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Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa  [PDF]
Carolina Babosa Brito da Matta,éverton Tenório De Souza,Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz,Daysianne Pereira De Lira,Morgana Vital De Araújo,Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante-Silva,George Emmanuel C. De Miranda,Jo?o Xavier De Araújo-Júnior,José Maria Barbosa-Filho,Bárbara Viviana De Oliveira Santos,Magna Suzana Alexandre-Moreira
Marine Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/md9030307
Abstract: Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME), acetate (AE), hexanic (HE) and chloroform (CE) extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify the active principles present in the Caulerpa species .
Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae)
Souza, Everton T.;Queiroz, Aline C de;Miranda, George Emmanuel C. de;Lorenzo, Vitor P.;Silva, Evandro F da;Freire-Dias, Thays L. M.;Cupertino-Silva, Yolanda K.;Melo, Gabriela Muniz de A.;Santos, Bárbara V. O.;Chaves, Maria Célia de O.;Alexandre-Moreira, Magna S.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2009000100021
Abstract: in this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from caulerpa racemosa. this seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. the n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. in the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. in the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%), n-butanolic phase (35.12%), chloroformic phase (32.70%) and indomethacin (32.06%) were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. in the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43%) and indomethacin (47.83%) inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. however, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in caulerpa racemosa.
Inner Ear Morphology in the Atlantic Molly Poecilia mexicana—First Detailed Microanatomical Study of the Inner Ear of a Cyprinodontiform Species  [PDF]
Tanja Schulz-Mirbach, Martin He?, Martin Plath
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027734
Abstract: Background Fishes show an amazing diversity in hearing abilities, inner ear structures, and otolith morphology. Inner ear morphology, however, has not yet been investigated in detail in any member of the diverse order Cyprinodontiformes. We, therefore, studied the inner ear of the cyprinodontiform freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana by analyzing the position of otoliths in situ, investigating the 3D structure of sensory epithelia, and examining the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, while combining μ-CT analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemical methods. P. mexicana occurs in different ecotypes, enabling us to study the intra-specific variability (on a qualitative basis) of fish from regular surface streams, and the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfidic cave in southern Mexico. Results The inner ear of Poecilia mexicana displays a combination of several remarkable features. The utricle is connected rostrally instead of dorso-rostrally to the saccule, and the macula sacculi, therefore, is very close to the utricle. Moreover, the macula sacculi possesses dorsal and ventral bulges. The two studied ecotypes of P. mexicana showed variation mainly in the shape and curvature of the macula lagenae, in the curvature of the macula sacculi, and in the thickness of the otolithic membrane. Conclusions Our study for the first time provides detailed insights into the auditory periphery of a cyprinodontiform inner ear and thus serves a basis—especially with regard to the application of 3D techniques—for further research on structure-function relationships of inner ears within the species-rich order Cyprinodontiformes. We suggest that other poeciliid taxa, or even other non-poeciliid cyprinodontiforms, may display similar inner ear morphologies as described here.
The Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Caulerpin, a Bisindole Alkaloid Isolated from Seaweeds of the Genus Caulerpa  [PDF]
éverton Tenório De Souza,Daysianne Pereira de Lira,Aline Cavalcanti de Queiroz,Diogo José Costa da Silva,Anansa Bezerra de Aquino,Eliane A. Campessato Mella,Vitor Prates Lorenzo,George Emmanuel C. De Miranda,Jo?o Xavier De Araújo-Júnior,Maria Célia De Oliveira Chaves,José Maria Barbosa-Filho,Petr?nio Filgueiras de Athayde-Filho,Bárbara Viviana De Oliveira Santos,Magna Suzana Alexandre-Moreira
Marine Drugs , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/md7040689
Abstract: The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of caulerpin was investigated. This bisindole alkaloid was isolated from the lipoid extract of Caulerpa racemosa and its structure was identified by spectroscopic methods, including IR and NMR techniques. The pharmacological assays used were the writhing and the hot plate tests, the formalin-induced pain, the capsaicin-induced ear edema and the carrageenaninduced peritonitis. Caulerpin was given orally at a concentration of 100 μmol/kg. In the abdominal constriction test caulerpin showed reduction in the acetic acid-induced nociception at 0.0945 μmol (0.0103–1.0984) and for dypirone it was 0.0426 μmol (0.0092–0.1972). In the hot plate test in vivo the inhibition of nociception by caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) was also favorable. This result suggests that this compound exhibits a central activity, without changing the motor activity (seen in the rotarod test). Caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) reduced the formalin effects in both phases by 35.4% and 45.6%, respectively. The possible anti-inflammatory activity observed in the second phase in the formalin test of caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) was confirmed on the capsaicin-induced ear edema model, where an inhibition of 55.8% was presented. Indeed, it was also observed in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis that caulerpin (100 μmol/kg, p.o.) exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, reducing significantly the number of recruit cells by 48.3%. Pharmacological studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.
