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Effect of Elevated O3 on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Structure and Glomalin Production in Two Genotypes of Snap Bean

WANG Peng-teng,DIAO Xiao-jun,WANG Shu-guang,

环境科学 , 2012,
Abstract: In an environment with simulated elevated atmospheric ozone, two genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) that differed in O3 sensitivity (O3-sensitive: S156; O3-tolerant: R123) were selected as host plants for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The objective was to investigate the effect of elevated O3 on the AM structure and glomalin production in two genotypes, and to understand the effect of elevated O3on the growth of AM fungi and formation of AM structure. The results showed that in comparison with ambient O3 (20 nL·L-1), elevated O3 (70 nL·L-1) significantly decreased the mycorrhizal colonization rate in both genotypes, particularly the S156 plant (decreased by 43.6%). Elevated O3 exposed a great negative effect on the AM structure in both genotypes. For example, the arbuscule number per unit root, and the length of external hyphae in root compartment and hyphal compartment were significantly decreased, especially in S156 plant. However, the effect of elevated atmospheric O3 was not significant on the vesicule number per unit root in both genotypes. Total glomalin production in mycorrhizosphere and hyphosphere of both genotypes was only slightly affected by elevated O3, however, the production of easily extractable glomalin was significantly increased. In addition, no evident difference in glomalin concentration was observed between two genotypes at either ambient O3 or elevated O3. This study showed that the mycorrhizal colonization rate, AM structure and production of easily extractable glomalin gave great response to elevated O3, especially in the O3-sensitive plant.
Leaf area of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) according to leaf dimensions área foliar de feij o-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) em fun o de dimens es foliares  [cached]
Marcos Toebe,Alberto Cargnelutti Filho,Luis Henrique Loose,Arno Bernardo Heldwein
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this work was to compare the methods of leaf discs and digital photos used to determine the leaf area of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with indeterminate growth habit, and model complete leaf area (three leaflets) according the length, or width and or the product of length width, for different sizes of leaves. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at University Federal of Santa Maria, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. For this, in 191 leaves, collected 55 days after sowing, it was measured the maximum length and maximum width of central leaflet, and calculated the product of length width. After was determined leaf area of complete leaves (left, central and right leaflets), by the methods of digital photos and leaf discs. Linear regression analysis and correlation were used to compare the methods. The quadratic, potency and linear models of the leaf area as a function of the length, or width, or product of length width were adjusted, and validated by different indicators. In snap beans, the leaf disks and digital photos methods are discordant. The method digital photos adequately represent the leaf limb, regardless of different mass per area exist, and is appropriate for the determination of leaf area. Quadratic model (? = –4.8376 + 1.8908 x + 2.2027 x2, R2 = 0.9901) and potency model (? = 2.5806 x1.9565, R2 = 0.9883) based on the width of central leaflet (x) are adequate to estimate complete leaf area (three leaflets), determined by digital photos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os métodos de discos foliares e de fotos digitais, utilizados para determinar a área foliar de feij o-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) de hábito de crescimento indeterminado, e modelar a área foliar completa (três folíolos) em fun o do comprimento, ou da largura e/ou do produto comprimento vezes largura do folíolo central, de diferentes tamanhos de folhas. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, sob estufa plástica. Aos 55 dias após a semeadura, foram coletadas 191 folhas e mensurado o comprimento máximo e a largura máxima do folíolo central, e calculado o produto comprimento vezes largura. Posteriormente, determinou-se a área foliar completa (folíolos esquerdo, central e direito), por meio dos métodos de fotos digitais e de discos foliares. Análises de regress o linear e de correla o foram utilizadas para comparar os métodos. Modelos quadrático, potência e linear da área foliar completa (três folíolos) em fun o do comprimento, ou da largura e/ou do produto comprimento vezes largura do folíolo central foram ajustados, e
Effect of management practices on mycorrhizal infection, growth and dry matter partitioning in field-grown bean
Oliveira, Antonio Alberto Rocha;Sanders, Francis Edward;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X1999000700018
Abstract: the experiment was carried out on unsterilized field soil with low phosphorus availability with the objective of examining the effect of cultural practices on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of common bean. the treatments were: three pre-crops (maize, wheat and fallow) followed by three soil management practices ("ploughing", mulching and bare fallow without "ploughing" during the winter months). after the cultural practices, phaseolus vulgaris cv. canadian wonder was grown in this soil. fallowing and soil disturbance reduced natural soil infectivity. mycorrhizal infection of the bean roots occurred more rapidly in the recently cropped soil than in the fallow soil. prior cropping with a strongly mycorrhizal plant (maize) increased infectivity even further.
Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi on the Physiological Performance of Phaseolus vulgaris Grown under Crude Oil Contaminated Soil  [PDF]
Chris O. Nwoko
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2014.24002

An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on the performance of Phaseolus vulgaris under crude oil contaminated soil. P. vulgaris was grown on soil under 2%, 4% and 8% (v/w) crude oil contamination. The experimental units were biostimulated with 2 g NPK fertilizer pot-1 and were inoculated with 12 g AM inoculum pot-1. Non inoculated pots served as control. The results showed that AM inoculated pots recorded higher and significantly (P < 0.05) different dry matter yields and chlorophyll content than non AM inoculated pots. Residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) increased as percent crude oil contamination increased. Total petroleum hydrocarbon decomposition and removal was higher on pots inoculated with AM than non inoculated pots. With AM colonization, physiological characteristics of P. vulgaris and TPH decomposition improved. This is evinced by the linear regression analysis between colonization and TPH (R2 = 0.77).

