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Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Five Indigofera Species (Fabaceae) from Burkina Faso
S. Bakasso,A. Lamien-Meda,C.E. Lamien,M. Kiendrebeogo
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Aqueous acetone extracts prepared from five Indigofera species of Burkina Faso, namely Indigofera colutea (Burm.) Murril., I. macrocalyx Guilld et Perr., I. nigritana Hook f., I. pulchra willd. and I. tinctoria L., were investigated for their phytochemical composition and their antioxidant activities. Standard methods and TLC were used to screen the phytochemical composition. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods, respectively. These extracts were also evaluated for their antioxidant potentials using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2`-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assays. Flavonoids, saponins, quinones, sterols/triterpenes and tannins were present in all these species except for I. pulchra where quinones were not found. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin and myricetin in I. colutea; gallic acid, quercitrin, myricetin in I. tinctoria; galangin and myricetin in I. macrocalyx were identified by thin layer chromatography. Among these, I. colutea, I. tinctoria, I. nigritana and I. macrocalyx, which had the highest phenolic content, were also found to possess the best antioxidant activities. The results indicated a good correlation between antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (p<0.05 for FRAP/DPPH and DPPH/ABTS and p<0.01 for FRAP/ABTS). These plants represent promising sources of natural antioxidants and these findings give scientific bases to their ethnopharmacological uses.
Study of Some Biological Parameters of Cirina butyrospermi Vuillet (Lepidoptera, Attacidae), an Edible Insect and Shea Caterpillar (Butyrospermum paradoxum Gaertn. F.) in a Context of Climate Change in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Dabire Anogmain Rémy, Bama Bapio Hervé, Ouedraogo Nafiba Sylvain
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2018.61001
Abstract: Cirina butyrospermi is the main lepidoptera whose larvae constitute one of the main sources of edible insect protein in human food and are consumed by many ethnic groups in Burkina Faso and elsewhere in Africa. The preservation and mass production of this useful insect call for increased knowledge of its biological parameters. This study was carried out at the Farako-Ba experimental, environmental and agricultural research station of the Burkina Faso Institute of Environment and Agricultural Research. The approach has been to feed the larvae individually in the petri dishes wish the leaves of shea and then to measure the different biological parameters. Laboratory results—under temperature conditions varying between 24.5°C - 31°C and relative humidity varying between 58.40% - 84.80% with a 12:12 photoperiod—show that the incubation time of eggs is 30 days on average. The development cycle, which includes five larval stages, all feeding on shea leaves, lasts 33.3 ± 3.5 days. Adults (imago) live on average 2.28 ± 0.63 days for males and 2.47 ± 0.56 days for females. Finally, the average number of eggs laid per female is 283.19 ± 96, with an average fertility rate of 84.26% ± 2.16%. Thus, some biological parameters of this insect in our study conditions are now known. These results could contribute to knowledge of the bio-ecology of this insect, improving prospects for diversification and increased nutritional quality for humans.
A Comparative Study on Nutritional and Technological Quality of Fourteen (14) Cultivars of Pearl Millets [Pennisetum glaucum (L) Leeke] in Burkina Faso
A.T. Ouattara Cheik,Savadogo Aly,Bayane Yaya,Traore S. Alfred
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2006,
Abstract: A comparative study was carried out on nutritional and technological qualities of fourteen (14) cultivars of Pennisetum glaucum .The contents of proteins ranged from 8.66 % to 17.11 % for all the cultivars. IKMP3, IKMP5, SOSAT C88 and L Zatiib were reveled to be excellent sources of proteins. Water-soluble proteins ranged from 1.81 % to 3.18 % . Fat content in the grains values ranged from 6.76 % to 10.24 %, the best cultivars for fat were IKMP3, IKMP5, SOSAT C88 and KM. The carbohydrates are the major components of these cultivars, values ranged between 71.82 % to 81.02 % and samples IKMP1, IKMP2, TK, B1, B2 contained more carbohydrates than all others cultivars. The energy values of cutivars flours ranged from 426.21 Kcal/100g to 446.53Kcal/100g. Results of Technological properties showed capacities of swelling in water (VI/VF) ranged from 2.33 and 8.28. Masses of 1000 grains ranged from 5.53 g to 13.13 g; cutivars IKMV8201, IKMP5, B1 had the highest masses of 1000 grains and consequently present better outputs potential millers. Starch is present in relatively significant quantity of 51.49 % at 79.07 % and cultivars IKMP1, B1, and SG have the most raised contents. The crude fibres also are present in high quantity 8.06 % to12.40% and cultivars IKMP3, SOSAT C88 are provided greater quantity. The cultivars contents of phytates from 5.45 to 14.26 mg / g and in polyphenols from 2.27 to 3.20 mg / g. The energy values of cultivars flours lies between 426.51 kcal / 100 g and 446.53 kcal / 100 g. Samples IKMP3, IKMP5, SOSAT C88 and KM are equipped best with it. In addition, cultivars IKMP3, IKMP5, S0SAT C88, IKMV8201, KM and L Zatiib have better nutritional profiles.
Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso
Damintoti Karou, Mamoudou H Dicko, Jacques Simpore, Alfred S Traore
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and antioxidant activities. The bark of P. erinaceus had the highest antioxidant activity. Some microorganisms were susceptible to polyphenol extracts with minimal bactericidal concentration values between 20 and 2000 mg/ml while other microorganisms appeared to be resistant to the extracts. Microbicide and microbiostatic activities of the extracts were dependent on the type of strains. Results suggest that these plants are not only interesting sources for antimicrobial activities but also potential sources of phenolic antioxidants.
Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso
Karl Lorenz Dehane
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 1999,
Abstract: Knowledge and use of abortifacients were investigated in a remote ethnically heterogeneous area in the north of Burkina Faso. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 320 married women in 21 villages and supplemented with key informants' interviews, clinical observations at the provincial hospital, and observations in one of the villages. Almost half of the sampled women of all ethnic groups admitted to the existence of abortion carried out by their peers. Response rates and knowledge of abortions were lower among younger women and among those belonging to the Islamic Hamallist and Wahabiya sects. Abortions were commonly induced by drinking a watery solution of the roots and leaves of a commonly found bush –– Securidaca longepedunculata. The plant contains uterine contraction stimulating ergot-alkaloids, but also strychnine-like toxic substances. It is reportedly effective in provoking abortions within one day of treatment, but its side-effects are severe and include heavy vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting, and death. There is a need for the rapid introduction of safer birth control methods in the region. (Afr J Reprod Health 1999; 3[2]: 40-50) Key Words: Burkina Faso, Fulbe, Gurmance, abortion, abortifacients, ergot-alkaloids
The rise of the “artist” in Burkina Faso
R Rousseau
Tydskrif vir letterkunde , 2007,
Abstract: It is only during the last twenty years that contemporary art has found actors in Burkina Faso. Thomas Sankara's revolutionary regime was the first to offer artists a frame to promote and perfect their technique. During the 1980s, the Semaine National de la Culture (National Week of Culture), the Pan-African Film Festival of Ouagadougou (Fespaco), and the Salon International de l'Artisanat de Ouagadougou (Ouagadougou International Handicraft Show) were the only major projects that allowed artists to learn new techniques and to be known. However, because Thomas Sankara's government expected the creators to participate in the revolutionary project, this left them little space for innovation and the expression of their artistic freedom. The early 1990s saw the rise of new events, which at last offered artists a space to practice their art, based on personal inspiration and competence in artistic technique. The Laongo symposium of granite sculpture, PIAMET (an event started by two well-known Burkinabè artists), and Ouaga'Art (organised by the French Cultural Centre of Ouagadougou) thus offered young artists the possibility of discovering the techniques of their colleagues from Africa and elsewhere in the world. However, except the Olorun Foundation, there is no permanent space dedicated to training and artistic exhibition. This lack is a source of obvious problems for the creator who, as a result, may find himself entrenched in a circuit where commercialism seems to dominate artistic research.
Prostate cancer outcome in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Kabore Fasnéwindé A,Zango Barnabé,Sanou Adama,Yameogo Clotaire
Infectious Agents and Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-9378-6-s2-s6
Abstract: Introduction African-American black men race is one of non-modifiable risk factors confirmed for prostate cancer. Many studies have been done in USA among African- American population to evaluate prostate cancer disparities. Compared to the USA very few data are available for prostate cancer in Sub-Saharan African countries. The objective of this study was to describe incident prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis characteristics in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Methods We performed a prospective non randomized patient’s cohort study of new prostate cancer cases diagnosed by histological analysis of transrectal prostate biopsies in Burkina Faso. Study participants included 166 patients recruited at the urology division of the university hospital of Ouagadougou. Age of the patients, clinical symptoms, digital rectal examination (DRE) result, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, histological characteristics and TNM classification were taking in account in this study. Results 166 transrectal prostate biopsies (TRPB) were performed based on high PSA level or abnormal DRE. The prostate cancer rate on those TRPB was 63, 8 % (n=106). The mean age of the patients was 71, 5 years (52 to 86). Urinary retention was the first clinical patterns of reference in our institution (55, 7 %, n = 59). Most patients, 56, 6 % (n = 60) had a serum PSA level over than 100 ng/ml. All the patients had adenocarcinoma on histological study of prostate biopsy cores. The majority of cases (54, 7 % n = 58) had Gleason score equal or higher than 7. Conclusion Prostate cancer is diagnosed at later stages in our country. Very high serum PSA level and poorly differentiated tumors are the two major characteristics of PC at the time of diagnosis.
Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Methanol and Ethyl Acetate Extract of Leaves of Annona senegalensis Pers from Togo Versus the One Originates from Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Y. Potchoo,I.P. Guissou,M. Lompo,E. Sakie
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential of the leaves extracts of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) of Togo versus the one of Burkina Faso. To this end, aqueous methanol and ethyl acetate extracts by splitting and by steeping were achieved and the determination of total polyphenols of which flavonoids was carried out. A survey of the antioxidant activity using the DPPH methods was performed. The content in total polyphenol (3.47 ± 0.03%) and flavonoid (2.33 ± 0.17%) of 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol extract of the specimen from Togo was significantly higher than the one from Burkina (2.66 ± 0.08 and 1.64 ± 0.04%, respectively) (p<0.00001 for total polyphenol; p<0.05 for total flavonoid), whereas, the amount of total flavonoid in the ethyl acetate extract of the species from Burkina (40.38%) was triplicated. For the two types of extracts, the species of Burkina Faso showed an improved antioxidant activity than the one of Togo (IC50 = 8.51 and 21.08 μg mL-1 versus 12.46 and 29.22 μg mL-1, respectively) (p<0.05). These free radicals inhibition activity of the extracts may be due at least to polyphenolic flavonoids identified by means of HPLC assay performed in the preliminary study. These flavonoids were rutin and isoquercetrin as flavanols (specimen from Togo) of which are added epicatechin and catechin derivatives (flavanols) in the specimen from Burkina. The traditional use of plant leaves may imply in part this activity against the free radicals.
Plants used in traditional beekeeping in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Schweitzer Paul, Nombré Issa, Aidoo Kwamé, Boussim I. Joseph
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.35040
Abstract:

Beekeeping is one of the recommended approaches in the implementation of poverty alleviation programs in rural areas of Burkina Faso. However, plants that are important in beekeeping have not been identified. The use of parts and organs of plants by beekeepers and their methods of harvesting remain unknown. These limit the conservation efforts of these important plants and affect beekeeping development. The study was carried out in the south-central, eastcentral regions and in Comoé and Boucle of Mouhoun regions ofBurkina Faso. The objective of the study was to identify the plants species used by traditional beekeepers, the different uses made of these plant parts and organs and then to discuss the impact of these activities on the survival of the plant resources. An ethnoapiculture survey was conducted in the main apiculture zone of Burkina Faso, using semi-structured interviews. The methodology of botanical coherence or convergence was applied to classify botanical species. Results showed that 35 botanical species were used in traditional beekeeping. The use of plant parts or organs in traditional hives construction represents 55%, attraction of wild swarms in new beehives is 37.50% and use as a torch or as a smoker, 7.50%. The barks are the organs most used. Trees are botanical type most used. The results are not exhaustive and therefore other additional studies need to be carried out. In order to sustain the use of these important plants, their growing in nursery and their planting in the field are recommended.

Molecular Variability and Genetic Structure of IYMV in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Moustapha Koala, Drissa Sérémé, Florence Vignols, Eric Lacombe, Martine Bantgratz, Bouma James Neya, Christophe Brugidou, Nicolas Barro, Oumar Traoré
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.92025
Abstract:

Imperata yellow mottle virus (IYMV, Sobemovirus) was first described in 2008 in the south-western region of Burkina Faso (West Africa). The genetic diversity of IYMV was not documented up to day. In this study, the variability of CP of IYMV was evaluated through the molecular characterization of 38 isolates collected in the western part of Burkina Faso. Comparison of sequences of these new isolates and one IYMV sequence available in GenBank revealed that the average nucleotide diversity was low. The ratio of non-synonymous over synonymous nucleotide substitutions per site was low, indicating a CP diversification under strong purifying selection. Despite of the low nucleotide diversity, phylogenetic analyses revealed segregation of IYMV isolates into six major clades. There was no correlation of phylogenetic grouping of isolates based on geographical location. This is the first study of the genetic diversity of IYMV.

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