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焚稿烟燎中的明代文学影像  [PDF]
罗时进
- , 2016,
Abstract: 明代是中国文学发展的重要阶段,也是诗文观念迭变最为突出的时期。目前我们对明代诗文创作的评价基本建立在传世文本的基础上,尚未注意到曾经出现却归于焚燬的作品,而这部分作品数量极为可观。这一现象背后既有其人,亦有其事。考察其人,可了解明代文人知愧且格;探究其事,则知其弃旧图新,此皆为可贵。但客观来看,在这一过程中不免存在高悬标衡而焚弃失度的现象,使文学史的许多段落仅存斑驳的焦尾碎锦,甚至出现一片空白。数百年之后回视相关自述和历史记载,一方面对焚稿者内省竢善、风裁独峻生出敬意,同时亦有失鱼之叹。透过剧爨烟燎考察明代文人焚稿现象,其意义远远超出了对文人轶事本身的了解,而是寻求一个与文学史参照互证的心态呈现、演变过程。这一研究的视角既是文学批评和文献学的,也是文学社会学的。
Destruction of PCDD/Fs by gliding arc discharges
YAN Jian-hu,PENG Zheng,LU Sheng-yong,DU Chang-ming,LI Xiao-dong,CHEN Tong,NI Ming-jiang,CEN Ke-fa,
YAN Jian-hu
,PENG Zheng,LU Sheng-yong,DU Chang-ming,LI Xiao-dong,CHEN Tong,NI Ming-jiang,CEN Ke-fa

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: PCDD/Fs have been become a serious issue because of their lexicological effects and associated adverse health implications. In this study, the gliding arc plasma was tested for treatment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), which was synthesized from pentachlorophenol in atmospheric condition at 350℃ with or without the catalysis of CuCh-From the experiment, we found that the destruction efficiency of PCDD/F homologues after gliding was discharge ranged from 25% to 79%. This result demonstrates that gliding arc plasma is an effective technology to decompose PCDDs/Fs in flue gas. A plausible degradation mechanism for PCDD/Fs by gliding arc was discussed. Finally, a multistage reactor structure of gliding arc was proposed to upgrade removal efficiency for PCDD/Fs.
Effect of temperature and oxygen on the formation of chlorobenzene as the indicator of PCDD/Fs

Mi Yan,Xiaodong Li,Tong Chen,Shengyong Lu,Jianhua Yan,Kefa Cen,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2010,
Abstract: Sampling and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) axe both time-consuming and expensive.In principle,real-time monitoring of chlorobenzene (CBz) as an indicator for PCDD/Fs could be useful to control and optimize incinerator operating conditions.To test this strategy,CBz was analyzed together with PCDD/Fs in flue gas samples collected from a hospital waste incinerator.Moreover,lab experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of temperature and oxygen on CBz formation from fly ash from the same incinerator.The experimental results demonstrate that chlorobenzene (in particular PeCBz) correlate well with PCDD/Fs,in line with previous research.The optimum temperature of CBz formation is in a range of 350 to 400℃ and CBz yield increases significantly with oxygen,in line with PCDD/Fs formation.This study is useful for confirming the de novo mechanism and defining correlations between CBz and PCDD/Fs.
The Application of Artificial Neural Network in QSAR Research of PCDD
神经元网络用于PCDD定量构效关系的研究

Zhao Ruihuan,Yue Bingfang,Shan Yichu,Ni Jianyi,Zou Hanfa,Zhang Yukui,
赵瑞环
,岳丙方,单亦初,倪坚毅,邹汉法,张玉奎

色谱 , 1999,
Abstract: 研究了不同PCDD(全名Polychlorinateddioxin)同系物分子结构的表达及特征参数的选择,应用神经元网络方法对其分子结构与色谱保留值进行了关联。对49种PCDD同系物在DWS往上不同温度下保留时间进行了预测,结果95%以上的数据点相对误差小于10%,而80%以上的数据点相对误差小于5%。
PCDD/F Emission Characteristics in Different Waste Incineration Facilities and Evaluation of 23478-PeCDF as I-TEQ Indicator of PCDD/F in Flue Gases
不同垃圾焚烧设备中二英的排放特征和I-TEQ指示物的研究

GAO Hong-cai,NI Yu-wen,ZHANG Hai-jun,ZHANG Qing,SU Fan,ZHAO Liang,ZHANG Ning,ZHANG Xue-ping,CHEN Ji-ping,
高洪才
,倪余文,张海军,张青,苏凡,赵亮,张宁,张雪萍,陈吉平