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: A Biocontrol Agent against Common Bean Fusarium Root Rot Disease  [PDF]
A.A. Al-Askar,Y.M. Rashad
Plant Pathology Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Effectiveness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the protection of common bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) against Fusarium root rot disease was investigated in the present study under natural conditions in pot experiment. A mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi consists of propagated units of Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora gigantea and Gigaspora margarita in suspension form (106 unit L-1 in concentration) was used at dilution of 5 ml L-1 water. The obtained results demonstrated that, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization significantly reduced the percentage of disease severity and incidence in infected bean plants. On the other hand, mycorrhizal colonization significantly increased the tested growth parameters and mineral nutrient concentrations. While, infection with Fusarium root rot disease negatively affected on the mycorrhizal colonization level in bean roots. Finally, mycorrhizal colonization led to a significant increase in the phenolic content and the activities of the investigated defense related enzymes (Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme). From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a biocontrol agent played an important role in plant resistance and exhibit greater potential to protect bean plants against the infection with F. solani.
The effect of genetic parameters on inheritance of the first pod hight in snap bean - Phaseolus vulgaris L.  [PDF]
Zdravkovi? Milan,Zdravkovi? Jasmina,Pavlovi? Nenad,?or?evi? Radi?a
Genetika , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0301031z
Abstract: In order to research the inheritance, gene effect, combination abilities and genetic variance components, we investigated six divergent snap bean genotypes (Supernor, Darija, Grinkrop, Palana ka rana, umadinka and Zora) and their F1 progeny created by diallel crossing without reciprocals. For the trait of height of forming the first pod, variance of average value of parents and hybrids was highly significant. The value of dominant components (H1 and H2) was higher than additive component (D), meaning that dominant genes control the inheritance of number of pods per plant. The average level of domination √Hl/D is higher than 1, pointing to superdomination. Heritability in broader sence amounts 90% pointing to high contribution in inheriting the number of pods per plant.
Natan Fontoura da Silva,Jácomo Divino Borges
Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical , 2007, DOI: 10.5216/pat.v22i1.2608
Abstract: The Orgasol, an organic compound of animal origin, was tested on seeds and on snap crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake), with and without chemical fertilizer (NPK) in two planting dates. The orgasol-s with three applied doses (0, 1 and 2 ml/l of water on a first date and 0, 3 and 6 ml/l, on a second date) had no influence on seed germination and pods production on this crop. O Orgasol, um composto organico de origem animal, foi testado em sementes e na cultura do feij o-de-vagem (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bush Blue Lake), em duas épocas de plantio, na presen a e na ausência de aduba o química. O Orgasol-S foi empregado nas doses de 0, 1 e 2 ml/litro de água na primeira época de plantio e 0, 3 e 6 ml/litro de água na segunda época. Este composto n o influenciou a germina o nem a produ o de vagens na cultura estudada.
Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia
Fatma Tajini, Porntip Suriyakup, Hélène Vailhe, Jan Jansa, Jean-Jacques Drevon
BMC Plant Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-9-73
Abstract: The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found.The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is grown generally as a grain-legume in crop rotation or association with cereals, or as snap-bean in horticultural systems. Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) for its N nutrition. The amount of N2 fixed by legume depends on plant species and cultivars, on rhizobial strains and on the environmental conditions [1]. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphoru
Multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in Kenya
SW Wahome, PM Kimani, JW Muthomi, RD Narla, R Buruchara
African Crop Science Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important export vegetable crop, produced mainly by small to medium scale farmers under various disease constraints. Disease resistant varieties can reduce reliance on fungicides, and enhance the capacities of smallholder farmers to meet the stringent European export requirements for allowable fungicide residues. This study was carried out to identify snap bean lines with multiple disease resistance to angular leaf spot (Phaeoisareopsis griseola), anthracnose (Collectotrichum lindemuthianum) and rust (Uromyces appendiculatus). Seven groups of snap bean populations of different generations, and 45 bush snap bean lines, including local checks, were evaluated for resistance to the three diseases at two locations in Kenya. The disease with the highest severity was rust, followed by angular leaf spot. Among the advanced lines, two bush lines (KSB 10 W and KSB 10 BR), and one climbing line (HAV 130) had consistent multiple resistance to angular leaf spot, anthracnose and rust at both locations. Nine lines and 674 single plants were selected from populations showing multiple disease resistance. Resistance in selected lines reduced angular leaf spot, anthracnose and rust severity by 17, 16 and 36%, respectively. The multiple disease resistant lines were not the highest yielders but had the highest number of pods per plant. Climbing snap bean lines had thick pods that could reduce pod quality.
Sobre Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (Fabaceae) en Córdoba
Drewes,Susana Inés;
Bolet?-n de la Sociedad Argentina de Bot??nica , 2006,
Abstract: the discovery of a population of wild bean growing in the valley of punilla confirms the presence of phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus in the province of córdoba (argentina), whose only antecedent was a specimen collected in the year 1903.
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