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Influences of excessive Cu on photosynthesis and growth in ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings
,TAO Shu

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2004,
Abstract: Growth and photosynthesis responses were measured for Scots pine( Pinus sylvestris L. cv.) inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi( Suillus bovinus ) under 6 5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments to evaluate ectomycorrhizal seedlings' tolerance to heavy metal stress.Results showed that excessive Cu can significantly impair the growth and photosynthesis of pine seedlings, but such impairment is much smaller to the ectomycorrhizal seedlings. Under 25 mg/L Cu treatment, the dry weight of ectomycorrhizal seedlings is 25% lower than the control in contrary to 53% of the non mycorrhizal seedlings, and the fresh weight of ectomycorrhizal roots was significantly higher than those of non mycorrhizal roots, about 25% and 42% higher at 6 5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments respectively. Furthermore, ectomycorrhizal fungi induced remarkable difference in the growth rate and pigment content of seedlings under excessive Cu stress. At 25 mg/L Cu, the contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were 30% higher in ectomycorrhizal plants than those in non mycorrhizal plants. O 2 evolution and electron transport of PSI and PSII were restrained by elevated Cu stress. However, no significant improvement was observed in reducing the physiological restraining in ectomycorrhizal seedlings over the non mycorrhizal ones.

YAN Xiu-Feng,and,WANG Qin,

植物生态学报 , 2002,
Abstract: Ectomycorrhizal formations on the roots of Quercus liaotungensis were studied on seedlings germinated and grown in pots in a greenhouse environment. Ectomycorrhizal fungi observed were Gomphidius viscidus, Russula foetens, Suillus grevillei, S. luteus, Pisolithus tinctorius, Boletus edulis, Cortinarius russus and Cenococcum geophilum. Ectomycorrhizal formations were observed on seedlings inoculated by G. viscidus, R. foetens, S. grevillei, S. luteus, P. tinctorius, B. edulis, but not on those inoculated by C. russus and C. geophilum after two months. In ectomycorrhizal tissue sections, clear Hartig nets were observed in the intercellular space of cortical cells of fine roots, effectively demonstrating the symbiotic relationship between each these 6 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and seedlings of Q. liaotungensis.
Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination
Dalong, M;Luhe, W;Guoting, Y;Liqiang, M;Chun, L;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822011000300045
Abstract: pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (cenococcum geophilum, rhizopogon roseolus and russula densifolia) in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. after 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. p. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ecm species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. the three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. in conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on p. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.
Diversity of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. Seedlings in a Disturbed Forest on Mt. Songni  [cached]
Sim, Mi-Yeong,Ahn-Heum Eom
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology , 2009,
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate ectomycorrhizal (ECM) diversity on Pinus densifloraseedlings in a disturbed pine forest. Pine seedlings less than one year old were collected from disturbed andundisturbed sites in the Mt. Songni region. The belowground ECM fungal communities colonizing P. densifloraseedlings were studied using morphotyping and DNA sequencing. The relative abundance of ECM root tips wassignificantly higher in the undisturbed sites than in the disturbed sites, and the ECM species diversity was lowerin the disturbed sites than in the undisturbed sites. In addition, the ECM community composition was significantlydifferent in the disturbed and undisturbed forest sites.
Mass Multiplication of Ectomycorrhizal Cantharellus Inoculum for Large Scale Tailoring Nursery Inoculations of Bamboo Seedlings  [PDF]
R. Sharma,R.C. Rajak,A.K. Pandey
Asian Journal of Scientific Research , 2011,
Abstract: The edible ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes are difficult to inoculate in field for reforestation of trees and mushroom production due to insufficient mycelial colonization of substrate. Edible mushroom in the genera Cantharellus was tested for mycorrhization with Dendrocalamus using house waste tealeaves+sand based inoculum under laboratory and green house conditions using polythene bags and plastic boxes. Mycorrhizal seedlings were acclimatized in open pot soil. Dense Cantharellus mycelia colonized the substrate in 2-3 weeks. Inoculum survived for atleast six months and retained its viability. Occasionally few bacterial contaminants were observed, which were discarded. The cost effective method developed in present investigation can be used for tailoring large-scale seedling/nursery plantlets and sustainable reforestation of various tree species.
Spatial Segregation and Aggregation of Ectomycorrhizal and Root-Endophytic Fungi in the Seedlings of Two Quercus Species  [PDF]
Satoshi Yamamoto, Hirotoshi Sato, Akifumi S. Tanabe, Amane Hidaka, Kohmei Kadowaki, Hirokazu Toju
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096363