Molecular Phylogeny and Barcoding of Caulerpa (Bryopsidales) Based on the tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA Genes  [PDF]
Mudassar Anisoddin Kazi, C. R. K. Reddy, Bhavanath Jha
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082438
Abstract: The biodiversity assessment of different taxa of the genus Caulerpa is of interest from the context of morphological plasticity, invasive potential of some species and biotechnological and pharmacological applications. The present study investigated the identification and molecular phylogeny of different species of Caulerpa occurring along the Indian coast inferred from tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA and ITS rDNA nucleotide sequences. Molecular data confirmed the identification of 10 distinct Caulerpa species: C. veravalensis, C. verticillata, C. racemosa, C. microphysa, C. taxifolia, C. sertularioides, C. scalpelliformis, C. serrulata, C. peltata and C. mexicana. All datasets significantly supported the sister relationship between C. veravalensis and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. It was also concluded from the results that the specimen identified previously as C. microphysa and C. lentillifera could not be considered as separate species. The molecular data revealed the presence of multiple lineages for C. racemosa which can be resolved into separate species. All four markers were used to ascertain their utility for DNA barcoding. The tufA gene proved a better marker with monophyletic association as the main criteria for identification at the species level. The results also support the use of 18S rDNA insertion sequences to delineate the Caulerpa species through character-based barcoding. The ITS rDNA (5.8S-ITS2) phylogenetic analysis also served as another supporting tool. Further, more sequences from additional Caulerpa specimens will need to be analysed in order to support the role of these two markers (ITS rDNA and 18S insertion sequence) in identification of Caulerpa species. The present study revealed the phylogeny of Caulerpa as complete as possible using the currently available data, which is the first comprehensive report illustrating the molecular phylogeny and barcoding of the genus Caulerpa from Indian waters.
Some pharmacological studies on the methanolic extract of Inula graveolense L.  [PDF]
Adnan J. M. Al-Fartosy
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.611130
Abstract:  Inula graveolens L. is widely used in Iraq for the treatment of rheumatic fever, infant convulsions, toothache, blood sugar, and also to dissolve internal blood clots, and to aid digestion. However, the efficacy and mechanisms of action of the plant remain unclear. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological effects of the methanolic extract (MEIG) of this plant belonging to compositae family. Anti-diarrheal and antipyretic activities of the extract were examined in rats. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive were studied in mice. At the doses of 200 (P < 0.05) and 400 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.01), the extract displayed remarkable anti-diarrheal activity, evidence by a reduction in the rate of defecation as well as by retardation of intestinal transit of charcoal meal compared to normal saline control group, dose dependently similar to loperamide (5 mg/kg). The methanolic extract (400 mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.01) dose dependent anti-pyretic effect in yeast induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. The methanolic extract showed significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity at the dose of 400 mg/kg (P < 0.01) as compared to standard drug diclofenac sodium (50 mg/kg). The extract inhibited paw and ear edema in a dose-related manner. A dose-dependent analgesic action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermal (hot-plate test) stimuli indicated that antinociceptive activity may involve inhibition of pain by peripheral and central mechanisms. Again, the methanolic extract (MEIG) was subjected for in vitro protein anti-denaturation using Bovine serum albumin and anti-platelet aggregation of human blood activity. It was observed that the extract showed greater percentage of inhibition of BSA (P < 0.01) at the highest concentration (400 μg/ml). The extract also showed potential platelet aggregation inhibitory activity in adose-dependent manner. The maximum inhibition was observed at the dose 400 μg/ml (P < 0.01) compared to standard drug commercial heparin (20 μg/ml).
Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract from red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata  [cached]
Neivys García Delgado,Ana Iris Frías Vázquez,Hiran Cabrera Sánchez,Roberto Menéndez Soto del Valle
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract from D. obtusata using classic models in mice (croton oil-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced writhing) and a phospholipase A2 activity test. Qualitative analysis of the chemical composition of seaweed was also determined by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity and precipitation and color tests. Results of qualitative chemical study showed the presence of lactonic and phenolic compounds, reduced carbohydrates, other sugars, flavonoids, fatty compounds, triterpenes and steroids. The extract inhibited mouse ear edema in a dose-dependent manner with an efficacy higher than 90% and a mean effective dose of 4.87μg/ear, while intraperitoneal administration presented a moderate activity. The extract did not inhibit phospholipase A2 activity. In the writhing test, the intraperitoneal administration of the extract showed a strong antinociceptive activity (80.2%), while the oral route showed a lower efficacy. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanol extract of D. obtusata in experimental models, suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of peripheral painful and/or inflammatory pathologies. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar os efeitos antiinflamatórios e antinociceptivos de um extrato metanólico de D. obtusata, utilizando modelos clássicos em ratos (teste do edema de orelha induzido por óleo de cróton e teste de contor es induzidas por ácido acético) e um teste de atividade de fosfolipase A2. A análise qualitativa da composi o química das algas foi também determinada através de extra o com solventes de polaridade crescente e testes de precipita o e cor. Os resultados do estudo de química qualitativa mostraram a presen a de compostos lact nicos e fenólicos, hidratos de carbono reduzidos e outros a úcares, flavonoides, compostos graxos, triterpenos e esteroides. O extrato inibiu o edema de orelha dos ratos de um modo dependente da dose com eficácia superior a 90% e dose média efetiva de 4.87μg/orelha, enquanto a administra o intraperitoneal apresentou atividade moderada. O extrato n o inibiu a atividade da fosfolipase A2. No teste de contor o, a administra o intraperitoneal do extrato mostrou forte atividade antinociceptiva (80,2%), enquanto a administra o oral mostrou menor eficácia. Em conclus o, este estudo demonstrou os efeitos antiinflamatórios e antinociceptivos do extrato metanólico de D. obtusata em modelos experimentais, sugerindo
Mediterranean Species of Caulerpa Are Polyploid with Smaller Genomes in the Invasive Ones  [PDF]
Elena Varela-álvarez, Amelia Gómez Garreta, Jordi Rull Lluch, Noemi Salvador Soler, Ester A. Serrao, María Antonia Ribera Siguán
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047728
Abstract: Caulerpa species are marine green algae, which often act as invasive species with rapid clonal proliferation when growing outside their native biogeographical borders. Despite many publications on the genetics and ecology of Caulerpa species, their life history and ploidy levels are still to be resolved and are the subject of large controversy. While some authors claimed that the thallus found in nature has a haplodiplobiontic life cycle with heteromorphic alternation of generations, other authors claimed a diploid or haploid life cycle with only one generation involved. DAPI-staining with image analysis and microspectrophotometry were used to estimate relative nuclear DNA contents in three species of Caulerpa from the Mediterranean, at individual, population and species levels. Results show that ploidy levels and genome size vary in these three Caulerpa species, with a reduction in genome size for the invasive ones. Caulerpa species in the Mediterranean are polyploids in different life history phases; all sampled C. taxifolia and C. racemosa var. cylindracea were in haplophasic phase, but in C. prolifera, the native species, individuals were found in both diplophasic and haplophasic phases. Different levels of endopolyploidy were found in both C. prolifera and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. Life history is elucidated for the Mediterranean C. prolifera and it is hypothesized that haplophasic dominance in C. racemosa var. cylindracea and C. taxifolia is a beneficial trait for their invasive strategies.
The shape of the ear canal  [PDF]
A. G. Ramm
Mathematics , 2005, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2006.02.045
Abstract: It is proved that the measurement of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear $ uniquely.
Determination of the shape of the ear channel  [PDF]
A. G. Ramm
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: It is proved that the measurement of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear channel uniquely.
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