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Effects of Dietary L-carnitine and Betaine on Serum Biochemical Indices of Large Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) Cultured in Floating Net Cages
Wei-guo Sang,Shi-qiu Deng,Ji-kang Shentu,Lei Wang
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical changes of large yellow croaker as affected by dietary supplements. Large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is a marine species that is widely cultured in China due to its high commercial value. However, the cage-cultured large yellow croakers were found to be less tasty compared with wild large yellow croakers due to high lipid in their body, which significantly impacts the commercial markets. Triglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acids are main lipid ingredients in the animal body. The fish were fed with basal diet or basal diet supplemented with L-carnitine (0.08% of dry weight diet) or betaine (0.8% of dry weight diet) for 12 weeks in seawater floating net cages (3×2×1.5 m) each holding 60 fishes. Three net cages were assigned to each dietary treatment, as replications. The seawater temperature ranged from 18 to 31°C and salinity from 25 to 28 g/kg. Fish were hand-fed one of the experimental diets to apparent satiety twice daily (05:00 and 17:30) throughout the 12 week experimental period. The results indicate that L-carnitine or betaine in diets significantly reduced Serum Triglyceride (STG) and Serum Cholesterol (SCH) levels while increased Serum Free Fatty Acids (SFFA) content (p<0.05). The diets of L-carnitine or betaine supplements on serum biochemical indices of that fish species have positive effects. These results suggested that the supplementation with L-carnitine or betaine is one of the effective ways to improve the meat quality of large yellow croakers cultured in floating net cages.
De Novo Characterization of the Spleen Transcriptome of the Large Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and Analysis of the Immune Relevant Genes and Pathways Involved in the Antiviral Response  [PDF]
Yinnan Mu, Mingyu Li, Feng Ding, Yang Ding, Jingqun Ao, Songnian Hu, Xinhua Chen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097471
Abstract: The large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is an economically important marine fish in China. To understand the molecular basis for antiviral defense in this species, we used Illumia paired-end sequencing to characterize the spleen transcriptome of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced large yellow croakers. The library produced 56,355,728 reads and assembled into 108,237 contigs. As a result, 15,192 unigenes were found from this transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis showed that 4,759 genes were involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. We further ascertained that numerous consensus sequences were homologous to known immune-relevant genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology mapping annotated 5,389 unigenes and identified numerous immune-relevant pathways. These immune-relevant genes and pathways revealed major antiviral immunity effectors, including but not limited to: pattern recognition receptors, adaptors and signal transducers, the interferons and interferon-stimulated genes, inflammatory cytokines and receptors, complement components, and B-cell and T-cell antigen activation molecules. Moreover, the partial genes of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptors signaling pathway, Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway were found to be changed after poly(I:C) induction by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, suggesting that these signaling pathways may be regulated by poly(I:C), a viral mimic. Overall, the antivirus-related genes and signaling pathways that were identified in response to poly(I:C) challenge provide valuable leads for further investigation of the antiviral defense mechanism in the large yellow croaker.
Screening of microsatellite markers associated with cold tolerance of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.)

GAO Guo-Qiang,CHANG Yu-Mei,HAN Qi-Xia,CHI Bing-Jie,LI Ming-Yun,XUE Liang-Yi,LIANG Li-Qun Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences,Harbin,China,College of Fisheries,Life Sciences,Shanghai Ocean University,Shanghai,College of Life Sciences,Ningbo University,Ningbo,

遗传 , 2010,
Abstract: Cold tolerance is one of the major economic characters in fish. In order to discuss the cold tolerance of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea R.), fifteen fluorescent dye-labeled microsatellite markers were applied to detect genetic differences between F1 offsprings of cold tolerance group and normal group of large yellow croaker by SSR-PCR. Each group contained 20 randomly and separately sampled individuals. As a result, marker LYC0002 five alleles (LYC0002104 bp, LYC0002106 bp, LYC0002108 bp, LYC0002110 bp, and LYC0002112 bp) were amplified with marker LYC0002 in both groups and 60% (12/20) of individuals had allele LYC0002112 bp in cold tolerance group exclusively, which indicated that this allele is probably sensitive to temperature and associated with gene for cold tolerance. In addition, four alleles (LYC0002106 bp, LYC0002108 bp, LYC0002110 bp, and LYC0002112 bp) were sequenced individually. Sequence alignments showed that LYC0002112 bp allele contains 10 (CA) repeats, the remaining three alleles lacked one (CA) one by one, corresponding to the stepwise mutation model (SMM) of microsatellite.
养殖大黄鱼(Pseudosciaena crocea)3种致病弧菌的分子鉴定及其系统发育学分析