环境科学 , 2009,
Abstract: The emission characteristics of PCDD/F from different waste incineration facilities in China,the correlations of different PCDD/F isomers with I-TEQ and the linear regression analysis of 23478-PeCDF with I-TEQ were reported in this article.Statistical analysis of the homologue patterns of PCDD/F in different incineration facilities will provide valuable information in environmental survey to find the contamination sources.PCDD/F congener patterns were almost constant among municipal and hazardous waste inci...
北京市大气沉降样品中PCDD/Fs的测定  [PDF]
刘耕耘,陈左生,史烨弘,王关玉
环境化学 , 2015,
Abstract: 利用高分辨率气质联用测定北京市大气沉降样品中的二噁英(PCDD/Fs).结果显示,5个样品的总浓度为332—3950pg·g-1和6.9—85pgTEQ·g-1.降雪样品浓度高于其它样品,且不同采样点样品呈现不同的分布特征.2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF是主要的TEQ组分.大部分样品同族体浓度以PeCDFs最高,其次是OCDD.∑PCDDs<∑PCDFs,二者之比为0.25—0.56.PCDD/Fs沉降通量为121pgTEQ·m-2·month-1.北京背景土壤PCDD/Fs组成与大气沉降极为相似.
Patterns and levels of PCDD/F in a Chinese graphite electrode sludge
Ying Xu,Qinghua Zhang,Wenzhong Wu,Wen Li
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2000, DOI: 10.1007/BF02898890
Abstract: The graphite electrode sludge was sampled from a huge chloralkali plant in central China. The total level of PCDD/F was found as high as 378.85 μg/kg sludge (dry weight). The patterns of PCDD/F in each homologue indicated the predominance of tetra-to octa-chlorinated PCDFs. Furthermore, the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs constituted over 80% of the total PCDFs in the sludge and the corresponding PCDDs were only at 15 μg/kg level. The calculated value of the international toxic equivalence (I-TEQ) in sludge was 21.65 μg/kg sludge (dry weight). This typical “dioxin chloralkali pattern” was apparently identified in the sediments near the effluent outlet of the chloralkali plant.
Laboratory-scale study of the suppression of PCDD/F emission during coal and MSW co-incineration
LU Sheng-yong,YAN Jian-hu,LI Xiao-dong,NI Ming-jiang,CEN Ke-fa,
LU Sheng-yong
,YAN Jian-hu,LI Xiao-dong,NI Ming-jiang,CEN Ke-fa

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: The experimental test of co-incinerating Chinese raw municipal solid waste (MSW) and coal in a laboratory-scale tubular reactor was first reported in present study, and the emission of normal gas components and the effects of the S/Cl molar ratio or coal mixing percentages on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) emission were investigated and discussed. The results indicated that OCDD was the only PCDD homologues since others like TCDD-HpCDD was hardly detected, while as the categories of PCDF homologues were comparatively much more general. The amount of PCDD was much larger than that of PCDF in all operating conditions. Since ∑PCDF/∑PCDD<<1, the dominant role of the precursor formation was proven in our experimental conductions. With increasing the coal addition to MSW (from 0 to 16%), PCDD and PCDF were reduced considerably. Coal and MSW may suppress the PCDD/F emissions efficiently (over 95%) during the MSW incineration process. The PCDD/F suppression results of the present study could be helpful guidance to the industrial application of Chinese MSW and auxiliary coal co-incineration processes. The PCDD/F stack emission data of two industrial incinerators using co-incineration technology in China seem to have a great positive reduction of PCDDs/Fs.
Thermal Desorption Behavior of PCDD/Fs on the Fly Ash
飞灰中二英热脱附行为的研究

ZHANG Feng,ZHANG Hai-jun,CHEN Ji-ping,LIANG Xin-miao,
张峰
,张海军,陈吉平,梁鑫淼

环境科学 , 2008,
Abstract: The article studied the thermal desorption behavior of PCDD/Fs on the fly ash under anoxic conditions. From the analysis of the PCDD/Fs concentrations in the gas phrase and solid residual, the several kinds of potential chemical reaction and physical changes of dioxin that occur at the different temperature are concluded. At the same time, desorption ratios of 17 toxic dioxin congers and the better desorption conditions are studied. At 200 degrees C and 300 degrees C, the average desorption ratio of PCDD/Fs are 96.2% and 95.5% respectively. At 400 degrees C, the average desorption ratio of PCDD/Fs is 99.7%. The experiment results show that the PCDD/Fs is dechlorinated at 300 degrees C. At 400 degrees C, a lot of precursor reactions happen in the fly ash, which enhance the content of PCDD/Fs.
PCDD/Fs in soil around a hospital waste incinerator: comparison after three years of operation

Xiaodong Li,Mi Yan,Jie Yang,Tong Chen,Shengyong Lu,Jianhua Yan,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2012,
Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) can be formed during the cooling of flue gases in waste incinerator. These pollutants are either in the gas phase or attached to the fine particles, escaping dust collection. After stack emission, they are slowly oxidized photochemically (gas phase), or eventually are deposited (dry and wet deposition of particulate) in earth surface. In 2007 and 2010, 11 soil samples were collected in the vicinity of a hospital waste incinerator (HWI), prior and after its startup. In order to find out any variation of PCDD/Fs in soil, in brief dioxins, their concentrations were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Compared to the baseline survey (2007), PCDD/Fs in soil significantly increased, by average, +81.6% in total PCDD/Fs and +132.7% in international toxic equivalency (I-TEQ) unit. By principal component analysis (PCA), both the PCDD/Fs homologue and the HxCDF isomer profile in soil were found to become more similar with fly ash. Generally, this incinerator influences the soil only in a limited area. More comprehensive supervision, stricter management and more advanced technology should be implemented in this plant to reduce pollutants emission, even though the level of PCDD/Fs in soil is quite low at present.
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