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Effects of sewage sludge and sewage sludge compost amendment on soil properties and Zea mays L. plants (heavy metals, quality and productivity)
VACA, Rocío;LUGO, Jorge;MARTíNEZ, Ricardo;ESTELLER, María V.;ZAVALETA, Hilda;
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2011,
Abstract: the use of organic wastes in agriculture can improve the soil's productive capacity, and physical and chemical characteristics. this study evaluated the effects of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost and inorganic fertilizer applications on nickel, copper and zinc contents in soil and corn grains (zea mays l); maize productivity, and grain nutritional quality. sewage sludge and sewage sludge compost at 18 mg ha-1 and a mineral fertilizer (n-p-k) with a formulation of 150-75-30 were applied. significant differences were observed in organic matter, phosphorus and zinc content between sewage sludge-soil and compost-soil, and inorganic fertilizer-soil (p ≤ 0.05). copper concentration was significantly high in compost-soil (p ≤ 0.05). productivity in compost-soil and sewage sludge-soil mixtures was higher than in inorganic fertilizer-soil. grain quality, measured by relative percentage of starch, total nitrogen, protein, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were adequate for human consumption. application of sewage sludge or compost did not increase heavy metal concentrations in grain with respect to inorganic fertilizer-soil.
Study of potential impacts of using sewage sludge in the amendment of desert reclaimed soil on wheat and jews mallow plants
Mazen, Ahmed;Faheed, Fayza A;Ahmed, Atef F;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132010000400022
Abstract: this investigation was conducted to study the impacts of using sewage sludge at different concentrations (0, 10, 25, 50, 75%) in amendment of desert reclaimed soil properties and some physiological aspects in wheat and jews mallow plants. generally adding sewage sludge to desert soil improved the soil texture, raised the organic matter contents, water holding capacity and lowered ph value. the contents of npk gradually increased as the ratio of sewage sludge increased. the fresh and dry weights and biosyntheses of pigment contents of the variously treated test plants were increased by increasing the sewage sludge levels in the soil. also, total carbohydrate and protein contents of sewage sludge-treated test plants were positively affected. with respect to the proline content and total free amino acids, in most cases, it decreased significantly, expect at 75% sewage sludge, which was higher than that of other concentrations. also, the accumulation of metal was generally higher, especially in the root than that in the shoot system in the test plant tissues.
Effects of sewage sludge amendment on physico-chemical properties of mine tailings and physiological responses of Cinnamomum camphora

WANG Jiang,ZHANG Chongbang,KE Shisheng,LIU Wenli,QIAN Baoying,

生态学报 , 2010,
Abstract: In order to investigate the effects of sewage sludge amendment on physico-chemical properties of mine tailings and physiological responses of Cinnamomum camphora to the mixture, three different sites of sewage sludge (Huangyan (HY), Linhai (LH) and Luqiao (LQ)) were collected, and then mixed with mine tailings in which the mass percentage of sewage sludge was 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%, respectively. Results showed that sewage sludge amendment increased the nutrient of mine tailings and changed the heavy metal composition of mine tailings. With the increase of sludge amendment ratios, organic matter, total N and total P were significantly increased, while pH and cation exchange capacity were significantly decreased; total and DTPA-extractable contents of Cu, Cd and Zn except for total Zn were significantly increased, while total and DTPA-extractable contents of Pb were significantly decreased. It can be inferred that the composition of heavy metals in the mixture was related with the original heavy metal characteristics of both mine tailings and sewage sludge. The biomass of leaves, stems and roots, and chlorophyll contents consistently decreased with the increase of LQ sewage sludge amendment ratios, which may be related with the high Cu contents in LQ sludge. The biomass of leaves and stems, and chlorophyll contents of C.camphora grown at 25% and 50% sewage sludge in HY and LH were more than those at control (0), whereas they were significantly decreased at 75% sewage sludge content. The change of MDA contents, the indicator of biotoxicity, was reverse to those of biomass and chlorophyll. Therefore, the 50% amendment ratios of HY and LH sludge was assumed the best remediate measures due to the least biotoxicity to C.camphora. The biotoxicity had a closely relation with the accumulation of heavy metals in C.camphora. Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn contents of leaves and roots at 25% and 50% ratios of HY and LH sewage sludge were more than those of control (0%), but Cu, Cd and Zn contents of leaves and roots greatly increased at 75% ratios of HY and LH sewage sludges. However, with the increase of LQ sewage sludge amendment ratios, Cu, Cd and Zn contents of leaves and roots consistently increased, and were more than those of HY and LH sludge treatments. Notably, Pb in the leaves and roots consistently decreased with the increase of LQ sewage sludge amendment ratios, which may be related to the decrease of total and DTPA-extractable contents of Pb. Only in LQ sludge treatments, the Cu, Cd and Zn contents of leaves and roots had positive correlation with their DTPA-extractable contents, respectively, which may be related to different organic matter composition between LQ and other two sludge types. Therefore, heavy metal contents and organic matter composition in the sewage sludge could help to predict the bio-toxicity to plants when mine tailings were amended with sludge.
Plants grown on sewage sludge in South China and its relevance to sludge stabilization and metal removal
SAMAKE Moussa,Wu Qi-tang,Mo Ce-hui,MOREL Jean-Louis,
,WU Qi-Tang,MO Ce-hui,MOREL Jean-Louis