Abstract: Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on massively-parallel pyrosequencing, we analyzed the root-associated fungal community composition for each of the 249 Quercus serrata and 188 Quercus glauca seedlings sampled in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Pairs of fungi that co-occurred more or less often than expected by chance were identified based on randomization tests. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that not only ectomycorrhizal fungi but also endophytic fungi were common in the root-associated fungal community. Intriguingly, specific pairs of these ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi showed spatially aggregated patterns, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions between fungi in different functional groups. Due to the large number of fungal pairs examined, many of the observed aggregated/segregated patterns with very low P values (e.g., < 0.005) turned non-significant after the application of a multiple comparison method. However, our overall results imply that the community structures of ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi could influence each other through interspecific competitive/facilitative interactions in root. To test the potential of host-plants' control of fungus–fungus ecological interactions in roots, we further examined whether the aggregated/segregated patterns could vary depending on the identity of host plant species. Potentially due to the physiological properties shared between the congeneric host plant species, the sign of hosts' control was not detected in the present study. The pyrosequencing-based randomization analyses shown in this study provide a platform of the high-throughput investigation of fungus–fungus interactions in plant root systems.
Hemagglutinating and acid phosphatase (AcPASE) activities in developing seedlings of four species of Cucurbitaceae
Irena Lorenc-Kubis,Urszula Uram-Walaszczyk
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae , 1999, DOI: 10.5586/asbp.1999.041
Abstract: The acid phosphatase and hemagglutinating activities of four species of Cucurbitaceae were determined during seeds germination and seedlings development. In all cases traces of enzyme and hemagglutinating activities were found in dry and imbibided seeds. In developing seedlings of Cucumis sativus the activities increased to maximum on the 3rd day while in other species on the 6th day of germination and than fell down. Dot blot and Western blot techniques have shown that in seeds and seedlings of all investigated species present were proteins which cross-reacted with antibodies raised against lectins: CLBa and Con A. It has been shown that proteins from seeds and seedlings of Cucurbita maxima var. bambino, Cucurbita pepo var. giromontia and Cucumis sativus had more pronounced antigenical similarity to lectin CLBa (from Cucurbitaceae) than Con A, while proteins from cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo var. patissonina reacted better with antibodies raised against Con A (the lectin from Papilionaceae) than with CLBa.
BIOTROPIA : the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology , 1999,
Abstract: The effectiveness of six species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Scleroderma columnare, S.dictyosporum, Laccaria toccata, Rhizopogon luteolus, Amanita umbronata and Descomyces sp.) in alginate beads in promoting the growth of four species of dipterocarp seedlings (Shorea pinanga, S.leprosula, S.ovalis and Hopea odorata) were studied. Different sodium alginate concentrations of 5 g, 10 g, 15 g and 20 g/L were tested to find out the best bead 's elasticity and spore germination. Seedling height, Relative Field Mycorrhizal Dependency, percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, nutrient absorption, and the formation of Hartig's net and mantle structure of dipterocarp seedlings were observed 4 months after inoculation. The best elasticity of alginate beads was found in the concentration of sodium alginate of 15 g/L. The best growth increment was found in Hopea odorata inoculated with Amanita umbronata (126.60 %) followed by Shorea pinanga inoculated with Descomyces sp. (27.10%), Shorea ovalis inoculated with Amanita umbronata (26.90 %) and Shorea leprosula inoculated with Descomyces sp. (24.20 %) over the control. The highest Relative Field Mycorrhizal Dependency was found in Hopea odorata followed by Shorea ovalis, S. pinanga and S. leprosula. The highest mycorrhizal colonization was obtained in Shorea pinanga inoculated with Descomyces sp. (75%), while inoculation with Amanita umbronata on S.leprosula, S.ovalis and Hopea odorata increased mycorrhizal colonization i.e. 64.5 %, 52.5%, and 46.2 %, respectively. Hartig's net and mantle structures were well formed in Shorea leprosula as well as S.ovalis seedlings with all mycorrhizal fungi tested, while in S.pinanga seedlings these structures were only well formed with Descomyces sp. There is no clear difference in P levels in the leaves following inoculation as compared to the controls.
Changes in phosphate content and phosphatase activities in rice seedlings exposed to arsenite
Mishra, Shruti;Dubey, R.S.;
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202008000100003
Abstract: the effect of arsenite (as2o3) in situ on the level of the phosphate pool and activities of phosphohydrolytic enzymes was examined in rice (oryza sativa l.) seedlings grown for 5-20 d in sand cultures. the effects were manifested via a decline in phosphate content and inhibition of the activities of key phosphatases. application of 50 μm as2o3 in situ resulted in 34 to 77% inhibition of acid phosphatase activity in roots and about 38 to 50% inhibition of activity in shoots of 15-20-d-old seedlings. similarly, alkaline phosphatase activity was inhibited in shoots under in situ as (iii) toxicity. varietal as well as organ specific differences were observed in the response of inorganic pyrophosphatase activity to in situ as (iii) treatment. a moderately toxic in situ as2o3 level of 25 μm as well as a highly toxic level of 50 μm inhibited mitochondrial-atpase activity whereas 25 μm as (iii) stimulated the chloroplastic isoform of atpase but at a higher level (50 μm) as (iii) was inhibitory. the results suggest that exposure of rice plants to arsenite leads to lowering of the phosphate pool and alteration in the activities of key phosphohydrolytic enzymes which might contribute to metabolic perturbations and decreased growth of rice plants in an as (iii) polluted environment.
Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization
Biodiversitas , 2007,
Abstract: To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tisserant. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased on inoculated seedlings compare to with uninoculated. NPK fertilization of 0.0625 g per seedling and inoculation on teak seedlings showed alkaline phosphatase activity in range 90-201 EU, and in roots indicated in range 14-72%. Gigaspora sp inoculation on teak seedlings was showing the highest of alkaline phosphatase activity. Increasing phosphatase alkaline activity relevant to hyphae growth, and increasing of root infection decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased seedling dry weight.
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