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Mercury emission from crematories in Japan
M. Takaoka, K. Oshita, N. Takeda,S. Morisawa
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.
Mercury emission from crematories in Japan
M. Takaoka,K. Oshita,N. Takeda,S. Morisawa
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.
龙虬庄墓地葬俗研究  [PDF]
夏寒
东南文化 , 2004,
Abstract: ????文章讨论了龙虬庄墓葬的空间分布,多种多样的葬式以及复杂合葬现象,通过墓葬要素之间的相关分析来探讨葬俗成因,并且试图从历时的角度来探讨葬俗发生变化的意义。
陕西地区腰坑葬俗研究  [PDF]
郭亮
东南文化 , 2007,
Abstract: ????现有资料表明,陕西地区腰坑葬俗最早发现在耀县北村,时代约在商代早期偏晚阶段。同一时期,河南地区的腰坑葬俗已经开始由中原向黄河东西两岸地区伸展,传统的殷商文化借助渭河之便进入陕西,并把腰坑墓这一葬俗带给关中地区,乃至甘肃陇东地区。由此,全面了解腰坑葬俗在陕西关中、河南豫中、甘肃陇东的联系与发展,对揭开当时社会的真实历史面貌以及民族的变迁演变提供了某些线索和资料。
再葬画像石墓的发现与再研究  [PDF]
钱国光,刘照建
东南文化 , 2005,
Abstract: ????再葬画像石墓的出现,社会动荡、经济凋蔽是直接原因,丧葬习俗的改变是再葬画像石墓出现的重要因素。
六六六热解残渣中PCDDs和PCDFs的测定  [PDF]
包志成,丁香兰,张尊,徐晓白
环境化学 , 2015,
Abstract: 本文报道了六六六热解残渣中PCDDs和PCDFs的分析方法。样品用甲苯溶解,然后进行氧化铝柱层析分离,PCDDs和PCDFs用50%二氯甲烷的石油醚液洗出,浓缩后进行GC/MS分析.在热解残渣中检出了大量四至八氯取代的PCDDs和PCDFs,约占样品量的40%,其中包括剧毒的2,3,7,8-TCDD.在采用高压水解法生产多氯苯的残渣中,只有少量的PCDDs和PCDFs,由此可得出氯苯在高温条件下热解可以生成PCDDs和PCDFs的结论.
浅谈“绿葬”的主要形式及其植物配置  [PDF]
庄潇,翟付顺,张秀省
北方园艺 , 2012,
Abstract: 随着中西方墓园形式的趋于生态化和人们思想观念的转化。“绿葬”作为一种新型的丧葬形式逐渐为人们所接受与应用,并迅速发展,前景良好。现对“绿葬”的概念和形式做以简要介绍,列举了树葬、鲜花葬、草坪葬等绿葬形式在墓园规划设计中的具体应用方法,对此种新型丧葬形式的发展前景作出了简要分析,并详细阐述了各种形式在规划设计中植物种类的选择和配置,以期对现代生态墓园建设提供参考和有意义的启示。?
越国贵族墓葬制葬俗初步研究  [PDF]
陈元甫
东南文化 , 2010,
Abstract: ????春秋战国时期崛起于太湖地区的越国,是南方百越民族中最为强大的一支--于越族所建立的国家。由于诸多方面的因素,越国历史文化有着许多独特内容,如越国上层贵族墓葬的葬制葬俗等。近年的考古调查发掘新资料及相关的研究探索揭示,墓上堆筑长方形覆斗状封土、使用带墓道的长方形竖穴土坑(岩坑)木椁墓制、墓外较普遍地设置陪葬器物坑以及完全用仿青铜原始瓷或硬陶的礼器与乐器代替青铜礼乐器随葬等,都是越国贵族墓葬葬制葬俗中颇具特色的几个重要方面。
赣江流域宋代葬俗的考古学观察  [PDF]
吴敬
东南文化 , 2009,
Abstract: ????赣江流域宋代墓葬随葬品以瓷器为主,堆塑瓶是其中最有特点的器物。墓葬形制以砖室墓居多。这一葬俗的形成,主要是受儒、释、道三教的影响,是宗教信仰因素、地理位置因素和文化交流因素结合的产物。
PCDDs, PCDFs AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs IN SHEEP MILK IN SARDINIA  [cached]
C. Scarano,M.M. Storelli,S. Virdis,C. Spanu
Italian Journal of Food Safety , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijfs.2011.2.75
Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are widespread contaminants with important implications for the environment protection and for the human health. Milk and dairy products consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of human exposure to these toxic chemicals. In this study we evaluated the levels of 17 laterally substituted PCDD/Fs and 12 DL-PCBs in 45 sheep milk samples collected from small dairy sheep farms in Sardinia (Italy). Mean concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs were 2.31 and 3.11 pg g-1 fat basis, respectively. With regard to the DL-PCBs only PCB 118 was detected in 51.1% of samples (0.73 ng g-1 fat basis), while the rest of the studied congeners was never detected. The contamination of milk by PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (0.92 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat) being within the permissible limit set by the European Commission (6 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat) gives no indication of particular health risk. However, continuous surveillance on PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs levels in milk is needed in order to correctly evaluate either the environmental impact and human health risk.
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