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2003,
Abstract: The production of sewage sludge in China has been increasing sharply in order to treat 40% of the municipal sewage in 2005 as planned by central government. The main sludge disposal method is landfill owing to heavy metal contamination, but it presents an attractive potential for agricultural land application. Experiments were carried out to study the simultaneous metal removal and sludge stabilization by plants. The sludge samples were collected from Datansha Wastewater Treatment Plant of Guangzhou, it contained excessive Cu and Zn compared with the Chinese National Standard for Agricultural Use of Sewage Sludge. Plants growing on sludge beds were investigated to follow their growth and metal uptake. 30 sludge plants were identified during 1 year's observation. A Zn high accumulating and high growth rate plant (Alocasia macrorrhiza) was selected and grown on sludge beds in plots. The water, organic matter, heavy metals and nutrients contents, the E. coli number and the cress seed germination index were monitored for the sludge samples collected monthly. The plant growth parameters and its heavy metals contents were also determined. The sewage sludge treated by plants could be stabilized at about 5 months, the E. coli number was significantly decreased and the cress seed germination index attained 100%. Crop on sludge could ameliorate the sludge drying. The experiments are continuing to find out the appropriate plant combination for simultaneous sludge stabilization and metal removal for an acceptable period. Comparisons between the proposed processes and other methods for treating produced sludge such as composting, chemical and bacterial leaching were discussed.
Evaluation of Composted Sewage Sludge (CSS) as a Soil Amendment for Bermudagrass Growth  [PDF]
O. Nouri Roudsari,H. Pishdar
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: In order to evaluate the growth of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) in soils amended with 5-100% composted sewage sludge (CSS) and the impacts of CSS amendment on soil physical and chemical properties an experiment was conducted. Soils amended with ≤20% CSS did not significantly affect the seedling emergence, while the contents of chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium of Bermudagrass grown in such soils were greatly improved. Bulk density, water retention and nutrient contents of the soil were also improved with the amendment of CSS, but high CSS contents introduced excessive amounts of heavy metals and soluble salts. Results show that Cu, Zn and Pb accumulated slightly (up to~2.3 times) in clippings of Bermudagrass grown in CSS-amended soils compared to those grown in the base and reference soils, while no significant Cd absorption in shoots of Bermudagrass occurred. The detrimental effects on seedling emergence and turfgrass growth observed on substrates with high (≥40%) CSS contents were mainly attributed to the presence of high soluble salt concentrations. The findings suggest that addition of CSS at 10-20% levels can greatly improve the soil nutrient supply for turfgrass growth without significantly affecting heavy metal and soluble salt contents of the soil.
Changes of Cu, Zn, and Ni chemical speciation in sewage sludge co-composted with sodium sulfide and lime
WANG Xuejiang,CHEN Ling,XIA Siqing,ZHAO Jianfu,
WANG Xuejiang
,CHEN Ling,XIA Siqing,ZHAO Jianfu

