Abstract:
The ultimate fate of life in a universe with accelerated expansion is considered. Previous work showed that life cannot go on indefinitely in a universe dominated by a cosmological constant. In this paper we consider instead other models of acceleration (including quintessence and Cardassian expansion). We find that it is possible in these cosmologies for life to persist indefinitely. As an example we study potentials of the form $V \propto \phi^n$ and find the requirement $n < -2$.

Abstract:
In this paper we analyze the cosmological dynamics of phantom field in a variety of potentials unbounded from above. We demonstrate that the nature of future evolution generically depends upon the steepness of the phantom potential and discuss the fate of Universe accordingly.

Abstract:
The presently accelerating universe may keep accelerating forever, eventually run into the event horizon problem, and thus be in conflict with the superstring idea. In the other way around, the current accelerating phase as well as the fate of the universe may be swayed by a negative cosmological constant, which dictates a big crunch. Based on the current observational data, in this paper we investigate how large the magnitude of a negative cosmological constant is allowed to be. In addition, for distinguishing the sign of the cosmological constant via observations, we point out that a measure of the evolution of the dark energy equation of state may be a good discriminator. Hopefully future observations will provide much more detailed information about dark energy and thereby indicates the sign of the cosmological constant as well as the fate of the presently accelerating universe.

Abstract:
The LHC will probe the nature of the vacuum that determines the properties of particles and the forces between them. Of particular importance is the fact that our current theories allow the Universe to be trapped in a metastable vacuum, which may decay in the distant future, changing the nature of matter. This could be the case in the Standard Model if the LHC finds the Higgs boson to be light. Supersymmetry is one favoured extension of the Standard Model which one might invoke to try to avoid such instability. However, many supersymmetric models are also condemned to vacuum decay for different reasons. The LHC will be able to distinguish between different supersymmetric models, thereby testing the stability of the vacuum, and foretelling the fate of the Universe.

Abstract:
The LHC will probe the nature of the vacuum that determines the properties of particles and the forces between them. Of particular importance is the fact that our current theories allow the Universe to be trapped in a metastable vacuum, which may decay in the distant future, changing the nature of matter. This could be the case in the Standard Model if the LHC finds the Higgs boson to be light. Supersymmetry is one favoured extension of the Standard Model which one might invoke to try to avoid such instability. However, many supersymmetric models are also condemned to vacuum decay for different reasons. The LHC will be able to distinguish between different supersymmetric models, thereby testing the stability of the vacuum, and foretelling the fate of the Universe.

Abstract:
We explore the ultimate fate of the Universe by using a divergence-free parametrization for dark energy $w(z)=w_0+w_a({\ln (2+z)\over 1+z}-\ln2)$. Unlike the CPL parametrization, this parametrization has well behaved, bounded behavior for both high redshifts and negative redshifts, and thus can genuinely cover many theoretical dark energy models. After constraining the parameter space of this parametrization by using the current cosmological observations, we find that, at the 95.4% confidence level, our Universe can still exist at least 16.7 Gyr before it ends in a big rip. Moreover, for the phantom energy dominated Universe, we find that a gravitationally bound system will be destroyed at a time $t \simeq P\sqrt{2|1+3w(-1)|}/[6\pi |1+w(-1)|]$, where $P$ is the period of a circular orbit around this system, before the big rip.

Abstract:
It is shown that in the cosmological models based on a vacuum energy decaying as a^{-2}, where a is the scale factor of the universe, the fate of the universe in regard to whether it will collapse in future or expand forever is determined not by the curvature constant k but by an effective curvature constant k_{eff}. It is argued that a closed universe with k=1 may expand forever, in other words simulate the expansion dynamics of a flat or an open universe because of the possibility that k_{eff}=0 or -1, respectively. Two such models, in one of which the vacuum does not interact with matter and in another of which it does, are studied. It is shown that the vacuum equation of state p_{vac}= -\rho_{vac} may be realized in a decaying vacuum cosmology provided the vacuum interacts wuth matter. The optical depths for gravitational lensing as a function of the matter density and other parameters in the models are calculated at a source redshift of 2. The age of the universe is discussed and shown to be compatible with the new Hipparcos lower limit of 11Gyr. The possibility that a time-varying vacuum energy may serve as dark matter is suggested.

Abstract:
It is often assumed that in the course of the evolution of the universe, the dark energy either vanishes or becomes a positive constant. However, recently it was shown that in many models based on supergravity, the dark energy eventually becomes negative and the universe collapses within the time comparable to the present age of the universe. We will show that this conclusion is not limited to the models based on supergravity: In many models describing the present stage of acceleration of the universe, the dark energy eventually becomes negative, which triggers the collapse of the universe within the time t = 10^10-10^11 years. The theories of this type have certain distinguishing features that can be tested by cosmological observations.

Abstract:
The dynamical effects on the scale factors due to the scalar $\phi$-field at the early stages of a supposedly anisotropic Universe expansion in the scalar-tensor cosmology of Jordan-Brans and Dicke is studied. This universe shows an {\sl isotropic} evolution and, depending on the value of the theorie's coupling parameter $\omega$, it can begin from a singularity if $\omega>0$ and after expanding shrink to another one; or, if $\omega <0$ and $-3/2< \omega\leq -4/3$, it can evolve from a flat spatially-infinite state to a non extended singularity; or, if $ -4/3 < \omega < 0$, evolve from an extended singularity to a non singular state and, at last, proceed towards a singularity.

Abstract:
The myth that the expansion of the Universe was discovered by Hubble was first propagated by Humason (1931). The true nature of this discovery turns out to have been both more complex and more interesting.