the treatment with Mebendazole, Thai Traditional Formulae, Areca catechu Linn. and with placebo. The result showed that Thai Traditional Formulae had the highest efficacy in antihelmintic activity followed by the efficacy of Mebendazole and Areca catechu Linn. respectively. The antihelmintic efficacy which were measured by the % reduction of egg worm per gram of patient feces were 93.69, 87.50, 68.12 respectively. The statistical analysis confirmation in this study were carried out by Wilcoxson Signed Ranks test and Kruskal Wallis method. The suggestion of this study should increase the number of samples of worm infected patients which the samples can be identified with more specific helminthes genus and species in order to obtain various types of efficacy by the treatment of different medicine as mentioned above. Key words: Efficacy; Thai Traditional Formula medicine; Mebendazole; Areca Catechu Lin.; Egg per gram
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