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2008,
Abstract: A batch composting study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of co-composting sewage sludge with sodium sulfide and lime (SSL) mixture (Na2S/CaO= 1:1), aiming at reducing the availability of heavy metals in the sludge compost. Sewage sludge with sawdust as a bulking agent was amended with SSL at 3% (w/w, dw), and composted for 15 d in laboratory batch reactors. The four stages of the Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to investigate changes in heavy metal fractions of Cu, Zn, and Ni in sewage sludge composted with SSL. For all the three metals, the mobile fractions, such as, exchangeable and carbonate bound were mainly transformed into low availability fractions (organic matter and sulfide, Fe-Mn oxides bound and residual forms), and the addition of SSL enhanced this transformation. Therefore, SSL is a suitable material to co-compost with sewage sludge to reduce the availability of heavy metals. According to the cabbage seed germination test, a SSL amendment of ≤3% (w/w, dw) is recommended to co-compost with sewage sludge.
Advances in the control of heavy metal pollution in the process of resourceful treatment and utilization of sewage sludge

,李 季,李国学,黄 妍

中国生态农业学报 , 2006,
Abstract: The advances in the control of heavy metal pollution in the process of resourceful treatment and utilization of(sewage) sludge in domestic and overseas are stated and the ways to control the heavy metal pollution of sewage sludge are put forward.
Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage grown in soil amended with sewage sludge
P Wang, S Zhang, C Wang, J Hou, P Guo, Z Lin
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of these metals in Chinese cabbage grown in soil amended with sewage sludge. Total content of all metals (except for As) was below the top limits for land application of sewage sludge in China. The majority of As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Fe was present in the residual fraction (70 – 95%) of the total concentration, and 21% of Cd, 59% of Cr and 56% of Cu were present in oxidizable fraction in sewage sludge. Most of the content of metals increased in Chinese cabbage with the increase in sludge amendments ratio, and the content of heavy metal As, Cd, Cr and Zn exceeded the top limits of metals content in China. Our results suggested that application of sewage sludge could enhance the output of vegetable while the risk of heavy metal should be of concern.
Effect of Sewage Sludge on Yield and Heavy Metal Uptake of Lettuce and Spinach  [cached]
Majid Afyuni,Yahya Rezainejad,Babak Khayambashi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 1998,
Abstract: Land application of sewage sludge is potentially beneficial as an inexpensive nutrient source. However, problem with the use of sludge may exist from high soil concentrations and subsequent uptake of heavy metals by plant and entering of the metals into the human and animal food chains. A field study with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was conducted to examine uptake of heavy metals from a sludge amended soil as affected by sludge rate and time of sludge application. Sludge rates were 0, 22.5, and 45 ton/ha. To determine the effect of time on heavy metal uptake, a year after the first plants were harvested, one third of each plot was planted without sludge application and to the rest of each plot sludge was added in the same rates as before. Total and EDTA-extractable Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations in soil were determined. The metal concentrations in shoots and roots of the plants were determined separately. Total metal concentrations showed an increasing trend with addition of sewage sludge. Copper, Zn, and Pb EDTA-extractable concentrations in soil and concentrations of these metals in the plants increased significantly with sludge rate. Time of sludge application did not have any significant effect on EDTA-extractable and plant uptake of metals. Sewage sludge also increased the crop yields significantly.
Effects of Sewage Sludge and Soil pH on Micronutrient and Heavy Metal Availability  [cached]
S. Vaseghi,M. Afyuni,H. Shariatmadari,M. Mobli
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2003,
Abstract: Excessive application of sewage sludge leads to the accumulation of potentially toxic elements in soils. The objective of this greenhouse study was to examine the DTPA–extractability of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Co in relation to soil pH and to investigate the concentrations of these metals in corn (Zea mayz). The study was conducted using a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications. Sewage sludge was applied at 0, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha on four soils [Langaroud (pH= 4.8), Lahijan (pH= 5.7), Rasht (pH= 6.8), and Isfahan (pH= 7.9)]. Application of sewage sludge significantly increased DTPA-extractable Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Ni in all soils. The increasing effect was in accordance with sludge level. Langaroud soil had the highest and Isfahan soil the lowest levels of DTPA-extractable metals. Application of sewage sludge increased plant growth and metals in the foliage of corn plants. The metal concentration in corn tissues also increased with decreasing soil pH. Overall, the application of sewage sludge as an organic material, particularly in acid soils, may increase availability of heavy metals, which may, in turn, result in soil pollution. Therefore, addition of sewage sludge to soils should be managed on the basis of the changes in soil heavy metal concentration.
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