WANG Guo-Liang,ZHU Jing-Lin,JIN Shan,

海洋与湖沼 , 2008,
Abstract: Three vibrio strains of pathogenic bacteria, H040823-1, H050704-1 and H050815-1 were isolated from dis- eased cultured large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson), and identified as Vibrio in regular physiological and biochemical analyses. With API 20E technique, H040823-1 was recognized as V. parahaemolyticus, H050815-1 as V. alginolyticus, while H050704-1 could not be identified. Therefore, 16S rRNA and the genes partial sequences of heat shock protein (HSP60) were further determined. The three strains were very similar to Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus in terms of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Sequences analysis of HSP60 genes showed that the nucleotide ho- mology of H040823-1 to V. parahaemolyticus (AF230951), H050704-1 to V. harveyi (EU036994), and H050815-1 to V. alginolyticus (DQ664545) was 96.7%, 99.8% and 98.0%, respectively, and to other Vibrio species, below 91.9%. The nu- cleotide homology of HSP60 genes among the three isolates were less than 92.3%. Phylogenetic tree of Vibrio based on HSP60 genes showed that strains H040823-1, H050704-1 and H050815-1 clustered together with V. parahaemolyticus, V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus, respectively. Therefore, the strains H040823-1, H050704-1, and H050815-1 were identified as V. parahaemolyticus, V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus, respectively. Taxonomic classification of marine Vibrios with HSP60 gene instead of 16S rRNA gene was proved a better approach.
The Effect of Insulin, TNFα and DHA on the Proliferation, Differentiation and Lipolysis of Preadipocytes Isolated from Large Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena Crocea R.)  [PDF]
Xinxia Wang, Ming Huang, Yizhen Wang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048069
Abstract: Fish final product can be affected by excessive lipid accumulation. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to control obesity in cultivated fish to strengthen the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. As in mammals, the development of adiposity in fish depends on hormonal, cytokine and dietary factors. In this study, we investigated the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes isolated from the large yellow croaker and examined the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on the proliferation, differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes. Preadipocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion, after which their proliferation was evaluated. The differentiation process was optimized by assaying glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. Oil red O staining and electron microscopy were performed to visualize the accumulated triacylglycerol. Gene transcript levels were measured using SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR. Insulin promoted preadipocytes proliferation, stimulated cell differentiation and decreased lipolysis of mature adipocytes. TNFα and DHA inhibited cell proliferation and differentiation. While TNFα stimulated mature adipocyte lipolysis, DHA showed no lipolytic effect on adipocytes. The expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, γ (PPARα, PPARγ) were quantified during preadipocytes differentiation and adipocytes lipolysis to partly explain the regulation mechanisms. In summary, the results of this study indicated that although preadipocytes proliferation and the differentiation process in large yellow croaker are similar to these processes in mammals, the effects of critical factors such as insulin, TNFα and DHA on fish adipocytes development are not exactly the same. Our findings fill in the gaps in the basic data regarding the effects of critical factors on adiposity development in fish and will facilitate the further study of molecular mechanism by which these factors act in fish and the application of this knowledge to eventually control obesity in cultured species.
Isolation and Characterization of Collagen and Antioxidant Collagen Peptides from Scales of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)  [PDF]
Bin Wang,Yu-Mei Wang,Chang-Feng Chi,Hong-Yu Luo,Shang-Gui Deng,Jian-Yin Ma
Marine Drugs , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/md11114641
Abstract: Acid soluble collagen (ASC) from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C) was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis), and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH) was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin), and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3) were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1), GPAGPAG (ACH-P2), and GFPSG (ACH-P3). ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC 50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively), DPPH radical (IC 50 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively), superoxide radical (IC 50 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively), and ABTS radical (IC 50 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively). ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage.
Selection of cross-protective antigens from outer membrane proteins of three pathogenic vibrios isolated from infected large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)

Chongwen Zhang,Zhijuan Mao,Lian Yu,

生物工程学报 , 2012,
Abstract: Vibrios are universal conditioned-pathogenic bacteria in marine culture environment, and the outbreak of vibrio disease resulted in a serious damage to aquaculture. Considering that vibrio disease in aquatic species, especially fishes, usually originated from mixed infection of different species (serotypes or subspecies) of vibrios, it is important to select the potential cross-protective protein antigens as candidates of polyvalent or combined vaccines. In present research, several strains of vibrios were isolated from infected large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and subsequently identified as six strains of V. harveyi, one V. parahaemolyticus and one V. alginolyticus by physiological, biochemical and molecular biological methods. Their outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were extracted and the SDS-PAGE and Western blotting results show that three immuno-blots with common molecular weight presented at approximate 45 kDa, 35 kDa and 22 kDa on their OMP electrophoretogram, indicating the existence of antigens with cross-protection in their OMPs. With the aids of combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D) and Western blotting and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), a deduced porin (GenBank Accession No. ZP_01260407) from V. alginolyticus and a maltoporin precursor (GenBank Accession No. NP_801154) from V. parahaemolyticus were able to react with polyclonal antibody to whole V. harveyi, suggesting these two proteins could act as the cross-protective antigens and the vaccines prepared with these porins would be probable to bring cross protection to three different vibrios.
Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Immunity of Large Yellow croaker(Pseudosciaena crocea)

