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Epidemiology of Rhodotorula: An Emerging Pathogen  [PDF]
Fernanda Wirth,Luciano Z. Goldani
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/465717
Abstract: This is an updated paper focusing on the general epidemiological aspects of Rhodotorula in humans, animals, and the environment. Previously considered nonpathogenic, Rhodotorula species have emerged as opportunistic pathogens that have the ability to colonise and infect susceptible patients. Rhodotorula species are ubiquitous saprophytic yeasts that can be recovered from many environmental sources. Several authors describe the isolation of this fungus from different ecosystems, including sites with unfavourable conditions. Compared to R. mucilaginosa, R. glutinis and R. minuta are less frequently isolated from natural environments. Among the few references to the pathogenicity of Rhodotorula spp. in animals, there are several reports of an outbreak of skin infections in chickens and sea animals and lung infections and otitis in sheep and cattle. Most of the cases of infection due to Rhodotorula in humans were fungemia associated with central venous catheter (CVC) use. The most common underlying diseases included solid and haematologic malignancies in patients who were receiving corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs, the presence of CVC, and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Unlike fungemia, some of the other localised infections caused by Rhodotorula, including meningeal, skin, ocular, peritoneal, and prosthetic joint infections, are not necessarily linked to the use of CVCs or immunosuppression. 1. Introduction Rhodotorula is a common environmental yeast that is found in air, soil, lakes, ocean water, milk, and fruit juice. Rhodotorula species, part of the Basidiomycota phylum, colonise plants, humans, and other mammals. The genus Rhodotorula includes eight species, of which R. mucilaginosa, R. glutinis, and R. minuta are known to cause disease in humans [1]. Rhodotorula produces pink to red colonies and blastoconidia that are unicellular lacking pseudohyphae and hyphae. Several authors have isolated Rhodotorula in different ecosystems and environments as well as described infections in animals. Rhodotorula spp. have been recognised as emerging yeast pathogens in humans in the last two decades. While no cases of Rhodotorula infection were reported in the medical literature before 1985, the number of infections increased after that time, most likely because of the wider use of intensive treatments and central venous catheters (CVCs) [2]. This is an updated concise paper focusing on the general epidemiological aspects of Rhodotorula in humans, animals, and the environment. 2. Rhodotorula in the Environment and Nonhumans Rhodotorula species are
Screening and Molecular Identification of Yeast Strain for Asymmetric Reduction of Acetophenone

ZHU Dong-Mei,CHEN Dan,ZHENG Li-Li,CHEN Hu,YANG Zhi-Rong,SUN Qun,
,陈 丹,郑黎鹂,陈 华,杨志荣,孙 群