ZHANG Ji-ze,WU Tian-xing,WANG Jin-bo,

水生态学杂志 , 2009,
Abstract: 1 500尾大黄鱼(Pseudosciaena crocea)随机分为5个处理,分别饲喂冰鲜鱼(D1组)、添加5%鱼油日粮(D2组)、共轭亚油酸(CLA)水平为1%(D3组)、2%(D4组)、4%(D5组)日粮.饲喂10周后,通过测定脾脏重、脾体指数、溶菌酶、补体C3、C4、免疫球蛋白IgM浓度等免疫指标,研究不同水平CLA日粮对大黄鱼免疫功能的影响.结果表明,在大黄鱼日粮中添加CLA可以影响其免疫器官-脾脏,添加CLA组使得大黄鱼脾体指数高于未添加CLA的对照组.虽然日粮中添加CLA对于补体C3、C4没有显著影响,但是对于溶菌酶和免疫球蛋白IgM有明显的影响.在大黄鱼日粮中添加CLA可以在一定程度上改善大黄鱼的免疫性能,对于其抗细菌、抗病毒能力有一定提高.
Apparent digestibility of selected protein ingredients for larger yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea

LI Hui-Tao,MAI Kang-Sen,AI Qing-Hui,ZHANG Lu,ZHANG Chun-Xiao,ZHANG Wen-Bing,LIUFU Zhi-Guo,

水生生物学报 , 2007,
Abstract: 以白鱼粉为主要蛋白源制成参考饲料,以0.1%的Cr2O3为外源性指示剂,按参考饲料和实验原料70%∶30%的比例配制成实验饲料,测定了大黄鱼(Pseudosciaena crocea)对白鱼粉、红鱼粉、肉骨粉、豆粕、花生粕、菜籽粕和棉籽粕的表观消化率。实验大黄鱼(平均初始体重15.0±1.6g)养殖于海水浮式网箱(1.5m×1.5m×2.0m)中,分别以各实验饲料投喂实验鱼5周,然后采用挤压法收集粪便。实验结果表明各原料表观干物质消化率在43.6%至70.0%之间,能量消化率在42.9%到82.6%的范围内。实验原料的蛋白质表观消化率在70.7%到92.4%之间,其中白鱼粉和红鱼粉的蛋白消化率最高(分别为92.4%和89.3%),而棉籽粕则最低(70.7%)。脂肪的表观消化率在61.3%到90.5%之间,其中棉籽粕最低(61.3%)。磷的表观消化率相对较低,仅白鱼粉和红鱼粉在53.2%以上,其余皆低于37.5%。总之,大黄鱼对这几种原料的表观消化率存在较大差异,但蛋白消化率均较高,因此,可作为大黄鱼的饲料蛋白源在实际饲料配制中使用。
Kinship Analysis of One Broodstock Population of Large Yellow Croaker Pseudosciaena crocea

常玉梅,徐万土,池炳杰,高国强,韩启霞,何 薇,孙效文,梁利群
动物学研究 , 2009,
Abstract: Present broodstocks of large yellow croaker are borne from extremely small numbers of base population. Thus, it is necessary to analyze kinship of broodstocks in order to avoid inbreeding that will bring out the reduction of individual survival and growth. This paper reports kinship reconstruction and genetic diversity in 103 broodstocks of large yellow croaker by utilizing 23 microsatellite markers. Genetic diversities of 103 croakers at 23 loci pronounce that there are 134 alleles in total and an average of 5.82, and the observed average heterozygosity of 0.599 3, demonstrating that these broodstocks still maintain genetic variability to some extent. The results of sibling groups reconstructed are not identical using two methods of liklihood and 2-allele recombinatorial optimization. However, the evidence of close relationship between broodstocks is confirmed. The mating combinations are compared between these two methods, as a result of 85% identity and a final selection of 2-allele method. This study aims at finding a better way to avoid inbreeding occurred in broodstocks, and facilitating the aquaculture market of large yellow croaker, meanwhile, offering methods and statistical models to artificial propagation in other marine fish species.
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