微生物学通报 , 2008,
Abstract: Yeast strain YS6-2 with high stereoselectivity was screened from 145 strains when the asymmetric reduction of acetophenone to (S)-1-phenethylalcohol was chosen as the model reaction. With the concentration of acetophenone at 70 mmol/L, YS6-2 yielded (S)-alcohol at 26.8% conversion and enantiomeric excess reached up to 98.8%. Based on the analysis of 18S rDNA and 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence, along with its general morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, YS6-2 was identified as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.
Pseudomycelium forming Rhodotorula - unusual picture Rhodotorula wytwarzaj ca pseudomycelium - niezwyk y obraz biofilmu
Bo?ena Dworecka-Kaszak,Magdalena Kizerwetter-?wida
Medical Mycology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Rhodotorula yeast are easily identifiable by red colony formation. Species of the genus Rhodotorula are commensals in the natural environment and in mammals. Rhodotorula also infects individuals with predisposing risk factors but is rarely isolated as sole agent of opportunistic mycoses. Aim: We present a case report of unusual pseudomycelium forming Rhodotorula, that also be supposed causing acute gastrointestinal tract disorder. Materials and methods: Samples were taken from a hydration pack of a cyclist with gastrointestinal problems. Culture of samples on media did not show bacterial growth that could possibly be associated with the observed symptoms. Results: However, direct microscopic examination of swab samples of the hydration pack revealed the presence of yeast in a structure resembling a biofilm. A large number of blastospores with elongated large cells formed a pseudomycelium. This was supported by abundant typical red pigment yeast colonies growth identified as Rhodotorula rubra (mucilaginosa) on SDA after 48 h of incubation. Growth of other fungi was not observed. Hydrolase production capability of cells from the biofilm was exceptionally higher than that of planctonic cells. Our observation is a rare case of filamenting blastospores and pseudomycelium forming Rhodotorula. The possible association of Rhodotorula colonization with gastrointestinal disorder has not been reported before.
Meningitis due to Rhodotorula glutinis in an HIV infected patient  [cached]
Shinde R,Mantur B,Patil G,Parande M
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract: Rhodotorula spp, though considered a common saprophyte, recently has been reported as causative agent of opportunistic mycoses. We present a case of meningitis in an immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus infected patient who presented with longstanding fever. He was diagnosed as a case of chronic meningitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by cell cytology, India ink preparation, Gram staining and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample. CSF culture grew Rhodotorula glutinis . Therapy with amphotericin B was successful in eliminating the yeast from CSF and the patient was discharged after recovery.
Rhodotorula mucilaginosa as a cause of persistent femoral nonunion  [cached]
Goyal R,Das S,Arora A,Aggarwal A
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: We present a case of postoperative infection which presented as nonunion fracture femur in a 30-year-old man due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa . This is the first report of Rhodotorula infection in a patient with fracture nonunion. The patient underwent repeated surgical debridement and received intensive antibiotic therapy before the diagnosis was made. The diagnosis could have been made earlier if the fungal etiology had been suspected earlier. Early suspicion and diagnosis of infection with atypical yeasts could be under-reported because of difficulties in accurate diagnosis and a tendency of attributing isolates to specimen contamination.
Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in an human immunodeficiency virus infected patient  [cached]
Thakur K,Singh G,Agarwal S,Rani L
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2007,
Abstract: Rhodotorula spp . are common saprophytes but may be responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula spp. in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients has been reported only rarely. We present a case of meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in HIV infected patient. The presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was made on the basis of India ink preparation, Gram staining and latex agglutination test (LAT) for cryptococcal antigen. The final diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of Rhodotorula rubra from cerebrospinal fluid on culture. LAT was considered false positive. Amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine were administered but the patient succumbed to his illness.
Experimental Study of the Thermophysical and Acoustical Properties of Acetophenone and Propylacetate
Science and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.scit.20120203.04
Abstract: Densities, viscosities, refractive indices and ultrasonic velocities of the binary mixtures of Acetophenone with Propyl acetate were measured over the entire mole fractions at (303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K. From these experimental results, excess molar volumes VE, viscosity deviation η, refractive index deviation nD, deviations in isentropic compressibility Ks and excess intermolecular free length Lf are calculated. The viscosity values were fitted to the models of Krishnan- Laddha and McAllister. The thermo physical properties under study were fit to the Jouyban - Acree model. The excess values were correlated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to obtain their coefficients and standard deviations. It was found that in all cases, the data obtained fitted with the values correlated by the corresponding models very well. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions occurring in the solution.
Manipulation of NADH metabolism in industrial strains

Yi Qin,Zhiyao Dong,Liming Liu,Jian Chen,

生物工程学报 , 2009,
Abstract: Nicotinamide adenine nucleotide (NADH), the key cofactor in the metabolic network, plays an essential role in biochemical reaction and physiological function of industrial strains. Manipulation of NADH availability and form is an efficient and easy way to redirect the carbon flux to the target metabolites in industrial strains. We reviewed the physiological function of NADH. Detailed strategies to manipulate NADH availability are addressed. NADH manipulation to enhance metabolic function of industrial strains was discussed and potential solutions were suggested.
The Role of Biphasic Shocks for Transthoracic Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation  [cached]
Simon J Walsh,Ben M Glover,AA Jennifer Adgey
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal , 2005,
Abstract: The modern generation of transthoracic defibrillators now employ impedance compensated biphasic waveforms. These new devices are superior to those with monophasic waveforms and practice is currently switching to biphasic defibrillators for the treatment of both ventricular and atrial fibrillation. However, there is no universal guideline for the use of biphasic defibrillators in direct current cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. This article reviews the use of biphasic defibrillation waveforms for transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation.
NADH氧化酶的研究进展  [PDF]
华侨大学学报(自然科学版) , 2011, DOI: 10.11830/ISSN.1000-5013.2011.05.0554
Abstract: NADH氧化酶是一类催化NADH氧化为NAD+并消耗氧气的氧化还原酶,因其能够再生NAD+而成为人工调控微生物代谢流向的重要调控酶.文中综述了NADH氧化酶的分类、理化性质、反应机制,并分析NADH氧化酶清除细胞内氧毒性、介入细胞代谢过程,以及调节细胞生理和代谢等重要的生理功能.
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